Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law of a sovereign state or local jurisdiction as a member of or belonging to the state. Each state is free to determine the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and the conditions under which that status will be withdrawn. Recognition by a state as a citizen generally carries with it recognition of civil, political, and social rights which are not afforded to non-citizens.

In general, the basic rights normally regarded as arising from citizenship are the right to a passport, the right to leave and return to the country/ies of citizenship, the right to live in that country and to work there.

Some countries permit their citizens to have multiple citizenships, while others insist on exclusive allegiance. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander.[1]

Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English[2] although the term is mainly – notably in international law – understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group).[3] In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings. (See Nationality versus citizenship.)

The co

The concept of "Commonwealth Citizenship" has been in place ever since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Nations. As with the EU, one holds Commonwealth citizenship only by being a citizen of a Commonwealth member state. This form of citizenship offers certain privileges within some Commonwealth countries: