Citrix Systems, Inc., doing business as Citrix, is an American
software and cloud computing company. Its multinational offerings
include server, application and desktop virtualization, networking,
and software as a service. Citrix solutions are in use by over 400,000
clients worldwide, including 98% of the Fortune 500, and 99% of the
The company was founded in
Richardson, Texas in 1989 by Ed Iacobucci,
who served as chairman until his departure in 2000. It began by
developing remote access products for
Microsoft operating systems,
licensing source code from Microsoft, and later developing a close
working partnership with the company. By the 1990s, Citrix came to
prominence as an industry leader in thin client technology, enabling
purpose-built devices to access remote servers and resources. The
company launched its first initial public offering in 1995 and, with
few competitors, experienced large revenue increases between 1995 and
Citrix acquired Sequoia
Software Corp. in 2001 and ExpertCity, a
provider of remote desktop products, in 2003. This was followed by
more than a dozen other acquisitions from 2005 to 2012, which allowed
Citrix to expand into server and desktop virtualization, cloud
computing, Infrastructure as a Service, and
Software as a Service
offerings. In 2014, Citrix acquired Framehawk and used its technology
to improve the delivery of virtual desktops and applications over
wireless networks. In 2016, as part of a USD$1.8 billion product deal
with LogMeIn, Citrix spun off the GoTo product line into a new
business entity, entitled GetGo. In 2017, Citrix completed the merger
of GetGo with LogMeIn's products.
Citrix has corporate headquarters in both
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale, Florida and
Santa Clara, California, with subsidiary operations in
Massachusetts, and additional development centers in Australia,
Canada, Denmark, Germany, India, and the United Kingdom. Citrix
reported $3.28 billion in revenue and a net income of more than $300
million in 2015, and as of April 2017, employed approximately 8,100
1.1 Early history
1.2 Rise in popularity
1.4 Recent history
4.1 Desktops and apps
4.2 Desktop as a Service (DaaS)
4.3 Networking and cloud
Software as a Service (SaaS)
5 Corporate responsibility
7 Further reading
8 External links
Citrix was founded in
Richardson, Texas in 1989 by former IBM
Ed Iacobucci with $3 million in funding. Following its
initial setup and development, Iacobucci moved the company to his
former home of Coral Springs, Florida. The company's first
employees were five other engineers from
IBM that Iacobucci convinced
to join his team. Iacobucci served as chairman of the company and
Roger Roberts became the CEO of Citrix in 1990. Citrix was
originally named Citrus, but changed its name after an existing
company claimed trademark rights. The Citrix name is a portmanteau
of Citrus and UNIX.
The company's first product was Citrix Multiuser, an extension of OS/2
developed over two years. Citrix licensed the
OS/2 source code from
Microsoft, and developed its own Independent Computing
Architecture (ICA) protocol for Citrix Multiuser. Multiuser
allowed multiple users working on separate computers remote access to
software on a server, even from computers not built to run
OS/2. Three days before the product launched in 1991,
Microsoft announced they would be switching from
OS/2 to Windows. The
switch made Multiuser nearly unusable without significant changes to
make it compatible with Windows or DOS. The company discussed closing
in 1991, but investments from Intel,
Microsoft and Kleiner Perkins
Caufield & Byers among others, allowed the company to work on a
new version of Multiuser.
Multi-Win version 2.0 was released in 1992. It was compatible with DOS
applications and allowed up to five users. In 1993, Citrix
released a new remote applications server, WinView, which had the
ability to run
DOS and Windows applications. By 1994, the
company's yearly revenue equaled US$10 million.
The company launched WinFrame, a multi-user operating system based on
Microsoft’s Windows NT, in 1995. The new product allowed up to 15
users and was the first thin client for Windows.
Rise in popularity
Citrix had its initial public offering in December 1995. The
company's share price doubled from $15 to $30. During the
mid-1990s, Citrix became the leader of its growing industry with very
few competitors, and the company's revenues doubled year over year
between 1995 and 1999.
Following weeks of discussions, Iacobucci was able to persuade
Microsoft to agree to license Citrix technology for
Windows NT Server
4.0, which resulted in Windows Terminal Server Edition in
1998. This agreement allowed Citrix to keep its position in
the marketplace and be NT 4.0 compatible. Citrix also earned $75
million through the agreement, along with a royalty arrangement that
was valued at approximately $100 million.
Citrix released MetaFrame 1.0 in conjunction with Terminal Server
Edition. Due to weaknesses in Microsoft's Remote Desktop Protocol
(RDP), Terminal Server Edition worked best using the ICA protocol
developed by Citrix and found in MetaFrame. This meant that Citrix
technology was purchased and installed on most machines running
Terminal Server Edition.
In 1997, the company opened a new headquarters in Fort Lauderdale,
Florida. It also opened offices in Sydney,
Paris that same
In 1998, Mark Templeton became the CEO of Citrix after serving as vice
president of marketing. Also in 1998, it licensed its ICA protocol
IBM and Key Tronics. Citrix licensed its ICA protocol to
Motorola for use in digital wireless handsets in 1999.
During 1999, the thin-client model Citrix used became a software trend
and the company's customers increased to 15 million. Major clients
included Sears, AT&T, and Chevron. A sudden drop in stocks
in 2000 led to Iacobucci leaving the company and CEO Mark Templeton
being demoted to president and senior executive officer. Templeton was
later reinstated in 2001.
In 2001 Citrix acquired the Sequoia
Software Corp. for $185
million. That same year it released MetaFrame XP, a new platform
using MetaFrame technology. This was later rebranded by Citrix as
Presentation Server, in 2005.
On July 9, 2002, Citrix announced a 10% job cut. At the time the
company employed about 1,900 workers. After the announcement the stock
hit a five-year low.
Citrix acquired ExpertCity, a provider of remote desktop products, in
December 2003 for $225 million in cash and stock. The acquisition was
the largest for the company up to that date. Through the
acquisition, Citrix gained ExpertCity's existing products
GoToAssist, and ExpertCity became the
Citrix Online division of the
company. In 2004, the company introduced Citrix
Between 2005 and 2012, the company acquired over a dozen companies
that allowed them to expand in new markets. Citrix acquired
acceleration hardware maker NetScaler in 2005, which allowed the
company to offer optimized application delivery. The company
entered the server and desktop virtualization market with the purchase
of XenSource in August 2007. Citrix expanded cloud and
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offerings in August 2010 with the
acquisition of VMLogix. In February 2011, Citrix entered the
Software as a Service (SaaS) market with the acquisition of
The company became a leader in IaaS after the acquisition of
Cloud.com, provider of cloud infrastructure for companies, in July
2011. Citrix began offering VDI-in-a-box to small and medium
businesses with the acquisition of Kaviza in May 2011. The company
acquired technology for cloud-based file sharing and storage through
its purchase of Share
File in October 2011.
In May 2012, Citrix acquired Virtual Computer, maker of intelligent
desktop virtualization. The technology is used in the company's
XenClient Enterprise edition. Citrix entered the mobile video and
telecom markets in June 2012 when the company acquired ByteMobile.
Also in 2012, the company acquired Zenprise. Zenprise's Mobile
application management (MAM) technology was released as
In 2007, the company opened a headquarters in Silicon Valley. In
2008, the company changed the name of its Presentation Server product
line to XenApp. Also in 2008, Citrix announced an expanded
Microsoft on desktop virtualization solutions. On
January 29, 2009, Citrix announced that 460 employee positions would
be cut, comprising 10% of its workforce. In August 2010, Citrix
announced a partnership with
Google to bring the company's products to
Chrome OS devices.
Citrix acquired Framehawk in January 2014 in order to use the
company's technology to improve the delivery of virtual desktops and
applications over wireless networks, including cellular, where speed
and quality may be poor. In May 2014, Citrix acquired
Scalextreme to bolster its cloud capabilities for its core
business unit of
XenDesktop and Xenapp such as auto scaling, patching
and automation of complex deployments from the cloud.
On January 29, 2015, Citrix announced that 700 full-time and 200
contractor positions would be eliminated. This constituted about
10% of its workforce. The cuts were expected to save between $90 and
$100 million a year. Two hundred of the layoffs occurred in Fort
Lauderdale, Florida, where the company is headquartered.
The company had 10,081 employees as of February 2015. In December
2015, Citrix employed approximately 9,500 people, but noted that its
November restructure was due to eliminate nearly 700 full-time
On July 14, 2015, Citrix added full support for
Windows 10 to its
desktop virtualization products.
Citrix reported net income of $251.7 million in 2014, down from $339.5
million in 2013. In July 2015, the company announced several
changes to its board of directors, including Robert Calderoni's
becoming executive chairman and adding Jesse Cohn as a senior partner
of activist hedge fund Elliott Management. That same month the
company announced that president and CEO Mark Templeton would retire
after a replacement was found, and on October 21, the company
named its executive chairman, Robert Calderoni, as interim president
In January 2016, Kirill Tatarinov, a former
Microsoft executive, was
named the president and CEO of Citrix and joined the company's board.
Calderoni remained executive chairman of the board.
In July 2016, as part of a deal with Boston-based SaaS company
LogMeIn, Citrix announced it had spun off its GoTo product line, which
included GoToMeeting, GoToWebinar, GoToWebcast, GoToTraining,
GoToAssist and GoToMyPC, into a wholly owned subsidiary called
GetGo. In February 2017, Citrix completed a merger through which
GetGo became a subsidiary of LogMeIn. The transaction was valued at
approximately $1.8 billion. David Henshall became the company's
CEO in July 2017.
Also in 2017, Citrix expanded its partnership with Google. In May,
Google announced it would add support to run Citrix XenApp on its
Chrome web browser, including graphics processing unit
acceleration. In July, the companies announced they were working
Citrix Cloud to deploy virtualized apps and desktops on
In October 2017, Citrix told regulators of plans to lay off staff
"across most functions" and consolidate offices in the fall 2017 into
2018. The company carried out layoffs in Raleigh, North Carolina,
and office closures in Santa Barbara, California, and Tempe,
Citrix unveiled its Citrix Analytics security software at the 2017
Citrix Synergy conference in Orlando, Florida, in May 2017. The
software detects and responds to security threats by relying on
Citrix is governed by a 10-member board of directors. Citrix has
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Santa Clara, California.
United States offices are in
California and North
Carolina. Citrix research and development centers are located
in the U.S., Australia, India, Japan, and the United Kingdom.
Citrix is organized into three units: Workspace Services, Delivery
Network, and Mobility Apps. Citrix licenses its services and
products directly to clients, including IT professionals, SMEs, and
through companies called value-added resellers that resell the
products and services after adding additional features.
Citrix is publicly traded under the ticker symbol CTXS. In 2014,
the company ranked 741 on the
Fortune 1000 and 1,793 on
2000. Citrix’s revenue in 2015 equaled US$3.28 billion,
an increase from $3.14 billion in 2014 and $2.91 billion in 2013.
Main article: List of mergers and acquisitions by Citrix
Citrix has expanded and added new technologies and services through a
number of mergers and acquisitions. Its first acquisition was
DataPac in 1997, which Citrix purchased in order to utilize DataPac's
technology and its position in the Asia-Pacific region.
Other major acquisitions include ExpertCity in 2004, NetScaler in
2005, XenSource in 2007 and Share
File in 2011. As of 2015, Citrix has
acquired nearly 50 companies.
Citrix creates software that allows the individuals of an enterprise
to work and collaborate remotely regardless of device or network. The
main areas the company works in are desktop and apps; Desktop as a
Service (DaaS); networking and cloud; and
Software as a service
Desktops and apps
Citrix offers a number of products related to desktop and application
virtualization. These tools allow access to Windows desktops and
applications independently of the machine they are actually on, and
from any device with any operating system. Citrix XenApp provides
application virtualization (now integrated as part of XenDesktop), and
Citrix XenDesktop, Citrix VDI-in-a-Box and
XenClient all provide
desktop virtualization. The DesktopPlayer for Mac allows
online and offline access to Windows virtual desktops from Macs.
Citrix Workspace Cloud is a platform for building and delivering
desktops and applications from the cloud. Share
companies and organizations to sync and share files. XenMobile
offers mobile app and device management,
Citrix Receiver is client
software that allows universal access to virtual applications and
desktops, and AppDNA, software that provides application migration and
Desktop as a Service (DaaS)
Citrix technology enables service providers to provide Desktop as a
Service (DaaS) offerings to their customers, including business apps
and desktops. These products include: Worx Mobile Apps for secure
email, browser, and document sharing; and Citrix Workspace Suite
for mobile workspaces.
Networking and cloud
Citrix products related to cloud computing and networking include
Citrix XenServer for server virtualization and its NetScaler
brand of network appliances, including WAN optimization devices,
Software-Defined WAN delivery equipment, Application Delivery
Controllers (ADC), Gateways, and AppFirewall web application
firewall. All this are managed by their cloud management software
Citrix Cloud. The company also has ByteMobile Adaptive Traffic
Management, which aims to optimize mobile video services through
traffic management, policy control and caching, and ByteMobile
Insight, which provides mobile data and subscriber analytics.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Citrix software as a service (SaaS) products are focused on
collaboration and communications. The offerings include Podio, a
cloud-based collaboration service, and OpenVoice, which provides audio
The company's philanthropic activities include corporate giving—such
as corporate donations of in-kind gifts—and employee match
programs. Citrix provides discounted and donated products to
non-profits and other qualifying organizations through TechSoup.
In addition, Citrix employees are allowed to take two paid volunteer
days each year and participate in the company's annual "Global Day of
Impact"—an event that encourages Citrix employees to volunteer in
their local communities.
Fort Lauderdale headquarters, Citrix has provided business
training to non-profit teams. In particular, the company helped a
local non-profit organization launch a computer on wheels to offer
training to low-income neighborhoods. In 2007, the company connected a
Broward County, Florida
Broward County, Florida neighborhood with
Agogo, Ghana through donated
technology and training. Furthermore, the company's Raleigh office
began a program called "Project Code" in 2014, which leads youth from
local Boys & Girls Clubs through coding exercises and teaches them
about computer science.
In addition to its philanthropic activities, Citrix has donated some
of its open-source technology to non-profit software organizations to
continue its development and gain more contributors. Citrix gave
Cloudstack to the Apache Foundation in 2012 and
Xen hypervisor to the
Linux Foundation in 2013.
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Keith Schultz (December 14, 2011) VDI shoot-out: Citrix
VMware View. Citrix
XenDesktop 5.5 and VMware View 5 vie for the most
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Keith Schultz (December 14, 2011) VDI shoot-out: HDX vs. PCoIP. The
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more than skin deep, InfoWorld
Colt Agar (January 19, 2018) Grasshopper Phone Review - Virtual Phone
System for Entrepreneurs, TheTechReviewer.com
Citrix Monitoring: Real-Time vs Agent-Based
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