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The Cladocera
Cladocera
are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas. Around 620 species have been recognised so far, with many more undescribed. They are ubiquitous in inland aquatic habitats, but rare in the oceans. Most are 0.2–6.0 mm (0.01–0.24 in) long, with a down-turned head with a single median compound eye, and a carapace covering the apparently unsegmented thorax and abdomen. Most species show cyclical parthenogenesis, where asexual reproduction is occasionally supplemented by sexual reproduction, which produces resting eggs that allow the species to survive harsh conditions and disperse to distant habitats.

Contents

1 Description 2 Lifecycle 3 Ecology 4 Taxonomy

4.1 Etymology

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit]

Leptodora
Leptodora
kindtii is an unusually large cladoceran, at up to 18 mm long.

They are mostly 0.2–6.0 mm (0.01–0.24 in) long, with the exception of Leptodora, which can be up to 18 mm (0.71 in) long.[1] The body is not obviously segmented and bears a folded carapace which covers the thorax and abdomen.[2] The head is angled downwards, and may be separated from the rest of the body by a "cervical sinus" or notch.[2] It bears a single black compound eye, located on the animal's midline, in all but two genera, and often, a single ocellus is present.[3] The head also bears two pairs of antennae – the first antennae are small, unsegmented appendages, while the second antennae are large, segmented, and branched, with powerful muscles.[2] The first antennae bear olfactory setae, while the second are used for swimming by most species.[3] The pattern of setae on the second antennae is useful for identification.[2] The part of the head which projects in front of the first antennae is known as the rostrum or "beak".[2] The mouthparts are small, and consist of an unpaired labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae, and an unpaired labium.[2] They are used to eat "organic detritus of all kinds" and bacteria.[2] The thorax bears five or six pairs of lobed, leaf-like appendages, each with numerous hairs or setae.[2] Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
is lost, and oxygen taken up, through the body surface.[2] Lifecycle[edit] With the exception of a few purely asexual species, the lifecycle of cladocerans is dominated by asexual reproduction, with occasional periods of sexual reproduction; this is known as cyclical parthenogenesis. The system evolved in the Permian, when the Cladocera arose.[4] When conditions are favourable, reproduction occurs by parthenogenesis for several generations, producing only female clones. As the conditions deteriorate, males are produced, and sexual reproduction occurs. This results in the production of long-lasting dormant eggs. These ephippial eggs can be transported over land by wind, and hatch when they reach favourable conditions, allowing many species to have very wide – even cosmopolitan – distributions.[2] Ecology[edit]

Evadne spinifera, one of very few marine cladoceran species

Most cladoceran species live in fresh water and other inland water bodies, with only eight species being truly oceanic.[3] The marine species are all in the family Podonidae, except for the genus Penilia.[3] Some cladocerans inhabit leaf litter.[5] Taxonomy[edit]

Daphnia
Daphnia
magna

The order Cladocera
Cladocera
is included in the class Branchiopoda, and forms a monophyletic group, which is currently divided into four suborders. Around 620 species have been described, but many more species remain undescribed.[1] The genus Daphnia
Daphnia
alone contains around 150 species.[4] These families are recognised:[6] Order Cladocera
Cladocera
Latreille, 1829

Suborder Ctenopoda Sars, 1865

Holopediidae Sars, 1865 Sididae
Sididae
Baird, 1850

Suborder Anomopoda
Anomopoda
Stebbing, 1902

Bosminidae
Bosminidae
Baird, 1845 Chydoridae Stebbing, 1902 Daphniidae
Daphniidae
Straus, 1820 Gondwanotrichidae Van Damme et al., 2007[7][8] Macrotrichidae Norman & Brady, 1867

Suborder Onychopoda
Onychopoda
Sars, 1865

Cercopagididae Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1968 Podonidae Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1968 Polyphemidae
Polyphemidae
Baird, 1845

Suborder Haplopoda Sars, 1865

Leptodoridae Lilljeborg, 1900

Etymology[edit] The word "Cladocera" derives via New Latin
New Latin
from the Ancient Greek κλάδος (kládos, "branch") and κέρας (kéras, "horn").[9] See also[edit]

Crustaceans portal Arthropods portal

Bythotrephes longimanus
Bythotrephes longimanus
(invasive species) [formerly known as Bythotrephes cederstroemi[10]] - Spiny Water Flea[11] Cercopagis pengoi
Cercopagis pengoi
(invasive species) Daphnia
Daphnia
lumholtzi (invasive species) Moina (smallest) Zooplankton

References[edit]

^ a b L. Forró; N. M. Korovchinsky; A. A. Kotov; A. Petrusek (2008). Estelle V. Balian; Christian Lévêque; Hendrik Segers; Koen Martens, eds. "Freshwater Animal
Animal
Diversity Assessment" (PDF). Hydrobiologia. Developments in Hydrobiology 198. 595 (1): 177–184. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9013-5. ISBN 978-1-4020-8259-7.  chapter= ignored (help) doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_19 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Douglas Grant Smith; Kirstern Work (2001). "Cladoceran Branchiopoda
Branchiopoda
(water fleas)". In Douglas Grant Smith. Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. pp. 453–488. ISBN 978-0-471-35837-4.  ^ a b c d Denton Belk (2007). "Branchiopoda". In Sol Felty Light; James T. Carlton. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th ed.). University of California Press. pp. 414–417. ISBN 978-0-520-23939-5.  ^ a b Ellen Decaestecker; Luc De Meester; Joachim Mergaey (2009). "Cyclical parthenogeness in Daphnia: sexual versus asexual reproduction". In Isa Schön; Koen Martens; Peter van Dijk. Lost Sex: The Evolutionary Biology of Parthenogenesis. Springer. pp. 295–316. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2770-2_15. ISBN 978-90-481-2769-6.  ^ Rubbo, Michael J., and Kiesecker (2004). "Leaf litter composition and community structure: translating regional species changes into local dynamics". Ecology. 85 (9): 2519–2525. doi:10.1890/03-0653. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Joel W. Martin; George E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea (PDF). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. pp. 1–132.  ^ K. Van Damme; R. J. Shiel; H. J. Dumont (2007). "Notothrix halsei gen. n., sp. n., representative of a new family of freshwater cladocerans (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) from SW Australia, with a discussion of ancestral traits and a preliminary molecular phylogeny of the order". Zoologica Scripta. 36 (5): 465–487. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00292.x.  ^ K. Van Damme; R. J. Shiel; H. J. Dumont (2007). "Gondwanotrichidae nom. nov. pro Nototrichidae Van Damme, Shiel & Dumont, 2007". Zoologica Scripta. 36 (5): 623. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00304.x.  ^ "Cladoceran". Webster's II New College Dictionary (3rd ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2005. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-618-39601-6.  ^ USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species: Bythotrephes longimanus ^ (April 16, 2013) NorthAmericanFishing - "Silent Invaders" Spiny Water Flea PT 1 2013

External links[edit]

Cladocera
Cladocera
– Guide to the Marine Zooplankton
Zooplankton
of South Eastern Australia Media related to Cladocera
Cladocera
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cladocera
Cladocera
at Wikispecies

v t e

Families of class Branchiopoda

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea

Anostraca

Artemiidae Branchinectidae Branchipodidae Chirocephalidae Parartemiidae Streptocephalidae Tanymastigidae Thamnocephalidae

Notostraca

Triopsidae

Triops Lepidurus

Laevicaudata

Lynceidae

Spinicaudata

Cyzicidae Leptestheriidae Limnadiidae

Cyclestherida

Cyclestheriidae

Cladocera

Ctenopoda

Holopediidae Pseudopenilidae Sididae

Anomopoda

Bosminidae Chydoridae Daphniidae Ilyocryptidae Macrotrichidae Moinidae

Onychopoda

Cercopagididae Podonidae Polyphemidae

Haplopoda

Leptodoridae

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q391240 ADW: Cladocera BugGuide: 350302 EoL: 2599221 EPPO: 1CLADO Fauna Europaea: 13259 Fossilworks: 277029 iNaturalist: 199509 ITIS: 83832 NCBI

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