Chrysanthemums (), sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plant
s of the genus
''Chrysanthemum'' in the family Asteraceae
. They are native
to East Asia
and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity
is in China
[Liu, P. L., et al. (2012)]
Phylogeny of the genus ''Chrysanthemum'' L.: Evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences.
''PLOS One'' 7(11), e48970. .
Countless horticultural varieties and cultivars exist.
The name "chrysanthemum" is derived from the grc|χρυσός ''chrysos'' (gold) and grc|ἄνθεμον ''anthemon'' (flower).
The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera, putting the economically important florist's chrysanthemums in the genus ''Dendranthema''. The naming of these genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress
in 1999 changed the defining species
of the genus to ''Chrysanthemum indicum'', restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus ''Chrysanthemum''.
Genera now separated from ''Chrysanthemum'' include ''Argyranthemum
'', and ''Tanacetum
Wild ''Chrysanthemum'' taxa are herbaceous perennial plant
s or subshrubs
. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The compound inflorescence
is an array of several flower heads
, or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries
. The simple row of ray florets is white, yellow, or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colors. The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow. Pollen grains are appropriately 34 microns. The fruit is a ribbed achene
Flora of China. eFloras.
Chrysanthemums start blooming early in the autumn. This is also known as the favorite flower for the month of November.
Chrysanthemums () were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb
as far back as the 15th century BC. Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by 1630.
By 2014 it was estimated that there were over 20,000 cultivars in the world and about 7,000 cultivars in China. The plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen
() in Chinese
and East Asian Art
. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival
Chrysanthemum cultivation began in Japan during the Nara
and Heian period
s (early 8th to late 12th centuries), and gained popularity in the Edo period
(early 17th to late 19th century). Many flower shapes, colours, and varieties were created. The way the flowers were grown and shaped also developed, and chrysanthemum culture flourished. The Imperial Seal of Japan
is a chrysanthemum and the institution of the monarchy is also called the Chrysanthemum Throne
. A number of festivals and shows take place throughout Japan in autumn when the flowers bloom. is one of the five ancient sacred festivals. It is celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month. It was started in 910, when the imperial court held its first chrysanthemum show.
Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens
imported a cultivated variety
known as 'Dark Purple' from England. The introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields
in Hoboken, New Jersey
[The New York Botanical Garden, ''Curtis' Botanical Magazine, Volume X'' Bronx, New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1797]
Modern cultivated chrysanthemums are showier than their wild relatives. The flower heads occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons
s. This genus contains many hybrids
and thousands of cultivar
s developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. The most important hybrid is ''Chrysanthemum'' × ''morifolium'' (syn. ''C.'' × ''grandiflorum''), derived primarily from ''C. indicum'', but also involving other species.
Over 140 cultivars of chrysanthemum have gained the Royal Horticultural Society
's Award of Garden Merit
Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.
The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary
, and cascades.
Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged. Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female reproductive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.
Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ''ogiku''. The disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a 'skirt'. Regular incurves are similar, but usually with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have broader florets and a less densely flowered head.
In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop
-like appearance. The decorative form is similar to reflex blooms, but the ray florets usually do not radiate at more than a 90° angle to the stem.
The pompon form is fully double, of small size, and very globular in form. Single and semidouble blooms have exposed disk florets and one to seven rows of ray florets. In the anemone form, the disk florets are prominent, often raised and overshadowing the ray florets. The spoon-form disk florets are visible and the long, tubular ray florets are spatulate. In the spider form, the disk florets are concealed, and the ray florets are tube-like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem. In the brush and thistle variety, the disk florets may be visible.
In Japan, a form of ''bonsai
'' chrysanthemum was developed over the centuries. The cultivated flower has a lifespan of about 5 years and can be kept in miniature size. Another method is to use pieces of dead wood and the flower grows over the back along the wood to give the illusion from the front that the miniature tree blooms.
Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of the species ''C. morifolium'' are boiled to make a tea in some parts of East Asia. The resulting beverage is known simply as chrysanthemum tea
(菊 花 茶
: ''júhuā chá'', in Chinese). In Korea, a rice wine
flavored with chrysanthemum flowers is called ''gukhwaju'' (국화주).
Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and used as greens, especially in Chinese cuisine. The flowers may be added to dishes such as ''mixian
'' in broth, or thick snakemeat soup (蛇羹) to enhance the aroma. Japanese cuisine sashimi
uses small chrysanthemums as garnish.
''.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Tanacetum.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="r'' [[Tanacetum">r'' [[Tanacetum''">Tanacetum.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="r'' [[Tanacetum">r'' [[Tanacetum''' cinerariaefolium'') is economically important as a natural source of [[insecticide]]. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components, called [[pyrethrin]]s, which occur in the [[achene]]s, are extracted and sold in the form of an [[oleoresin]]. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insect
s, and inhibit female mosquito
es from biting. In sublethal doses, they have an insect-repellent
effect. They are harmful to fish
, but are far less toxic to mammal
s and bird
s than many synthetic insecticides. They are not persistent, being biodegradable
, and also decompose
easily on exposure to light. Pyrethroid
s such as permethrin
are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum. Despite this, chrysanthemum leaves are still a major host for destructive pests, such as leafminer flies
including ''L. trifolii
is an example of industrial product of chrysanthemum insecticide.
Chrysanthemum plants have been shown to reduce indoor air pollution by the NASA Clean Air Study
Cultural significance and symbolism
In some countries of Europe
), incurve chrysanthemums symbolize death
and are used only for funerals or on graves, while other types carry no such symbolism; similarly, in China
, and Korea
of East Asia, white chrysanthemums symbolize adversity, lamentation, and/or grief. In some other countries, they represent honesty. In the United States, the flower is usually regarded as positive and cheerful, with New Orleans as a notable exception.
In the Victorian language of flowers
, the chrysanthemum had several meanings. The Chinese chrysanthemum meant cheerfulness, whereas the red chrysanthemum stood for "I Love", while the yellow chrysanthemum symbolized slighted love. The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.
* The chrysanthemum is the city flower of Beijing
. The tradition of cultivating different varieties of chrysanthemums stretches back 1600 years, and the scale reached a phenomenal level during the Song dynasty until its loss to the Jürchens
in 1126. The city has held the Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival since 1983 (renamed China Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival in 1994). The event is the largest chrysanthemum festival in China; it has been a yearly feature since, taking place between 18 October and 18 November every year.
* The chrysanthemum is one of the "Four Gentlemen
" () of China
(the others being the plum blossom
, the orchid
, and bamboo
). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian
, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobility. It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.
* A chrysanthemum festival is held each year in Tongxiang
, near Hangzhou
* Chrysanthemums are the topic in hundreds of poems of China.
* The "golden flower" referred to in the 2006 movie ''Curse of the Golden Flower
'' is a chrysanthemum.
* "Chrysanthemum Gate" (jú huā mén ), often abbreviated as Chrysanthemum (菊花), is taboo slang meaning "anus" (with sexual connotations).
* An ancient Chinese city (Xiaolan Town of Zhongshan City) was named Ju-Xian, meaning "chrysanthemum city".
* The plant is particularly significant during the Chinese Double Ninth Festival
* In Chinese culture, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of autumn and the flower of the ninth moon. People even drank chrysanthemum wine on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month to prolong their lives during the Han dynasty. It is a symbol of longevity because of its health-giving properties. Because of all of this, the flower was often worn on funeral attire.
* Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China
listed two kinds of chrysanthemum for medical use, Yejuhua and Juhua. Historically Yejuhua is said to treat carbuncle, furuncle, conjunctivitis, headache, and vertigo. Juhua is said to treat cold, headache, vertigo, and conjunctivitis.
Chrysanthemums first arrived in Japan by way of China
in the 5th century. By the Heian Period
, the flower was cultivated throughout Japan. It represented the noble class
and the season of autumn
, and the Japanese even had a Chrysanthemum festival. When the flower was adopted for the Imperial Seal of Japan
some families also cultivated it to signal their support and good relationship with the Imperial family
In the present day, each autumn there are chrysanthemum exhibition
s at the Meiji Shrine
and Yasukuni Shrine
. The Yasukuni Shrine, formerly a state-endowed shrine (官国弊社, ''kankokuheisha'') has adopted the chrysanthemum crest. Culinary-grade chrysanthemums are used to decorate food, and they remain a common motif for traditional Japanese art
s like porcelain
Chrysanthemum growing is still practised actively as a hobby by many Japanese people
who enter prize plants in contests.
Chrysanthemum "dolls", often depicting fictional characters from both traditional sources like ''kabuki
'' and contemporary sources like Disney, are displayed throughout the fall months, and the city of Nihonmatsu
hosts the "Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition" every autumn in historical ruin of Nihonmatsu Castle
. They are also grown into chrysanthemum bonsai
* In Japan, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of the Emperor
and the Imperial family
. In particular, a "chrysanthemum crest" (菊花紋章, ''kikukamonshō'' or'' kikkamonshō''), i.e. a mon
of chrysanthemum blossom design, indicates a link to the Emperor; there are more than 150 patterns of this design. Notable uses of and reference to the Imperial chrysanthemum include:
** The Imperial Seal of Japan
is used by members of the Japanese imperial family. In 1869, a two-layered, 16-petal design was designated as the symbol of the emperor. Princes used a simpler, single-layer pattern.
** The Chrysanthemum Throne
is the name given to the position of Japanese Emperor and the throne.
** The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
is a Japanese honor awarded by the emperor on the advice of the Japanese government
** In imperial Japan, small arms were required to be stamped with the imperial chrysanthemum, as they were considered the personal property of the emperor.
* The Nagoya Castle
Chrysanthemum Competition started after the end of the Pacific War. The event at the castle has become a tradition for the city. With three categories, it is one of the largest events of its kind in the region by both scale and content. The first category is the exhibition of cultivated flowers. The second category is for ''bonsai'' flowers, which are combined with dead pieces of wood to give the illusion of miniature trees. The third category is the creation of miniature landscapes.
File:Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg|Imperial Standard of the Emperor of Japan
File:Imperial Seal of Japan.jpg|Chrysanthemum crest on the IJN ''Mikasa''
File:71st Nagoya Castle Chrysanthemum Exhibition 2018 10.jpg|Nagoya Castle Chrysanthemum Competition (2018)
Korea has a number of flower shows that exhibit the chrysanthemum, such as the Masan Gagopa Chrysanthemum Festival
File:Brooklyn Museum - Chrysanthemums Rock and Bird.jpg|Korean painting ''Chrysanthemums, Rock and Bird'', 19th century
In Iran, chrysanthemums are associated with the Zoroastrian spiritual being Ashi Vanghuhi (lit. 'good blessings, rewards'), a female Yazad (angel) presiding over blessings.
In 2017, Israel
named a new fast-growing Chrysanthemum flower after Narendra Modi
, the Prime Minister of India
, in a special gesture to mark the first visit of an Indian prime minister to the Jewish nation.
In Australia, on Mother's Day, which falls in May when the flower is in season, people traditionally wear a white chrysanthemum, or a similar white flower to honour their mothers. Chrysanthemums are often given as Mother's Day presents.
* On 5 and 6 November 1883, in Philadelphia, The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, at the request of the Florists and Growers Society, held its first Chrysanthemum Show in Horticultural Hall. This would be the first of several Chrysanthemum events presented by PHS to the public.
* The founding of the chrysanthemum industry dates back to 1884, when Enomoto Brothers of Redwood City, California
, grew the first chrysanthemums cultivated in America.
[La Peninsula, xlii (1)]
* In 1913, Sadakasu Enomoto (of San Mateo County) astounded the flower world by successfully shipping a carload of Turner Chrysanthemums to New Orleans for the All Saints Day Celebration.
* The chrysanthemum was recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago
by Mayor Richard J. Daley
* The chrysanthemum is the official flower of the city of Salinas, California
* The chrysanthemum is the official flower of several fraternities and sororities
including Chi Phi
, Phi Kappa Sigma
, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
, Lambda Kappa Sigma
, and Sigma Alpha
Italian composer Giacomo Puccini
'' (1890), a movement for string quartet, in memory of his friend Amedeo di Savoia Duca d'Aosta
Chrysanthemums are placed on graves to honor the dead during All Saints' Day
and All Souls' Day
The UK National Collection of hardy chrysanthemums is at Hill Close Gardens near Warwick
, ''Plants of the World Online
'' accepted the following species:
'' (Kitam.) Kitam.
'' (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
'' (G.F.Peng, C.Shih & S.Q.Zhang) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
'' (W.W.Sm.) Hand.-Mazz.
'' (Maxim.) Makino
*''Chrysanthemum'' × ''konoanum'' Makino
'' (Makino) Makino
'' (C.Shih, G.F.Peng & S.Y.Jin) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
*''Chrysanthemum'' × ''morifolium'' (Ramat.) Hemsl.
'' (Y.Ling & C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
*''Chrysanthemum'' × ''rubellum'' Sealy
*''Chrysanthemum'' × ''shimotomaii'' Makino
'' (Hemsl.) Kitam.
'' M.Sun & J.T.Chen
'' L.Q.Zhao & Jie Yang
Former species include:
* ''Chrysanthemum carinatum'' = ''Ismelia carinata
* ''Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium'' = ''Tanacetum cinerariifolium
* ''Chrysanthemum coccineum'' = ''Tanacetum coccineum
* ''Chrysanthemum coronarium'' = ''Glebionis coronaria
* ''Chrysanthemum frutescens'' = ''Argyranthemum frutescens
* ''Chrysanthemum maximum'' = ''Leucanthemum maximum
'' = ''Ajania pacifica
* ''Chrysanthemum segetum'' = ''Glebionis segetum
File:Chrysanthemum February 2008-2.jpg|Bud of a garden chrysanthemum
File:Chrysanthème tokyo.jpg|''Chrysanthemum'' × ''morifolium'' 'Tokyo'
File:Chrysanthemum 094557.jpg|Purple Chrysanthemum
File:Chrysanthemum morifolium 08NOV.jpg|pink ''Chrysanthemum'' × ''morifolium''
File:Red chrysanthemum.jpg|Red chrysanthemum
File:Chrysanthemum Plant (1) 06.jpg|Closeup view of White Chrysanthemum
File:Chrysanthemum 'Vesuvius'.jpg|''Chrysanthemum'' × ''morifolium'' 'Vesuvius'
File:Złocień Zawadzkiego P39.jpg|''Chrysanthemum zawadskii''
File:Chrysanthemum indicum2.jpg|''Chrysanthemum indicum''
File:Chrysanthemum japonense var ashizuriense1.jpg|''Chrysanthemum japonense'' var. ''ashizuriense''
File:Beautiful Chrysanthemum.JPG|A peach coloured chrysanthemum
File:Tiger tail mum 0004.JPG|Tiger Tail chrysanthemum
File:Chrysanthemum leaves.JPG|Leaves of chrysanthemum plant
File:Chrysanthemum × morifolium Dompierre 1.jpg|A chrysanthemum show
File:Chrysanthemum 02.jpg|Yellow Chrysanthemum.
File:Chrysanthemum 01.jpg|Purple Chrysanthemum
* List of Lepidoptera that feed on chrysanthemums
* Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir 1980. Les Livres De France
* Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul 1995 Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers
* Life of the Ancient Egyptian Strouhal, Eugen 1992 University of Oklahoma Press
* Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The Redford, Donald B. (Editor) 2001 American University in Cairo Press, The
* Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford University Press
Germplasm Resources Information Network: ''Chrysanthemum''United States National Chrysanthemum Society website
(scroll down for ''Chrysanthemum'')
* ttp://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7404.html University of California web page on aphid management
Category:National symbols of Japan
Category:Plants used in bonsai