Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler)
(/ˈkraɪslər/) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler
Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer
registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for
tax purposes. FCA US is one of the "Big Three" American automobile
manufacturers. FCA US has its headquarters in Auburn Hills, Michigan
and sells vehicles worldwide under its flagship
Chrysler brand, as
well as the Dodge, Jeep, and Ram Trucks. Other major divisions include
Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its
performance automobile division.
Walter Chrysler founded
Chrysler Corporation in 1925 from the remains
of the Maxwell Motor Company. He expanded the company in 1928 with
the acquisition of
Fargo Trucks and
Dodge Brothers, and the creation
of the Plymouth and DeSoto brands.
Chrysler used the General Motors
brand diversification and hierarchy strategy he had seen working for
Facing postwar declines in market share, productivity, and
profitability, as GM and Ford were growing,
Chrysler borrowed $250
million in 1954 from Prudential to pay for expansion and updated car
In the 1960s the company expanded into Europe, by taking control of
French, British and Spanish auto companies;
Chrysler Europe was sold
in 1978 to PSA
Peugeot Citroën for $1.
Chrysler struggled through the 1970s to adapt to changing markets,
increased US import competition, and safety and environmental
regulation. The company began an engineering partnership with
Mitsubishi Motors, and began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as
Dodge and Plymouth in North America. By the late 1970s,
on the verge of bankruptcy. It was saved by $1.5 billion in loan
guarantees from the US government. New CEO
Lee Iacocca was credited
with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985,
Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the
American Motors Corporation (AMC), which
brought the profitable
Jeep brand under the
Chrysler merged with German automaker
Daimler-Benz AG to form
DaimlerChrysler; the merger proved contentious with investors. As a
Chrysler was sold to
Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management and renamed
Chrysler LLC in 2007.
Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers,
Chrysler was hit
hard by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010. The company
remained in business through a combination of negotiations with
creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April
30, 2009, and participating in a bailout from the U.S. government
through the Troubled
Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler
emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers
pension fund, Fiat S.p.A., and the U.S. and Canadian governments as
principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in
Chrysler defaulting on
over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011,
Chrysler finished repaying
its obligations to the U.S. government five years early, although the
cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few
years, Fiat gradually acquired the other parties' shares while
removing much of the weight of the loans (which carried a 21% interest
rate) in a short period. On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p.A announced a
deal to purchase the rest of
Chrysler from the United Auto Workers
retiree health trust. The deal was completed on January 21, 2014,
Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.A. In May 2014, Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles, NV was established by merging
Fiat S.p.A. into
the company. This was completed in August 2014.
Chrysler Group LLC
remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA
US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-
2 Corporate governance
2.1 Board of directors
2.2 Management team
3 Sales and marketing
United States sales
3.2 Global sales
3.3.1 Lifetime powertrain warranty
3.3.2 "Let's Refuel America"
3.3.4 Ram trucks
3.3.5 "Imported From Detroit"
3.3.6 "Half Time in America"
4 Product line
5 Environmental Initiatives
7.1 Radar antennas
7.4 Space boosters
8 Discontinued brands
9 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Main article: History of Chrysler
Chrysler company was founded by
Walter Chrysler (1875–1940) on
June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company (est. 1904) was
re-organized into the
Walter Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in
the early 1920s. He was hired to overhaul the company's troubled
operations (after a similar rescue job at the Willys-Overland car
company). In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was
In January 1924,
Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler
Chrysler was a 6-cylinder automobile, designed to
provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, but at a more
affordable price than they might expect. Elements of this car are
traceable to a prototype which had been under development at Willys
during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924
Chrysler included a
carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure
lubrication, and an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the
time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first
practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly
completely engineered by
Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed,
and rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration.
Chrysler also developed
a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from
flying off the wheel. This wheel was eventually adopted by the auto
Following the introduction of the Chrysler, the Maxwell brand was
dropped after the 1925 model year. The new, lower-priced four-cylinder
Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year were badge-engineered
Maxwells. The advanced engineering and testing that went into
Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the
second-place position in U.S. sales by 1936, a position it would last
hold in 1949.
In 1928, the
Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings
by price class and function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the
low-priced end of the market (created essentially by once again
reworking and rebadging Chrysler's four-cylinder model). At the
same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field.
Also in 1928,
Chrysler bought the
Dodge Brothers automobile and
truck company and continued the successful
Dodge line of automobiles
and Fargo range of trucks. By the mid-1930s, the DeSoto and Dodge
divisions would trade places in the corporate hierarchy.
1955 Imperial car model shown on display at January 1955 Chicago Auto
The Imperial name had been used since 1926, but was never a separate
make, just the top-of-the-line Chrysler. In 1955, the company decided
to spin it off as its own make and division to better compete with its
rivals, Lincoln and Cadillac.
Philco all transistor car radio - "Breaking News"
radio broadcast announcement
On April 28, 1955,
Philco had announced the development
and production of the World's First All-Transistor car radio. The
all-transistor car radio,
Mopar model 914HR, was developed and
Chrysler and Philco, and it was a $150.00 "option" on the
Imperial automobile models.
Philco began manufacturing this radio
in the fall of 1955 at its Sandusky Ohio plant.
On September 28, 1957,
Chrysler had announced the first production
electronic fuel injection (EFI), as an option on some of its new 1958
car models (
Dodge D500, DeSoto Adventurer, Plymouth
Fury). The first attempt to use this system was by
American Motors on
the 1957 Rambler Rebel. Bendix Corporation's Electrojector
used a transistor computer brain modulator box, but teething problems
on pre-production cars meant very few cars were made. The EFI
system in the Rambler ran fine in warm weather, but suffered hard
starting in cooler temperatures and AMC decided not to use this EFI
system, on its 1957
Rambler Rebel production cars that were sold to
Chrysler also used the Bendix "Electrojector" fuel
injection system and only around 35 vehicles were built with this
option, on its 1958 production built car models. Owners of EFI
Chryslers were so dissatisfied that all but one were retrofitted with
carburetors (while that one has been completely restored, with
original EFI electronic problems resolved).
Imperial would see new body styles introduced every two to three
years, all with V8 engines and automatic transmissions, as well as
technologies that would filter down to
Chrysler corporation's other
models. Imperial was folded back into the
Chrysler brand in 1971.
The Valiant was also introduced for 1960 as a distinct brand. In the
U.S. market, Valiant was made a model in the Plymouth line for 1961
and the DeSoto make was discontinued in 1961. With those exceptions
per applicable year and market, Chrysler's range from lowest to
highest price from the 1940s through the 1970s was Valiant, Plymouth,
Dodge, DeSoto, Chrysler, and Imperial.
The iconic Pentastar logo was used by the
Chrysler corporation from
1962 to 1998 as the company symbol. From the 1963 to the 1972 model
Chrysler products had a small Pentastar badge. Some
products of the flagship
Chrysler brand used the Pentastar in the
1980s. The last cars to include the Pentastar were limited editions of
the third-generation Plymouth Voyager. In 1998, after the creation of
DaimlerChrysler, Chrysler-branded cars adopted a winged badge and the
Pentastar was officially eliminated as a corporate logo, although
sporadic use remained. When Daimler
Chrysler was dissolved, the new
Chrysler adopted again the Pentastar as corporate logo until the
creation of Fiat
From 1963 through 1969,
Chrysler increased its existing stakes to take
full control of the French Simca, British Rootes and Spanish Barreiros
companies, merging them into
Chrysler Europe in 1967. In the 1970s, an
engineering partnership was established with Mitsubishi Motors, and
Chrysler began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as
Plymouth in North America.
Chrysler struggled to adapt to the changing environment of the 1970s.
When consumer tastes shifted to smaller cars in the early 1970s,
particularly after the 1973 oil crisis,
Chrysler could not meet the
demand. Additional burdens came from increased US import competition,
and tougher government regulation of car safety, fuel economy, and
emissions. As the smallest of the Big 3 US automakers,
the financial resources to meet all of these challenges. In 1978, Lee
Iacocca was brought in to turn the company around, and in 1979 Iacocca
sought US government help. Congress later passed the Loan Guarantee
Act providing $1.5 billion in loan guarantees. The Loan Guarantee
Act required that
Chrysler also obtain $2 billion in concessions or
aid from sources outside the federal government, which included
interest rate reductions for $650 million of the savings, asset sales
of $300 million, local and state tax concessions of $250 million, and
wage reductions of about $590 million along with a $50 million stock
offering. $180 million was to come from concessions from dealers and
After a period of plant closures and salary cuts agreed to by both
management and the auto unions, the loans were repaid with interest in
1983. In November 1983, the
Plymouth Voyager was
introduced, establishing the minivan as a major category, and
initiating Chrysler's return to stability.
Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the
Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship. In 1987,
Chrysler acquired American
Motors Corporation (AMC), which brought the profitable
American Motors from Renault
Chrysler entered an agreement with AMC to produce
platform rear-drive, as well as
Dodge Omnis front wheel drive cars, in
Kenosha, Wisconsin plant. In 1987,
Chrysler acquired the 47%
ownership of AMC that was held by Renault. The remaining outstanding
shares of AMC were bought on the NYSE by August 5, 1987, making the
deal valued somewhere between US$1.7 billion and US$2 billion,
depending on how costs were counted.
Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca
Jeep brand, particularly the
Jeep Grand Cherokee (ZJ) that
was under development, the new world-class manufacturing plant in
Bramalea, Ontario, and AMC's engineering and management talent that
became critical for Chrysler's future success. Chrysler
established the Jeep/Eagle division as a "specialty" arm to market
products distinctly different from the K-car-based products with the
Eagle cars targeting import buyers. Former AMC dealers sold Jeep
vehicles and various new Eagle models, as well as
strengthening the automaker's retail distribution system.
Eurostar, a joint venture between
Chrysler and Steyr-Daimler-Puch,
began producing the
Chrysler Voyager in Austria for European markets
Chrysler and its subsidiaries entered into a partnership
dubbed a "merger of equals" with German-based
creating the combined entity Daimler
Chrysler AG. To the surprise
of many stockholders, Daimler acquired
Chrysler in a stock swap
Chrysler CEO Bob Eaton retired. It is widely accepted that the
merger was needed because of Eaton's lack of planning for
the 1990s, to become their own global automotive company. Under
DaimlerChrysler, the company was named Daimler
Chrysler Motors Company
LLC, with its U.S. operations generally called "DCX". The Eagle brand
was retired soon after Chrysler's merger with
Daimler-Benz in 1998
Jeep became a stand-alone division, and efforts were made to merge the
Jeep brands as one sales unit. In 2001, the Plymouth
brand was also discontinued.
Eurostar also built the
Chrysler PT Cruiser
Chrysler PT Cruiser in 2001 and 2002. The
Austrian venture was sold to
Magna International in 2002 and became
Magna Steyr. The Voyager continued in production until 2007, whereas
Jeep Grand Cherokee and
Jeep Commander were also
built at the plant from 2005 to 2010.
On May 14, 2007, Daimler
Chrysler announced the sale of 80.1% of
Chrysler Group to American private equity firm Cerberus Capital
Management, L.P., thereafter known as
Chrysler LLC, although Daimler
(renamed as Daimler AG) continued to hold a 19.9% stake. The
economic collapse of 2007 - 2009 pushed the fragile company to the
brink. On April 30, 2009, the automaker filed for Chapter 11
bankruptcy protection to be able to operate as a going concern, while
renegotiating its debt structure and other obligations, which
resulted in the corporation defaulting on over $4 billion in secured
debts. The U.S. government described the company's action as a
"prepackaged surgical bankruptcy".
On June 10, 2009, substantially all of Chrysler's assets were sold to
"New Chrysler", organized as
Chrysler Group LLC. The federal
government provided support for the deal with US$8 billion in
financing at near 21%. Under CEO Sergio Marchionne, "World Class
Manufacturing" or WCM, a system of thorough manufacturing quality, was
introduced and several products re-launched with quality and luxury.
Jeep Grand Cherokee very soon became the most awarded SUV
ever. The Ram, Jeep, Dodge, SRT and
Chrysler divisions were separated
to focus on their own identity and brand, and 11 major model refreshes
occurred in 21 months. The PT Cruiser, Nitro, Liberty and Caliber
models (created during DCX) were discontinued. On May 24, 2011,
Chrysler repaid its $7.6 billion loans to the
United States and
Canadian governments. The US Treasury, through the Troubled
Asset Relief Program (TARP), invested $12.5 billion in
recovered $11.2 billion when the company shares were sold in May 2011,
resulting in a $1.3 billion loss. On July 21, 2011,
Fiat bought the
Chrysler shares held by the US Treasury. The
Chrysler foreign-owned again, this time as the luxury
Chrysler 300 was badged
Lancia Thema in some European
markets (with additional engine options), giving
Lancia a much needed
replacement for its flagship.
On January 21, 2014, Fiat bought the remaining shares of Chrysler
owned by the VEBA worth $3.65 billion. Several days later, the
intended reorganization of Fiat and
Chrysler under a new holding
Chrysler Automobiles, together with a new FCA logo were
announced. The most challenging launch for this new company came
immediately in January 2014 with a completely redesigned
The vehicle's creation is from the completely integrated company, FCA,
executing from a global compact-wide platform.[verification
On 16 December 2014,
Chrysler Group LLC announced a name change to FCA
On 12 January 2017, FCA US LLC shares plunged after the EPA accused it
of using emissions cheating software to evade diesel-emissions
tests, however the company countered the
accusations, and the chairman and CEO
Sergio Marchionne sternly
rejected them. The following day, shares rose as investors played
down the effect of the accusations. Analysts gave estimates of
potential fines from several hundred million dollars to $4 billion,
although the likelihood of a hefty fine was low. Senior United
States Senator Bill Nelson urged the FTC to look into possible
deceptive marketing of the company's diesel-powered SUVs. Shares
dropped 2.2% after the announcement.
Chrysler House landmark executive offices in the Detroit Financial
Board of directors
Leo W. Houle
Erickson N. Perkins
Ruth J. Simmons
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Ronald L. Thompson
Mark Chernoby, Senior Vice President of Quality
Reid Bigland, Ram brand CEO, U.S. sales chief & President and CEO
Saad Chehab, President and CEO -
Mark M. Chernoby, Senior Vice President of Product Development
Olivier Francois, Chief Marketing Officer,
Chrysler Group and Fiat
Group Automobiles, Head of Fiat Brand
Scott R. Garberding, Senior Vice President of Manufacturing
Ralph Gilles, SRT brand CEO and President of Design
Mopar brand CEO and President of Service, Parts and
Mircea Gradu, Head of Transmission Powertrain and Driveline
Peter M. Grady, Vice President of Network Development and Fleet
Michael J. Keegan, Senior Vice President of Supply Chain Management
Timothy Kuniskis, President and CEO of
Scott G. Kunselman
Robert (Bob) Lee, Head of Engine, Powertrain and Electrified
Propulsion Systems Engineering
Robert E. Lee
Holly E. Leese
Laurie A. Macaddino
Michael Manley, President and CEO
Jeep brand and COO APAC (Asia
Richard Palmer, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Barbara J. Pilarski
Nancy A. Rae, Senior Vice President of Human Resources
Scott A. Sandschafer
Daniel W. Devine, Vice President, Office of Tax Affairs
Sales and marketing
United States sales
Chrysler is the smallest of the "Big Three" U.S. automakers (Chrysler
Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors). In 2013 Chrysler
sold 1,800,368 vehicles, 9% up from 2012, and fourth largest in sales
behind GM, Ford and Toyota.
Chrysler's sales have fluctuated dramatically over the last decade. In
2007 sales reached 2,076,650, falling to 931,402 units in 2009,
the company's worst result in decades.
It is reported that
Chrysler was heavy on fleet sales in 2010, hitting
as high as 56 percent of total sales in February of that year. For the
whole year, 38 percent of sales of
Chrysler were to fleet customers.
The industry average was 19 percent. However, the company hopes to
reduce its fleet sales to the industry average in 2011 with a renewed
Chrysler is the world's 11th largest vehicle manufacturer as ranked by
OICA in 2012. Total
Chrysler vehicle production was about 2.37
million that year, up from 1.58 million in 2010.
Lifetime powertrain warranty
Chrysler began to offer vehicle lifetime powertrain warranty
for the first registered owner or retail lessee. The deal covered
owner or lessee in U.S., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, for 2009
model year vehicles, and 2006, 2007 and 2008 model year vehicles
purchased on or after July 26, 2007. Covered vehicles excluded SRT
models, Diesel vehicles, Sprinter models, Ram Chassis Cab, Hybrid
System components (including transmission), and certain fleet
vehicles. The warranty is non-transferable. After Chrysler's
restructuring, the warranty program was replaced by five-year/100,000
mile transferrable warranty for 2010 or later vehicles.
"Let's Refuel America"
In 2008, as a response to customer feedback citing the prospect of
rising gas prices as a top concern,
Chrysler launched the "Let's
Refuel America" incentive campaign, which guaranteed new-car buyers a
gasoline price of $2.99 for three years. With the U.S. purchase of
Dodge vehicles, customers could enroll in
the program and receive a gas card that immediately lowers their gas
price to $2.99 a gallon, and keeps it there for the three years.
Chrysler plans for
Lancia to codevelop products, with some vehicles
being shared. Olivier Francois, Lancia's CEO, was appointed to the
Chrysler division in October 2009. Francois plans to reestablish the
Chrysler brand as an upscale brand.
In October 2009, Dodge's car and truck lines were separated, with the
name "Dodge" being used for cars, minivans and crossovers and "Ram"
for light- and medium-duty trucks and other commercial-use
"Imported From Detroit"
Chrysler unveiled their "Imported From Detroit" campaign with
ads featuring Detroit rapper Eminem, one of which aired during the
Super Bowl. The campaign highlighted the rejuvenation of the entire
product lineup, which included the new, redesigned and repackaged 2011
200 sedan and 200 convertible, the
Chrysler 300 sedan and the Chrysler
Town & Country minivan. As part of the campaign, Chrysler
sold a line of clothing items featuring the Monument to Joe Louis,
with proceeds being funneled to Detroit-area charities, including the
Boys and Girls Clubs of Southeast Michigan, Habitat for Humanity
Detroit and the Marshall Mathers Foundation. Following the Eminem
ad, there was also an ad for Detroit Lions defensive tackle Ndamukong
Suh driving a
Chrysler 300 to Portland, Oregon, to visit his mother,
an ad featuring Detroit-born fashion designer
John Varvatos cruising
through a shadowy Gotham while Kevin Yon's familiar baritone traces
the designer's genesis.
In March 2011,
Chrysler Group LLC filed a lawsuit against Moda Group
LLC (owner of Pure Detroit clothing retailer) for copying and selling
merchandise with the "Imported from Detroit" slogan. Chrysler
claimed it had notified defendant of its pending trademark application
February 14, but the defendant argued
Chrysler had not secured a
trademark for the "Imported From Detroit" phrase. On June 18, 2011,
U.S. District Judge Arthur Tarnow ruled that Chrysler's request did
not show that it would suffer irreparable harm or that it had a strong
likelihood of winning its case. Therefore, Pure Detroit's owner,
Detroit retailer Moda Group LLC, can continue selling its "Imported
from Detroit" products. Tarnow also noted that
Chrysler does not have
a trademark on "Imported from Detroit" and rejected the automaker's
argument that trademark law is not applicable to the case. In
Chrysler Group LLC and Pure Detroit agreed to a March 27
mediation to try to settle the lawsuit over the clothing company's use
of "Imported from Detroit" slogan. Pure Detroit stated that
Chrysler has made false claims about the origins of three vehicles -
Chrysler 300 and
Chrysler Town & Country - none of
which are built in Detroit. Pure Detroit also said that Chrysler's
Imported From Detroit merchandise is not being made in
Detroit. In 2012
Chrysler and Pure Detroit came to an
Chrysler's Jefferson North Assembly, which makes the
Dodge Durango, is the only car manufacturing plant of any
company remaining entirely in Detroit (
General Motors operates a plant
which is partly in Detroit and partly in Hamtramck).
Eminem settled a lawsuit against
Audi alleging the defendant
had ripped off the
Super Bowl commercial in the
"Half Time in America"
Again in 2012,
Chrysler advertised during the Super Bowl. Its
two-minute February 5, 2012
Super Bowl XLVI advertisement was titled
"Half Time in America". The ad drew criticism from several leading
U.S. conservatives, who suggested that its messaging implied that
Barack Obama deserved a second term and, as such, was
political payback for Obama's support for the federal bailout of the
company. Asked about the criticism in a
60 Minutes interview with
Sergio Marchionne responded "just to rectify the record I
paid back the loans at 19.7% Interest. I don't think I committed to do
to a commercial on top of that" and characterized the Republican
reaction as "unnecessary and out of place".
Chrysler started using a new slogan, "America's Import" in
ads introducing their all-new 2015
Chrysler 200, targeting
foreign automakers from Germany to Japan with such ads (German
performance and Japanese quality), and at the ending of selected ads,
the advertisement will say, "We Built This", indicating being built in
America, instead of overseas.
Engineered to the Power of Cars (1998–2001)
Drive = Love (2002–2004)
Inspiration comes standard (2004–2007)
Engineered Beautifully (2007-mid 2010)
Imported From Detroit (2011-2014)
America's Import (2014–present)
Ram 1500, one of Chrysler's best selling vehicles
Chrysler: Luxury sedans, convertibles, and minivans
Dodge: Passenger, performance cars, minivans, crossovers and SUVs
Ram: Trucks and commercial vehicles
Jeep: Off-road vehicles, SUVs and crossovers
Mopar: Replacement parts for Chrysler-built vehicles, as well as a
brand for dealer service and customer service operations.
Mopar Performance: a subdivision providing performance aftermarket
parts for Chrysler-built vehicles.
In 2010, Fiat Auto was planning to sell seven of its vehicles in the
U.S. by 2014, while Fiat-controlled
Chrysler Group was to supply nine
models to sell under Fiat brands in the European market, according to
a five-year plan rolled out on April 21, 2010 in Turin, Italy, by Fiat
Chrysler CEO Sergio Marchionne. At least five of the Fiat Auto
models were expected to be marketed in the U.S. under its Alfa Romeo
brand. Showing the level of integration envisioned, a product
introduction timeline envisaged Chrysler-built compact and full-size
SUVs going on sale in 2012 and 2014, respectively, in both European
and North American markets.
First introduced as MyGig,
Chrysler Uconnect is a system that brings
interactive ability to the in-car radio and telemetric-like controls
to car settings. As of mid-2015, it is installed in hundreds of
thousands of Fiat
Chrysler vehicles. It connects to the Internet
via the mobile network of Sprint, providing the car with its own IP
address. Internet connectivity using any Chrysler, Dodge,
Ram vehicle, via a Wi-Fi "hot-spot", is also available via Uconnect
Web. According to
Chrysler LLC, the hotspot range extends
approximately 100 feet (30 m) from the vehicle in all directions,
and combines both Wi-Fi and Sprint's 3G cellular
connectivity. Uconnect is available on several
current[when?] and was available on several discontinued Chrysler
models including the current
Chrysler 300, Aspen, Sebring,
Town and Country,
Dodge Avenger, Caliber, Grand Caravan, Challenger,
Charger, Journey, Nitro, and Ram.
In July 2015, IT security researchers announced a severe security flaw
assumed to affect every
Chrysler vehicle with Uconnect produced from
late 2013 to early 2015. It allows hackers to gain access to the
car over the Internet, and in the case of a
Jeep Cherokee was
demonstrated to enable an attacker to take control not just of the
radio, A/C, and windshield wipers, but also of the car's steering,
brakes and transmission.
Chrysler published a patch that car
owners can download and install via a USB stick, or have a car dealer
install for them.
Chrysler's quality and customer satisfaction ratings have been below
average according to Consumer Reports and JD Powers since the late
1990s. Consumer Reports has consistently reported
Chrysler brands at the bottom of their reliability ratings in the past
decade as well as their Automotive Brand Report
Card. JDP has found similar results over the same
time period in both Initial Quality Studies and Customer Service
Indexes as has the American Customer Satisfaction Index
Chrysler has had a few quality successes during this
period. Strategic Vision named
Chrysler an overall winner in 2015
noting strong customer appeal and that with the rise in quality of all
cars the difference between high and low "problem-counting" ratings
are relatively small.
Chrysler produced an experimental electric vehicle in 1979, the
Chrysler ETV-1 electric prototype in cooperation
with U.S. Department of Energy.
Chrysler developed the
Dodge EPIC concept minivan. In 1993,
Chrysler began to sell a limited-production electric minivan called
the TEVan; however only 56 were produced. In 1997, a second
generation, called the EPIC, was released. It was discontinued after
Chrysler once owned the
Global Electric Motorcars
Global Electric Motorcars company, building
low-speed neighborhood electric vehicles, but sold GEM to Polaris
Industries in 2011.
In September 2007,
Chrysler established ENVI, an in-house organization
focused on electric-drive vehicles and related technologies which was
disbanded by late 2009. In August 2009,
Chrysler took US$70
million in grants from the
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Energy to develop a test
fleet of 220 hybrid pickup trucks and minivans.
The first hybrid models, the
Chrysler Aspen hybrid and the Dodge
Durango hybrid, were discontinued a few months after production in
2008, sharing their GM-designed hybrid technology with GM,
Daimler and BMW.
Chrysler is on the Advisory Council of the PHEV Research Center, and
undertook a government sponsored demonstration project with Ram and
In 2012, FCA CEO
Sergio Marchionne said that
Chrysler and Fiat both
plan to focus primarily on alternative fuels, such as
CNG and Diesel,
instead of hybrid and electric drivetrains for their consumer
Chrysler bought 8.2 million megagrams of U.S. greenhouse gas
emission credits from competitors including Toyota, Honda, Tesla and
The dedicated tank building division of Chrysler, this division was
founded as the
Chrysler Tank division in 1940, originally with the
intention of providing another production line for the M2 Medium Tank,
so that the U.S. Army could more rapidly build up it's inventory of
the type. It's first plant was the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant. When
the M2A1 was unexpectedly declared obsolete in August of the same
year, plans were altered (though not without considerable difficulty)
to produce the M3 Grant instead, primarily for the British as part of
United States under the counter support for Great Britain against
Nazi Germany (the U.S. not yet being formally in the war), with the
balance of the revised order going to the U.S. Army as the Lee. After
December 1941 and the United State's entry into the war against the
Axis powers, the Tank division rapidly expanded, with new facilities
such as the Tank Arsenal Proving Ground at (then) Utica, Michigan. It
also quickly widened the range of products it was developing and
producing, including the M4 Sherman tank and the
multibank tank engine.
See also: General Dynamics Land Systems
During World War II, essentially all of Chrysler's facilities were
devoted to building military vehicles (the
Jeep brand came later,
American Motors Corporation). They were
also designing V12 and V16 hemi-engines producing 2,500 hp
(1,864 kW; 2,535 PS) for airplanes, but they did not make it
into production as jets were developed and were seen as the future for
air travel. During the 1950s
Cold War period,
Chrysler made air
raid sirens powered by its Hemi V-8 engines.
Radiation Laboratory at MIT was established in 1941 to
develop microwave radars, one of the first projects resulted in the
SCR-584, the most widely recognized radar system of the war era. This
system included a parabolic antenna six feet in diameter that was
mechanically aimed in a helical pattern (round and round as well as up
One of Chrysler's most significant contributions to the war effort was
not in the field of vehicles but in the radar field. For the final
production design of this antenna and its highly complex drive
mechanism, the Army's
Signal Corps Laboratories turned to Chrysler's
Central Engineering Office. There, the parabola was changed from
aluminum to steel, allowing production forming using standard
automotive presses. To keep weight down, 6,000 equally spaced holes
were drilled in the face (this had no effect on the radiation
pattern). The drive mechanism was completely redesigned, using
technology derived from Chrysler's research in automotive gears and
differentials. The changes resulted in improved performance, reduced
weight, and easier maintenance. A large portion of the
Dodge plant was
used in building 1,500 of the
SCR-584 antennas as well as the vans
used in the systems.
In April 1950, the U.S. Army established the Ordnance Guided Missile
Center (OGMC) at Redstone Arsenal, adjacent to Huntsville, Alabama. To
form OGMC, over 1,000 civilian and military personnel were transferred
from Fort Bliss, Texas. Included was a group of German scientists and
engineers led by Wernher von Braun; this group had been brought to
America under Project Paperclip. OGMC designed the Army's first
short-range ballistic missile, the PGM-11 Redstone, based on the WWII
Chrysler established the Missile Division to serve
as the Redstone prime contractor, setting up an engineering operation
in Huntsville and for production obtaining use from the U.S. Navy of a
large plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan. The Redstone was in active
service from 1958 to 1964; it was also the first missile to
test-launch a live nuclear weapon, first detonated in a 1958 test in
the South Pacific.
Working together, the Missile Division and von Braun's team greatly
increased the capability of the Redstone, resulting in the PGM-19
Jupiter, a medium-range ballistic missile. In May 1959, a Jupiter
missile launched two small monkeys into space in a nose cone; this was
America's first successful flight and recovery of live space payloads.
Responsibility for deploying Jupiter missiles was transferred from the
Army to the Air Force; armed with nuclear warheads, they were first
Turkey during the early 1960s.
In July 1959,
NASA chose the
Redstone missile as the basis for the
Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle
Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle to be used for suborbital test flights
Project Mercury spacecraft. Three unmanned MRLV launch attempts
were made between November 1960 and March 1961, two of which were
successful. The MRLV successfully launched the chimpanzee Ham, and
Alan Shepard and
Gus Grissom on three suborbital flights in
January, May and July 1961, respectively.
America's more ambitious manned space travel plans included the design
of the Saturn series of heavy-lift launch vehicles by a team headed by
Wernher von Braun. Chrysler's Huntsville operation, then designated
the Space Division, became Marshall Space Flight Center's prime
contractor for the first stage of the
Saturn I and
Saturn IB versions.
The design was based on a cluster of Redstone and Jupiter fuel tanks,
Chrysler built it for the
Apollo program in the Michoud Assembly
Facility in East New Orleans, one of the largest manufacturing plants
in the world. Between October 1961 and July 1975,
NASA used ten Saturn
Is and nine Saturn IBs for suborbital and orbital flights, all of
which were successful;
Chrysler missiles and boosters never
suffered a launch failure. The division was also a
subcontractor which modified one of the Mobile Launcher Platforms for
use with the
Saturn IB rockets using Saturn V infrastructure.
Chrysler Europe (sold to Peugeot)
Rootes Group, UK
Sunbeam (1901–1976), UK
Humber (1898–1976), UK
Singer (1905–1970), UK
Commer (1905–1979), UK
Hillman (1907–1976), UK
Karrier (1908–1977), UK
Simca (1934–1977), France
Barreiros (1959–1978), Spain
American Motors (AMC) (1954–1988), US
Hudson (1909–1957), US
Nash (1917–1957), US
Rambler (1900–1914; 1950–1969), US
Maxwell (1904–1926), US
Graham Brothers (1916–1929), US
Fargo (1920–1972), Canada
DeSoto (1928–1961), US
Plymouth (1928–2001), US
Imperial (1955–1975; 1981–1983), US
Valiant (1960–1976) The Valiant was introduced in 1960 as a separate
Chrysler brand, then was incorporated into the Plymouth line in the US
starting in 1961.
Valiant (1962–1981), Australia
Chrysler marketed the Valiant as a separate
Chrysler model in Canada until 1967, when the Canada–United States
Automotive Products Agreement of 1965 facilitated the sale of
American-built Plymouth Valiants in Canada.
Eagle (1988–1998), US
GEMCAR (1998–2011) sold to Polaris Industries, US
SRT (2012–2014). Merged with Dodge, US
Metro Detroit portal
American Motors Corporation
Chrysler Headquarters and Technology Center
Chrysler Hemi engine
Chrysler Proving Grounds
Frederick Morrell Zeder
History of Chrysler
List of automobile manufacturers of the United States
Owen Ray Skelton
The Three Musketeers (
Chrysler Fevre Argentina - sold to
Volkswagen in 1980
Turkey - sold to the ASKAM in 2003.
1.  Fiat is exercising their right to increase their share in the
company, and have announced that they want to buy an additional ~6.6%
of the shares from VEBA Trust, but VEBA disagrees with the price set
by Fiat. The matter is currently the subject of proceedings at
Delaware Chancery Court.
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Packard Automotive Plant
Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly
Chicago Auto Show
Interstate Highway System
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
New York International Auto Show
North American International Auto Show
(1)Although New Flyer is Canadian, their Subsidiaries, NABI and Motor
Coach Industries, are headquartered in the U.S.
(2)Former meaning the company is no longer in the automotive
S.P.A. (Società Piemontese Automobili)
Abarth & C.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles
FCA Auto Poland
FCA Srbija (67%)
FCA India Automobiles (50%)
GAC FCA (50%)
Nanjing Fiat Automobile
see own template for a list of marques, divisions and joint ventures
Fiat Powertrain Technologies
Fiat Powertrain Technologies (VM Motori)
Italiana Editrice (77%)
Il Secolo XIX
List of assembly sites
Nardò Ring (former)
Automotive industry crisis
California budget crisis
Housing market correction
Subprime mortgage crisis
Banking losses and fraud
Anglo Irish Bank hidden loans controversy
Société Générale trading loss
Scott W. Rothstein
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Home Loan Banks
Federal Housing Administration
Federal Housing Finance Agency
Federal Housing Finance Board
Federal Reserve System
Government National Mortgage Association
Irish Bank Resolution Corporation
Asset Management Agency
Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight
Office of Financial Stability
UK Financial Investments
Government policy and spending responses
Banking and finance
stability and reform
Anglo Irish Bank Corporation Act 2009
Special Provisions) Act 2008
China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit
Commercial Paper Funding Facility
Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008
Irish emergency budget, 2009
Irish budget, 2010
Irish budget, 2011
Irish budget, 2012
Irish budget, 2013
Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program
Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility
Asset Relief Program
2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package
Bank stress tests
Stimulus and recovery
2008 European Union stimulus plan
2008–09 Keynesian resurgence
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
Chinese economic stimulus program
Economic Stimulus Act of 2008
Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009
Green New Deal
Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008
National fiscal policy response to the Great Recession
Zero interest-rate policy
rescues, and acquisitions
List of banks acquired or bankrupted during the Great Recession
and financial markets
Auction rate securities
Collateralized debt obligations
Collateralized mortgage obligations
Credit default swaps
Secondary mortgage market
Tea Party protests
Tea Party protests (United States; c. 2009)
May Day protests (Europe, Middle East and North Africa, Asia; 2009)
Occupy movement (worldwide)
2000s energy crisis
Central Asia: 2008
Effects on museums
Decline of newspapers
World food price crisis
European debt crisis
Financial crisis of 2007–08
List of countr