Claude Monet (/moʊˈneɪ/; French: [klod mɔnɛ]; 14
November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French
Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific
practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's
perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air
landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the
title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise),
which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent
exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to
the Salon de Paris.
Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to
adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to
capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From
1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property
and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that
would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began
painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese
bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale
paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of
1.1 Birth and childhood
Paris and Algeria
Franco-Prussian War and Argenteuil
1.6 Death of Camille
2.1 Monet's house and garden
3 Last years
3.1 Failing sight
4 Monet's methods
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Birth and childhood
Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue
Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. He was the second son
of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them
second-generation Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the
local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his
parents called him simply Oscar. (He signed his juvenilia
"O. Monet".) Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet later became
In 1845, his family moved to
Le Havre in Normandy. His father wanted
him to go into the family's ship-chandling and grocery business,
but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer, and
supported Monet's desire for a career in art.
On 1 April 1851, Monet entered
Le Havre secondary school of the arts.
Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures, which he would sell
for ten to twenty francs. Monet also undertook his first drawing
lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of
Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of
Normandy around 1856 he met
fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to
use oil paints. Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" (outdoor)
techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan
On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left
school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, Marie-Jeanne
The Woman in the Green Dress, Camille Doncieux, 1866, Kunsthalle
Paris and Algeria
When Monet traveled to
Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed
painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and
other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and
paint what he saw. Monet was in
Paris for several years and met
other young painters, including
Édouard Manet and others who would
become friends and fellow Impressionists.
After drawing a low ballot number in March 1861, Monet was drafted
into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry (Chasseurs d'Afrique)
Algeria for a seven-year period of military service. His prosperous
father could have purchased Monet's exemption from conscription but
declined to do so when his son refused to give up painting. While in
Algeria Monet did only a few sketches of casbah scenes, a single
landscape, and several portraits of officers, all of which have been
lost. In a Le Temps interview of 1900 however he commented that the
light and vivid colours of North Africa "contained the germ of my
future researches". After about a year of garrison duty in
Algiers, Monet contracted typhoid fever and briefly went absent
without leave. Following convalescence, Monet's aunt intervened to get
him out of the army if he agreed to complete a course at an art
school. It is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind,
whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter.
Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862
Monet became a student of
Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met
Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together
they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en
plein air with broken colour and rapid brushstrokes, in what later
came to be known as Impressionism.
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (right section), 1865–1866, with Gustave
Frédéric Bazille and Camille Doncieux, first wife of the
artist, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
In January 1865 Monet was working on a version of Le déjeuner sur
l'herbe, aiming to present it for hanging at the Salon, which had
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe two years earlier.
Monet's painting was very large and could not be completed in time.
(It was later cut up, with parts now in different galleries.) Monet
submitted instead a painting of Camille or The Woman in the Green
Dress (La femme à la robe verte), one of many works using his future
wife, Camille Doncieux, as his model. Both this painting and a small
landscape were hung. The following year Monet used Camille for his
model in Women in the Garden, and On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt
in 1868. Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child,
Jean, in 1867. Monet and Camille married on 28 June 1870, just
before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, and, after their
excursion to London and Zaandam, they moved to Argenteuil, in December
1871. During this time Monet painted various works of modern life. He
and Camille lived in poverty for most of this period. Following the
successful exhibition of some maritime paintings, and the winning of a
silver medal at Le Havre, Monet's paintings were seized by creditors,
from whom they were bought back by a shipping merchant, Gaudibert, who
was also a patron of Boudin.
Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), 1872; the painting
that gave its name to the style and artistic movement. Musée
Marmottan Monet, Paris
From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with
rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts, which held
its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris. During the latter part of
1873, Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Alfred
Sisley organized the Société anonyme des artistes peintres,
sculpteurs et graveurs (Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, and
Engravers) to exhibit their artworks independently. At their first
exhibition, held in April 1874, Monet exhibited the work that was to
give the group its lasting name. He was inspired by the style and
subject matter of previous modern painters
Camille Pissarro and
Impression, Sunrise was painted in 1872, depicting a
Le Havre port
landscape. From the painting's title the art critic Louis Leroy, in
his review, "L'Exposition des Impressionnistes," which appeared in Le
Charivari, coined the term "Impressionism". It was intended as
disparagement but the Impressionists appropriated the term for
Franco-Prussian War and Argenteuil
After the outbreak of the
Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870), Monet
and his family took refuge in England in September 1870, where he
studied the works of
John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner,
both of whose landscapes would serve to inspire Monet's innovations in
the study of colour. In the spring of 1871, Monet's works were refused
authorisation for inclusion in the Royal Academy exhibition.
In May 1871, he left London to live in Zaandam, in the
Netherlands, where he made twenty-five paintings (and the police
suspected him of revolutionary activities). He also paid a first
visit to nearby Amsterdam. In October or November 1871, he returned to
France. From December 1871 to 1878 he lived at Argenteuil, a village
on the right bank of the
Seine river near Paris, and a popular
Sunday-outing destination for Parisians, where he painted some of his
best-known works. In 1873, Monet purchased a small boat equipped to be
used as a floating studio. From the boat studio Monet painted
landscapes and also portraits of
Édouard Manet and his wife; Manet in
turn depicted Monet painting aboard the boat, accompanied by Camille,
in 1874. In 1874, he briefly returned to Holland.
Madame Monet in a Japanese kimono, 1875, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The first Impressionist exhibition was held in 1874 at 35 boulevard
des Capucines, Paris, from 15 April to 15 May. The primary purpose of
the participants was not so much to promote a new style, but to free
themselves from the constraints of the Salon de Paris. The exhibition,
open to anyone prepared to pay 60 francs, gave artists the opportunity
to show their work without the interference of a jury.
Renoir chaired the hanging committee and did most of the work himself,
as others members failed to present themselves.
In addition to Impression: Sunrise (pictured above), Monet presented
four oil paintings and seven pastels. Among the paintings he displayed
was The Luncheon (1868), which features
Camille Doncieux and Jean
Monet, and which had been rejected by the
Paris Salon of 1870.
Also in this exhibition was a painting titled Boulevard des Capucines,
a painting of the boulevard done from the photographer Nadar's
apartment at no. 35. Monet painted the subject twice, and it is
uncertain which of the two pictures, that now in the
Pushkin Museum in
Moscow, or that in the
Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, was
the painting that appeared in the groundbreaking 1874 exhibition,
though more recently the Moscow picture has been favoured.
Altogether, 165 works were exhibited in the exhibition, including 4
oils, 2 pastels and 3 watercolours by Morisot; 6 oils and 1 pastel by
Renoir; 10 works by Degas; 5 by Pissarro; 3 by Cézanne; and 3 by
Guillaumin. Several works were on loan, including Cézanne's Modern
Olympia, Morisot's Hide and Seek (owned by Manet) and 2 landscapes by
Sisley that had been purchased by Durand-Ruel.
The total attendance is estimated at 3500, and some works did sell,
though some exhibitors had placed their prices too high. Pissarro was
asking 1000 francs for The Orchard and Monet the same for Impression:
Sunrise, neither of which sold. Renoir failed to obtain the 500 francs
he was asking for La Loge, but later sold it for 450 francs to Père
Martin, dealer and supporter of the group.
View at Rouelles,
Le Havre 1858, Private collection; an early work
showing the influence of Corot and Courbet
Mouth of the
Seine at Honfleur, 1865, Norton Simon Foundation,
Pasadena, CA; indicates the influence of Dutch maritime painting.
Women in the Garden, 1866–1867, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Woman in a Garden, 1867, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; a study in the
effect of sunlight and shadow on colour
Garden at Sainte-Adresse
Garden at Sainte-Adresse ("Jardin à Sainte-Adresse"), 1867,
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
The Luncheon, 1868, Städel, which features
Camille Doncieux and Jean
Monet, was rejected by the
Paris Salon of 1870 but included in the
first Impressionists' exhibition in 1874.
La Grenouillére 1869, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; a small
plein-air painting created with broad strokes of intense colour.
The Magpie, 1868–1869. Musée d'Orsay, Paris; one of Monet's early
attempts at capturing the effect of snow on the landscape. See also
Snow at Argenteuil.
Le port de Trouville (Breakwater at Trouville, Low Tide), 1870, Museum
of Fine Arts, Budapest.
La plage de Trouville, 1870, National Gallery, London. The left figure
may be Camille, on the right possibly the wife of Eugène Boudin,
whose beach scenes influenced Monet.
Jean Monet on his hobby horse, 1872, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
Springtime 1872, Walters Art Museum
Death of Camille
Claude Monet, Camille Monet on her deathbed, 1879, Musée d'Orsay,
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Claude Monet, 1875, Musée d'Orsay
In 1876, Camille Monet became ill with tuberculosis. Their second son,
Michel, was born on 17 March 1878. This second child weakened her
already fading health. In the summer of that year, the family moved to
the village of
Vétheuil where they shared a house with the family of
Ernest Hoschedé, a wealthy department store owner and patron of the
arts. In 1878, Camille Monet was diagnosed with uterine
cancer. She died on 5 September 1879 at the age of
Monet made a study in oils of his dead wife. Many years later, Monet
confessed to his friend
Georges Clemenceau that his need to analyse
colours was both the joy and torment of his life. He explained,
I one day found myself looking at my beloved wife's dead face and just
systematically noting the colours according to an automatic reflex!
John Berger describes the work as "a blizzard of white, grey, purplish
paint ... a terrible blizzard of loss which will forever efface
her features. In fact there can be very few death-bed paintings which
have been so intensely felt or subjectively expressive."
After several difficult months following the death of Camille, Monet
began to create some of his best paintings of the 19th century. During
the early 1880s, Monet painted several groups of landscapes and
seascapes in what he considered to be campaigns to document the French
countryside. These began to evolve into series of pictures in which he
documented the same scene many times in order to capture the changing
of light and the passing of the seasons.
Ernest Hoschedé became bankrupt, and left in 1878 for
Belgium. After the death of Camille Monet in September 1879, and while
Monet continued to live in the house in Vétheuil, Alice Hoschedé
helped Monet to raise his two sons, Jean and Michel. She took them to
Paris to live alongside her own six children, Blanche (who married
Jean Monet), Germaine, Suzanne, Marthe, Jean-Pierre, and Jacques. In
the spring of 1880,
Alice Hoschedé and all the children left Paris
and rejoined Monet at Vétheuil. In 1881, all of them moved to
Poissy, which Monet hated. In April 1883, looking out the window of
the little train between Vernon and Gasny, he discovered
Alice Hoschedé and the children moved to
Vernon, then to the house in Giverny, where he planted a large garden
and where he painted for much of the rest of his life. Following the
death of her estranged husband, Monet married
Alice Hoschedé in
Camille Monet on a Garden Bench, 1873, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
The Artist's house at Argenteuil, 1873, The Art Institute of Chicago
Coquelicots, La promenade (Poppies), 1873, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
The Studio Boat, 1874, Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands
Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son, 1875
Flowers on the riverbank at Argenteuil, 1877, Pola Museum of Art,
Saint Lazare train station, Paris, 1877, The Art Institute of Chicago
Vétheuil in the Fog, 1879, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris
Study of a Figure Outdoors: Woman with a Parasol, facing left, 1886.
Monet's house and garden
Monet rented and eventually purchased a house and gardens in Giverny.
At the beginning of May 1883, Monet and his large family rented the
home and 2 acres (0.81 ha) from a local landowner. The house was
situated near the main road between the towns of Vernon and Gasny at
Giverny. There was a barn that doubled as a painting studio, orchards
and a small garden. The house was close enough to the local schools
for the children to attend, and the surrounding landscape offered many
suitable motifs for Monet's work.
The family worked and built up the gardens, and Monet's fortunes began
to change for the better as his dealer, Paul Durand-Ruel, had
increasing success in selling his paintings. By November 1890,
Monet was prosperous enough to buy the house, the surrounding
buildings and the land for his gardens. During the 1890s, Monet built
a greenhouse and a second studio, a spacious building well lit with
Monet's Garden 1989
Monet wrote daily instructions to his gardener, precise designs and
layouts for plantings, and invoices for his floral purchases and his
collection of botany books. As Monet's wealth grew, his garden
evolved. He remained its architect, even after he hired seven
Monet purchased additional land with a water meadow. In 1893 he began
a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become
the subjects of his best-known works. White water lilies local to
France were planted along with imported cultivars from South America
and Egypt, resulting in a range of colours including yellow, blue and
white lilies that turned pink with age. In 1899 he began painting
the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a
central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that
was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life. This
scenery, with its alternating light and mirror-like reflections,
became an integral part of his work. By the mid-1910s Monet had
a completely new, fluid, and somewhat audacious style of painting in
which the water-lily pond became the point of departure for an almost
— Gary Tinterow
In the Garden, 1895, Collection E. G. Buehrle, Zürich
Agapanthus, between 1914 and 1926, Museum of Modern Art, New York
The rose arches, Giverny, 1913, private collection
Water Lilies and the Japanese bridge, 1897–99, Princeton University
Water Lilies, 1906, Art Institute of Chicago
Water Lilies, Musée Marmottan Monet
Water Lilies, c. 1915, Neue Pinakothek, Munich
Water Lilies, c. 1915, Musée Marmottan Monet
Monet, right, in his garden at Giverny, 1922
Monet's second wife, Alice, died in 1911, and his oldest son Jean, who
had married Alice's daughter Blanche, Monet's particular favourite,
died in 1914. After Alice died, Blanche looked after and cared for
Monet. It was during this time that Monet began to develop the first
signs of cataracts.
During World War I, in which his younger son Michel served and his
friend and admirer
Georges Clemenceau led the French nation, Monet
painted a series of weeping willow trees as homage to the French
fallen soldiers. In 1923, he underwent two operations to remove his
cataracts. The paintings done while the cataracts affected his vision
have a general reddish tone, which is characteristic of the vision of
cataract victims. It may also be that after surgery he was able to see
certain ultraviolet wavelengths of light that are normally excluded by
the lens of the eye; this may have had an effect on the colours he
perceived. After his operations he even repainted some of these
paintings, with bluer water lilies than before.
Monet family grave at Giverny
Monet died of lung cancer on 5 December 1926 at the age of 86 and is
buried in the
Giverny church cemetery. Monet had insisted that the
occasion be simple; thus only about fifty people attended the
His home, garden, and waterlily pond were bequeathed by his son
Michel, his only heir, to the French Academy of Fine Arts (part of the
Institut de France) in 1966. Through the Fondation Claude Monet, the
house and gardens were opened for visits in 1980, following
restoration. In addition to souvenirs of Monet and other objects
of his life, the house contains his collection of Japanese woodcut
prints. The house and garden, along with the Museum of Impressionism,
are major attractions in Giverny, which hosts tourists from all over
Monet's late paintings
Water Lilies and Reflections of a Willow (1916–19), Musée Marmottan
Water-Lily Pond and Weeping Willow, 1916–1919, Sale
Weeping Willow, 1918–1919, Columbus Museum of Art
Weeping Willow, 1918–1919, Kimball Art Museum, Fort Worth, Monet's
Weeping Willow paintings were an homage to the fallen French soldiers
of World War I
House Among the Roses, between 1917 and 1919, Albertina, Vienna
The Rose Walk, Giverny, 1920–22, Musée Marmottan Monet
The Japanese Footbridge, 1920–22, Museum of Modern Art
The Garden at Giverny
Rouen Cathedral at sunset, 1893, Musée Marmottan Monet. An example of
the Rouen Cathedral Series.
Monet has been described as "the driving force behind
Impressionism". Crucial to the art of the Impressionist painters
was the understanding of the effects of light on the local colour of
objects, and the effects of the juxtaposition of colours with each
other. Monet's long career as a painter was spent in the pursuit
of this aim.
In 1856, his chance meeting with Eugene Boudin, a painter of small
beach scenes, opened his eyes to the possibility of plein-air
painting. From that time, with a short interruption for military
service, he dedicated himself to searching for new and improved
methods of painterly expression. To this end, as a young man, he
Paris Salon and familiarised himself with the works of
older painters, and made friends with other young artists. The
five years that he spent at Argenteuil, spending much time on the
Seine in a little floating studio, were formative in his study
of the effects of light and reflections. He began to think in terms of
colours and shapes rather than scenes and objects. He used bright
colours in dabs and dashes and squiggles of paint. Having rejected the
academic teachings of Gleyre's studio, he freed himself from theory,
saying "I like to paint as a bird sings."
In 1877 a series of paintings at St-Lazare Station had Monet looking
at smoke and steam and the way that they affected colour and
visibility, being sometimes opaque and sometimes translucent. He was
to further use this study in the painting of the effects of mist and
rain on the landscape. The study of the effects of atmosphere was
to evolve into a number of series of paintings in which Monet
repeatedly painted the same subject in different lights, at different
hours of the day, and through the changes of weather and season. This
process began in the 1880s and continued until the end of his life in
His first series exhibited as such was of Haystacks, painted from
different points of view and at different times of the day. Fifteen of
the paintings were exhibited at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1891. In
1892 he produced what is probably his best-known series, twenty-six
views of Rouen Cathedral. In these paintings Monet broke with
painterly traditions by cropping the subject so that only a portion of
the façade is seen on the canvas. The paintings do not focus on the
grand Medieval building, but on the play of light and shade across its
surface, transforming the solid masonry.
Other series include Poplars, Mornings on the Seine, and the Water
Lilies that were painted on his property at Giverny. Between 1883 and
1908, Monet traveled to the Mediterranean, where he painted landmarks,
landscapes, and seascapes, including a series of paintings in Venice.
In London he painted four series: the Houses of Parliament, London,
Charing Cross Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, and Views of Westminster
Bridge. Helen Gardner writes:
"Monet, with a scientific precision, has given us an unparalleled and
unexcelled record of the passing of time as seen in the movement of
light over identical forms."
Series of paintings
La Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877, Musée d'Orsay
Arrival of the
Normandy Train, Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877, The Art
Institute of Chicago
The Cliffs at Etretat, 1885, Clark Institute, Williamstown
Sailboats behind the needle at Etretat, 1885
Two paintings from a series of grainstacks, 1890–91: Grainstacks in
the Sunlight, Morning Effect,
Grainstacks, end of day, Autumn, 1890–1891, Art Institute of Chicago
Poplars (Autumn), 1891, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Poplars at the River Epte, 1891 Tate
Seine Near Giverny, 1897, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Morning on the Seine, 1898, National Museum of Western Art
Charing Cross Bridge, 1899,
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum Madrid
Charing Cross Bridge, London, 1899–1901, Saint Louis Art Museum
Two paintings from a series of The Houses of Parliament, London,
1900–01, Art Institute of Chicago
London, Houses of Parliament. The Sun Shining through the Fog, 1904,
Grand Canal, Venice, 1908, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Grand Canal, Venice, 1908, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
London, the Parliament, Effects of Sun in the Fog
London, the Parliament, Effects of Sun in the Fog (Londres,
le Parlement, trouée de soleil dans le brouillard) (1904), sold for
US$20.1 million. In 2006, the journal Proceedings of the
Royal Society published a paper providing evidence that these were
painted in situ at
St Thomas' Hospital
St Thomas' Hospital over the river Thames.
Falaises près de Dieppe (Cliffs near Dieppe) has been stolen on two
separate occasions: once in 1998 (in which the museum's curator was
convicted of the theft and jailed for five years and two months along
with two accomplices) and most recently in August 2007. It was
recovered in June 2008.
Monet's Le Pont du chemin de fer à Argenteuil, an 1873 painting of a
railway bridge spanning the
Seine near Paris, was bought by an
anonymous telephone bidder for a record $41.4 million at
Christie's auction in New York on 6 May 2008. The previous record for
his painting stood at $36.5 million. Just a few weeks later,
Le bassin aux nymphéas
Le bassin aux nymphéas (from the water lilies series) sold at
Christie's 24 June 2008 auction in London, lot 19, for
£36,500,000 ($71,892,376.34) (hammer price) or £40,921,250
($80,451,178) with fees, nearly doubling the record for the artist
and representing one of the top 20 highest prices paid for a painting
at the time.
In October 2013, Monet's paintings, L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin
aux Nympheas, became subjects of a legal case in New York against
NY-based Vilma Bautista, one-time aide to Imelda Marcos, wife of
dictator Ferdinand Marcos, after she sold Le Bassin aux Nympheas
for $32 million to a Swiss buyer. The said Monet paintings, along
with two others, were acquired by Imelda during her husband's
presidency and allegedly bought using the nation's funds. Bautista's
lawyer claimed that the aide sold the painting for Imelda but did not
have a chance to give her the money. The Philippine government seeks
the return of the painting. Le Bassin aux Nympheas, also known as
Japanese Footbridge over the Water-Lily Pond at Giverny, is part of
Water Lilies series.
Series of water lilies in different lights
Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas, 1919. Monet's late series of Waterlily
paintings are among his best-known works.
Water Lilies, 1919, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Water Lilies, 1917–1919, Honolulu Museum of Art
Water lilies (Yellow Nirwana), 1920, The National Gallery, London,
Water Lilies, circa 1915–26, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
The Water Lily Pond, c. 1917–19, Albertina, Vienna
Book: Key artists
List of works by Claude Monet
History of painting
^ House, John, et al.: Monet in the 20th century, page 2, Yale
University Press, 1998.
^ "Claude MONET biography". Giverny.org. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 5
^ a b P. Tucker Claude Monet: Life and Art, p. 5
^ Sylvie Patin, Monet "un œil ... mais bon Dieu, quel
œil !", collection “Découvertes Gallimard” (n° 131),
série Arts. p. 14.
^ Steven Z. Levine (1994). "6". Monet, Narcissus, and Self-Reflection:
The Modernist Myth of the Self (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press.
p. 66. ISBN 9780226475431. Much closer to Monet's own
atheism and pessimism is Schopenhauer, already introduced to the
impressionist circle in the criticism of Theodore Duret in the 1870s
and whose influence in France was at its peak in 1886, the year of The
World as Will and Idea.
^ Ruth Butler (2008). Hidden in the Shadow of the Master: the
Model-wives of Cézanne, Monet, and Rodin. Yale University Press.
p. 202. ISBN 9780300149531. Then Monet took the end of his
brush and drew some long straight strokes in the wet pigment across
her chest. It's not clear, and probably not consciously intended by
the atheist Claude Monet, but somehow the suggestion of a Cross lies
there on her body.
^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
1974-01-01. p. 347. ISBN 9780852292907.
Claude Monet Biography". www.biography.com. Retrieved
^ a b c Biography for
Claude Monet Archived 20 January 2007 at the
Wayback Machine. Guggenheim Collection. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
^ Tinterow, Gary (1994). Origins of Impressionism. Metropolitan Museum
of Art. ISBN 9780870997174.
^ Jeffrey Meyers, "Monet in Algeria", pp 19–24 "History Today" April
^ Musée d'Orsay, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, Notice de l'œuvre,
^ a b c Charles F. Stuckey, p. 11–16
^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 20 December
^ a b c Charles Stuckey "Monet, a Retrospective", Hugh Lauter Levin
^ Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press.
p. 112. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.
^ From John Rewald, The History of Impressionism
^ Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of
Art, December 12, 1974 – February 10, 1975, Anne Distel,
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
Impressionism – Overview ARTinthePICTURE.com. Retrieved 6 January
^ Monet, Claude Nicolas Pioch, www.ibiblio.org, 19 September 2002.
Retrieved 6 January 2007.
^ The texts of seven police reports, written on 2 June – 9 October
1871 are included in Monet in Holland, the catalog of an exhibition in
Van Gogh Museum
Van Gogh Museum (1986).
^ a b Wattenmaker, Richard J.; Distel, Anne, et al. (1993). Great
French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation. New York: Alfred A.
Knopf. p. 98. ISBN 0-679-40963-7
^ His paintings are shown and discussed here "Archived copy". Archived
from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08. .
^ a b c d Bernard Denvir, The Chronicle of Impressionism: A Timeline
History of Impressionist Art, Bulfinch Press Book, 1993
^ a b c d Bernard Denvir, The chronicle of impressionism: an intimate
diary of the lives and world of the great artists,
Hudson, Limited, 1993
^ a b c archives, Notes for "The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874"
^ Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Frankfurt am
^ Nathalia Brodskaya, Claude Monet, Parkstone International, Jul 1,
^ Nathalia Brodskaïa, Impressionism, Parkstone International, 2010
^ Norton Simon Museum
^ Musée d'Orsay
^ Metropolitan Museum of Art
^ La Grenouillère at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
^ Le port de Trouville, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
^ La plage de Trouville, 1870, National Gallery, London
^ Jiminez, Jill Berk (2013). Dictionary of Artists' Models. Routledge.
p. 165. ISBN 1135959145.
^ Rose-Marie Hagen; Rainer Hagen (2003). What Great Paintings Say.
Taschen. p. 391. ISBN 978-3-8228-1372-0.
^ "Monet and Camille, Biography". Intermonet.com. 2006-11-12.
^ "La Japonaise". artelino. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
^ "AIM". members.aol.com. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
^ Berger, John (1985). The Eyes of
Claude Monet from Sense of Sight.
New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 194–195.
^ a b "Biography of Oscar-Claude Monet, The Life and Work of Claude
Monet". Monetalia.com. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
^ Charles Merrill Mount, Monet a biography, Simon & Schuster
publisher, copyright 1966, pp.309–322.
^ a b "Monet's Village". Giverny. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 5 June
^ Charles Merrill Mount, Monet a biography, Simon & Schuster
publisher, copyright 1966, p326.
^ Mary Mathews Gedo, Monet and His Muse: Camille Monet in the Artist's
Life, University of Chicago Press, 30 September 2010,
^ Garrett, Robert (20 May 2007). "Monet's gardens a draw to Giverny
and to his art". Globe Correspondents. Retrieved 13 October
^ Art Gallery of Victoria, Monet's Garden Archived 16 December 2013 at
the Wayback Machine., (retrieved 16 December 2013)
^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Water Lilies, Heilbrunn Timeline of
^ Gary Tinterow, Modern Europe,
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York,
N.Y.), Jan 1, 1987
^ Forge, Andrew, and Gordon, Robert, Monet, page 224. Harry N. Abrams,
^ Let the light shine in Guardian News, 30 May 2002. Retrieved 6
^ P. Tucker Claude Monet: Life and Art, p.224
^ "Historical record". Fondation-monet.fr. Archived from the original
on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
^ a b Jennings, Guy (1986). Impressionist Painters. Octopus Books.
^ a b Gardner, Helen (1995). Art through the Ages (10th Reiss ed.).
Harcourt College Pub. p. 669. ISBN 978-0155011410.
^ Jennings, p. 130
^ Jennings, p. 132
^ Jennings p. 137
^ Helen Gardner, Art through the Ages, p. 669
^ Art Institute of Chicago
^ Monet's masterpiece reaches record high bid Archived 17 December
2006 at the Wayback Machine. newsfromrussia.com, 5 November 2004.
Retrieved 6 January 2007.
^ "Virtual Monet Thumbnails Pg 1
Special reports". guardian.co.uk.
Retrieved 5 June 2012.
^ "Monet and Others Stolen in Museum Heist in Nice". artforum.com. 8
August 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
^ "French police recover stolen Monet painting". artforum.com. 1
October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
^ "Record Price for Monet at Auction". New York Times. 6 May 2008.
Retrieved 19 January 2010.
^ "Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas". Christies of London. 24 June 2008.
Retrieved 24 June 2008.
^ "Monet work auctioned for £40.9m". BBC News. 24 June 2008.
Retrieved 24 June 2008.
^ a b Ex-
Imelda Marcos aide on trial in NYC for selling Monet work.
Associated Press. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
Howard, Michael The Treasures of Monet. (Musée Marmottan Monet,
Kendall, Richard Monet by Himself, (Macdonald & Co 1989, updated
Time Warner Books
Time Warner Books 2004), ISBN 0-316-72801-2
Monet's years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism. New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1978. ISBN 978-0-8109-1336-3.
(full text PDF available)
Stuckey, Charles F., Monet, a retrospective, Bay Books, (1985)
Tucker, Paul Hayes, Monet in the '90s. (Museum of Fine Arts in
association with Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1989).
Tucker, Paul Hayes Claude Monet: Life and Art Amilcare Pizzi, Italy
1995 ISBN 0-300-06298-2
Tucker, Paul Hayes, Monet in the 20th century. (Royal Academy of Arts,
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Yale University press. 1998).
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Claude Monet
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Claude Monet.
Claude Monet at the Museum of Modern Art
Works by or about
Claude Monet at Internet Archive
Claude Monet, Ministère de la culture et de la communication
Claude Monet, Joconde, Portail des collections des musées de France
Monet at Giverny
Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies
Claude Monet at The Guggenheim
Impressionism: a centenary exhibition, an exhibition catalog from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which
contains material on Monet (p. 131–167)
Women in the Garden
Women in the Garden (1866)
Garden at Sainte-Adresse
Garden at Sainte-Adresse (1867)
Regatta at Sainte-Adresse (1867)
L'Enfant a la tasse
L'Enfant a la tasse (1868)
The Magpie (1868)
Bain à la Grenouillère
Bain à la Grenouillère (1869)
Impression, Sunrise (1872)
Boulevard des Capucines (1873)
Argenteuil Basin with a Single Sailboat (1874)
Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son
Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son (1875)
Bords de la
Beach in Pourville
Beach in Pourville (1882)
Portrait of Père Paul
Portrait of Père Paul (1882)
The Cliff Walk at Pourville
The Cliff Walk at Pourville (1882)
Stormy Sea in Étretat
Stormy Sea in Étretat (1883)
Boating on the River Epte
Boating on the River Epte (1890)
Le Jardin de l'artiste à
San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk
San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk (1908)
The Doge's Palace Seen from San Giorgio Maggiore (1908)
Le Grand Canal
Le Grand Canal (1908)
Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas
Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas (1919)
Water Lilies (1919)
Rouen Cathedral (1892–94)
Charing Cross Bridge (1899–1904)
Houses of Parliament (1900–05)
Camille Doncieux (first wife)
Alice Hoschedé (second wife)
Suzanne Hoschedé (step-daughter)
Blanche Hoschedé Monet
Blanche Hoschedé Monet (step-daughter and daughter-in-law)
Jean Monet (son)
Michel Monet (son)
Theodore Earl Butler
Theodore Earl Butler (son-in-law, married Monet's step-daughters,
Suzanne and Marthe)
Jacques-François Ochard (teacher)
Eugène Boudin (teacher)
Ernest Hoschedé (patron)
Paul Durand-Ruel (dealer)
Monet's home and gardens
Musée de l'Orangerie
Musée Marmottan Monet
Henry O. Havemeyer
William Merritt Chase
Frederick Carl Frieseke
Lilla Cabot Perry
John Henry Twachtman
J. Alden Weir
William Blair Bruce
Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté
Maurice Galbraith Cullen
Helen Galloway McNicoll
James Wilson Morrice
Robert Wakeham Pilot
Giovanni Battista Ciolina
Nazmi Ziya Güran
Laura Muntz Lyall
John Peter Russell
Philip Wilson Steer
French Impressionist Cinema
The Impressionists (2006 drama)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 4328
BNF: cb11916491r (data)