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Christology
Christology
(from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology
Christian theology
which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus
Jesus
as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.[2][3][4] Primary considerations include the ontology and person of Jesus
Jesus
in conjunction with His relationship with that of God the Father. As such, Christology
Christology
is concerned with the details of Jesus' ministry, his acts and teachings, to arrive at a clearer understanding of who he is in his person, and his role in salvation.[5] The views of Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
provided a major component of the Christology
Christology
of the Apostolic Age. Paul's central themes included the notion of the pre-existence of Christ
Christ
and the worship of Christ
Christ
as Kyrios
Kyrios
(Greek: Lord).[6] The pre-existence of Christ
Christ
became a central theme of Christology. Proponents of Christ's deity argue the Old Testament
Old Testament
has many cases of Christophany: "The pre-existence of Christ
Christ
is further substantiated by the many recorded Christophanies in the Bible."[7] "Christophany" is often[quantify] considered a more accurate term than the term "theophany" due to the belief that all the visible manifestations of God are in fact the preincarnate Christ. Many argue that the appearances of "the Angel of the Lord" in the Old Testament
Old Testament
were the preincarnate Christ. "Many understand the angel of the Lord as a true theophany. From the time of Justin on, the figure has been regarded as the preincarnate Logos."[8] Following the Apostolic Age, the early church engaged in fierce and often politicized debate on many interrelated issues. Christology became a major focus of these debates, and every one of the first seven ecumenical councils addressed Christological issues. The second through fourth of these councils are generally entitled "Christological councils", with the latter three[clarification needed] mainly elucidating what was taught in them and condemning incorrect interpretations.[9][need quotation to verify] The Council of Chalcedon in 451 issued a formulation of the being of Christ – that of two natures, one human and one divine, "united with neither confusion nor division".[9] Chalcedonian Christianity – Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and many Protestant Christians – continue to advocate this doctrine of the hypostatic union.[9] Due to politically-charged differences in the 4th century, schisms developed, and the first denominations (from the Latin, "to take a new name") formed.[9][need quotation to verify] In the 13th century, Saint
Saint
Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
provided the first systematic Christology
Christology
that consistently resolved a number of the existing issues.[10] In his Christology
Christology
from above, Aquinas also championed the principle of perfection of Christ's human attributes.[11][12][13] The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
also witnessed the emergence of the "tender image of Jesus" as a friend and a living source of love and comfort, rather than just the Kyrios
Kyrios
image.[14] Catholic theologian Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner
sees the purpose of modern Christology
Christology
as to formulate the Christian
Christian
belief that "God became man and that God-made-man is the individual Jesus
Jesus
Christ" in a manner that this statement can be understood consistently, without the confusions of past debates and mythologies.[15][16]

Contents

1 Terms and concepts 2 Beginnings

2.1 Apostolic Christology 2.2 Post-Apostolic controversies

3 Christological issues

3.1 Person of Christ 3.2 Nativity and the Holy Name 3.3 Crucifixion and Resurrection 3.4 Threefold office 3.5 Mariology

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Terms and concepts[edit] See also: Christ, Incarnation, and Resurrection

Part of a series on

Christology

Christ
Christ
(Messiah)

Son of God God the Son

Logos Incarnation

Pre-existence of Christ Person of Christ Hypostatic union Love of Christ Imitation of Christ Knowledge of Christ Intercession of Christ Perfection of Christ Threefold office

v t e

Over the centuries, a number of terms and concepts have been developed within the framework of Christology
Christology
to address the seemingly simple questions: "who was Jesus
Jesus
and what did he do?" A good deal of theological debate has ensued and significant schisms within Christian denominations took place in the process of providing answers to these questions. After the Middle Ages, systematic approaches to Christology were developed. The term " Christology
Christology
from above" refers to approaches that begin with the divinity and pre-existence of Christ
Christ
as the Logos (the Word), as expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John.[17] These approaches interpret the works of Christ
Christ
in terms of his divinity. Christology from above was emphasized in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
in the second century.[18][19] The term " Christology
Christology
from below", on the other hand, refers to approaches that begin with the human aspects and the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
(including the miracles, parables, etc.) and move towards his divinity and the mystery of incarnation.[18][19] The concept of "Cosmic Christology", first elaborated by Saint
Saint
Paul, focuses on how the arrival of Jesus
Jesus
as the Son of God
Son of God
forever changed the nature of the cosmos.[6][20] The terms "functional", "ontological" and "soteriological" have been used to refer to the perspectives that analyze the "works", the "being" and the "salvific" standpoints of Christology.[21] Some essential sub-topics within the field of Christology
Christology
include the incarnation, the resurrection, and salvation. Other relevant topics of faith are: Christian messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, Annunciation, the regal Genealogy and Transfiguration, Miracles (Lord of the creation), the Last Supper
Last Supper
and institution of the Eucharist, the Passion and Crucifixion (INRI) , the doubting Thomas (Five Holy Wounds), the Harrowing of Hell, the Ascension and the Pentecost, the Kingship and Kingdom of God, the Rapture
Rapture
(Communion of Saints) and the Great Tribulation, the Second Coming of Christ
Christ
and Last Judgement, the rising from the dead of all men. The term "monastic Christology" has been used to describe spiritual approaches developed by Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
and Bernard of Clairvaux. The Franciscan
Franciscan
piety of the 12th and 13th centuries led to "popular Christology". Systematic approaches by theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, are called "scholastic Christology".[22] Beginnings[edit]

Saint Paul
Saint Paul
delivering the Areopagus sermon
Areopagus sermon
in Athens, by Raphael, 1515

Early Christians
Early Christians
found themselves confronted with a set of new concepts and ideas relating to the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, as well the notions of salvation and redemption, and had to use a new set of terms, images, and ideas in order to deal with them.[23] The existing terms and structures which were available to them were often insufficient to express these religious concepts, and taken together, these new forms of discourse led to the beginnings of Christology
Christology
as an attempt to understand, explain, and discuss their understanding of the nature of Christ.[23] Furthermore, as early Christians (following the Great Commission) had to explain their concepts to a new audience which had at times been influenced by Greek philosophy, they had to present arguments that at times resonated with, and at times confronted, the beliefs of that audience. A key example is the Apostle Paul's Areopagus sermon
Areopagus sermon
that appears in Acts 17:16–34. Here, the apostle attempted to convey the underlying concepts about Christ
Christ
to a Greek audience, and the sermon illustrates some key elements of future Christological discourses that were first brought forward by Paul.[23][24][25] The title Kyrios
Kyrios
for Jesus
Jesus
is central to the development of New Testament Christology, for the early Christians placed it at the center of their understanding, and from that center attempted to understand the other issues related to the Christian
Christian
mysteries.[26] The question of the deity of Christ
Christ
in the New Testament
New Testament
is inherently related to the Kyrios
Kyrios
title of Jesus
Jesus
used in the early Christian writings and its implications for the absolute lordship of Jesus. In early Christian
Christian
belief, the concept of Kyrios
Kyrios
included the pre-existence of Christ, for they believed if Christ
Christ
is one with God, he must have been united with God from the very beginning.[26][27] In everyday Aramaic, Mari was a very respectful form of polite address, which means more than just "Teacher" and was somewhat similar to Rabbi. In Greek, this has at times been translated as Kyrios. While the term Mari expressed the relationship between Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples during his life, the Greek Kyrios
Kyrios
came to represent his lordship over the world.[28] Apostolic Christology[edit]

The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century

And he asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter replied, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." — Matthew 16:15-16, ESV

No writings were left by Jesus, and the study of the various Christologies of the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
is based on early Christian documents.[2] The Gospels provide episodes from the life of Jesus
Jesus
and some of his works, but the authors of the New Testament
New Testament
show little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus
Jesus
or in synchronizing the episodes of his life,[29] and as in John 21:25, the Gospels do not claim to be an exhaustive list of his works.[2] Christologies that can be gleaned from the three Synoptic Gospels generally emphasize the humanity of Jesus, his sayings, his parables, and his miracles. The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
provides a different perspective that focuses on his divinity.[5] The first 14 verses of the Gospel of John are devoted to the divinity of Jesus
Jesus
as the Logos, usually translated as "Word", along with his pre-existence, and they emphasize the cosmic significance of Christ, e.g. John 1:3: "All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made." In the context of these verses, the Word made flesh is identical with the Word who was in the beginning with God, being exegetically equated with Jesus.[5] A foremost contribution to the Christology
Christology
of the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
is that of Paul. The central Christology
Christology
of Paul conveys the notion of Christ's pre-existence[30] and the identification of Christ
Christ
as Kyrios.[6] The Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
use Kyrios
Kyrios
to identify Jesus
Jesus
almost 230 times, and express the theme that the true mark of a Christian
Christian
is the confession of Jesus
Jesus
as the true Lord.[31] Paul viewed the superiority of the Christian
Christian
revelation over all other divine manifestations as a consequence of the fact that Christ
Christ
is the Son of God.[5] Nevertheless, the view that it was apostle Paul who introduced the idea that Jesus
Jesus
was divine and thus distorted the actual Jesus
Jesus
has been widely rejected by historians. As Richard Bauckham observes, Paul was not so influential that he could have invented the central doctrine of Christianity. Before his active missionary work, there were already groups of Christians across the region. For example, a large group already existed in Rome even before Paul visited the place. The earliest centre of Christianity
Christianity
was the twelve apostles in Jerusalem. Paul himself consulted and sought guidance from the Christian
Christian
leaders in Jerusalem (Galatians 2:1-2; Acts 9:26-28, 15:2). “What was common to the whole Christian
Christian
movement derived from Jerusalem, not from Paul, and Paul himself derived the central message he preached from the Jerusalem apostles.[32] On the other hand, if Jesus
Jesus
himself did not claim and show himself to be truly divine (i.e. on the Creator side of the Creator–creature divide), the earliest Christian
Christian
leaders who were devout ancient monotheistic Jews would not have come to a widespread agreement that he was truly divine (which they did), but would have regarded Jesus
Jesus
as merely a teacher or a prophet instead.[33] The Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
also advanced the "cosmic Christology" later developed in the fourth gospel,[34] elaborating the cosmic implications of Jesus' existence as the Son of God, as in Corinthians 5:17: "Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come." Also, in Colossians 1:15: "He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation."[6][20] Post-Apostolic controversies[edit] Main articles: First Council of Nicaea, First Council of Ephesus, and Council of Chalcedon

Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East
Church of the East
(light blue), the Miaphysite Churches (pink) and the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic
Catholic
Churches (light purple).

Following the Apostolic Age, from the second century onwards, a number of controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus.[35][36] As of the second century, a number of different and opposing approaches developed among various groups. For example, Arianism
Arianism
did not endorse divinity, Ebionism
Ebionism
argued Jesus was an ordinary mortal, while Gnosticism
Gnosticism
held docetic views which argued Christ
Christ
was a spiritual being who only appeared to have a physical body.[37][38] The resulting tensions led to schisms within the church in the second and third centuries, and ecumenical councils were convened in the fourth and fifth centuries to deal with the issues. Eventually, by the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451, the Hypostatic union
Hypostatic union
was decreed—the proposition that Christ
Christ
has one human nature [physis] and one divine nature [physis], united with neither confusion nor division—making this part of the creed of orthodox Christianity.[35][36] Although some of the debates may seem to various modern students to be over a theological iota, they took place in controversial political circumstances, reflecting the relations of temporal powers and divine authority, and certainly resulted in schisms, among others that which separated the Church of the East from the Church of the Roman Empire.[39][40] In 325, the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
defined the persons of the Godhead and their relationship with one another, decisions which were ratified at the First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
in 381. The language used was that the one God exists in three persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit); in particular, it was affirmed that the Son was homoousios (of the same being) as the Father. The Nicene Creed
Creed
declared the full divinity and full humanity of Jesus.[41][42][43] In 431, the First Council of Ephesus
First Council of Ephesus
was initially called to address the views of Nestorius
Nestorius
on Mariology, but the problems soon extended to Christology, and schisms followed. The 431 council was called because in defense of his loyal priest Anastasius, Nestorius
Nestorius
had denied the Theotokos
Theotokos
title for Mary and later contradicted Proclus during a sermon in Constantinople. Pope Celestine I
Celestine I
(who was already upset with Nestorius
Nestorius
due to other matters) wrote about this to Cyril of Alexandria, who orchestrated the council. During the council, Nestorius
Nestorius
defended his position by arguing there must be two persons of Christ, one human, the other divine, and Mary had given birth only to a human, hence could not be called the Theotokos, i.e. "the one who gives birth to God". The debate about the single or dual nature of Christ
Christ
ensued in Ephesus.[44][45][46][47] In 431, the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
debated miaphysitism (two natures united as one after the hypostatic union) verses dyophysitism (coexisting natures after the hypostatic union) versus monophysitism (only one nature) versus Nestorianism
Nestorianism
(two hypostases). From the Christological viewpoint, the council adopted Mia Physis (But being made one κατὰ φύσιν) - Council of Ephesus, Epistle of Cyril to Nestorius, i.e. One Nature of the Word of God Incarnate (μία φύσις τοῦ θεοῦ λόγου σεσαρκωμένη mía phýsis toû theoû lógou sesarkōménē). In 451, the Council of Chalcedon affirmed dyophysitism. The Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
rejected this and subsequent councils and continued to consider themselves as miaphysite according to the faith put forth at the Councils of Nicaea and Ephesus.[48][49] The council also confirmed the Theotokos
Theotokos
title and excommunicated Nestorius.[50][51] The 451 Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
was highly influential and marked a key turning point in the Christological debates that broke apart the church of the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
in the fifth century.[52] It is the last council which many Anglicans and most Protestants
Protestants
consider ecumenical.[53] It fully promulgated the Western dyophisite understanding put forth by Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I
of Rome of the hypostatic union, stating the human and divine natures of Christ
Christ
coexist after the union, yet each is distinct and complete. Most importantly, it unquestionably established the primacy of Rome in the East over those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon. This was reaffirmed in 519 when those Eastern Chalcedonians accepted the Formula of Hormisdas anathematizing all of their own Eastern Chalcedonian hierarchy who died out of communion with Rome from 482-519. Although, the Chalcedonian Creed
Creed
did not put an end to all Christological debate, it did clarify the terms used and became a point of reference for many future Christologies. Most of the major branches of Western Christianity – Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Reformed – subscribe to the Chalcedonian Christological formulation, while many branches of Eastern Christianity
Christianity
- Syrian Orthodoxy, Assyrian Church, Coptic Orthodoxy, Ethiopian Orthodoxy, and Armenian Apostolicism – reject it.[53][54][55] Christological issues[edit] Person of Christ[edit]

Christ
Christ
Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece

Main articles: Person of Christ
Christ
and Prosopon See also: Trinity
Trinity
and Hypostatic union The term Person of Christ
Christ
refers to the prosopic (and hypostatic) union of the human and divine natures of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
as they coexist within one person (prosopon) and one hypostasis.[56] There are no direct discussions in the New Testament
New Testament
regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ
Christ
as both divine and human.[56] Hence, since the early days of Christianity, theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures, at times resulting in schisms.[56] Historically in the Alexandrian school of thought (fashioned on the Gospel of John), Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is the eternal Logos who already possesses unity with the Father before the act of Incarnation.[57] In contrast, the Antiochian school views Christ
Christ
as a single, unified human person apart from his relationship to the divine.[57] Some controversial notions of "two persons" (prosopic duality) caused heated debates among Christian
Christian
theologians during the 5th century, resulting in official condemnation of such theological views. The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in Chalcedon in 451, reaffirmed the notion of "One Person" of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and formulated the famous Chalcedonian Definition
Chalcedonian Definition
with its "monoprosopic" (mono-prosopic: having one person) clauses, explicitly denying the validity of "dyoprosopic" (dyo-prosopic: having two persons) views. John Calvin
John Calvin
maintained there was no human element in the Person of Christ
Christ
which could be separated from the Person of The Word.[58] Calvin also emphasized the importance of the "Work of Christ" in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ
Christ
and cautioned against ignoring the Works of Jesus
Jesus
during his ministry.[59] The study of the Person of Christ
Christ
continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner
and Hans von Balthasar. Rahner pointed out the coincidence between the Person of Christ
Christ
and the Word of God, referring to Mark 8:38 and Luke 9:26 which state whoever is ashamed of the words of Jesus
Jesus
is ashamed of the Lord himself.[60] Balthasar argued the union of the human and divine natures of Christ
Christ
was achieved not by the "absorption" of human attributes, but by their "assumption". Thus, in his view, the divine nature of Christ
Christ
was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine.[61] Nativity and the Holy Name[edit] See also: Nativity of Jesus
Jesus
and Holy Name of Jesus The Nativity of Jesus
Jesus
impacted the Christological issues about his Person from the earliest days of Christianity. Luke's Christology centers on the dialectics of the dual natures of the earthly and heavenly manifestations of existence of the Christ, while Matthew's Christology
Christology
focuses on the mission of Jesus
Jesus
and his role as the savior.[62][63] The salvific emphasis of Matthew 1:21 later impacted the theological issues and the devotions to Holy Name of Jesus.[64][65][66] Matthew 1:23 provides a key to the "Emmanuel Christology" of Matthew. Beginning with 1:23, Matthew shows a clear interest in identifying Jesus
Jesus
as "God with us" and in later developing the Emmanuel characterization of Jesus
Jesus
at key points throughout the rest of his Gospel.[67] The name Emmanuel does not appear elsewhere in the New Testament, but Matthew builds on it in Matthew 28:20 ("I am with you always, even unto the end of the world") to indicate Jesus
Jesus
will be with the faithful to the end of the age.[67][68] According to Ulrich Luz, the Emmanuel motif brackets the entire Gospel of Matthew between 1:23 and 28:20, appearing explicitly and implicitly in several other passages.[69] Crucifixion and Resurrection[edit] Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
and Resurrection
Resurrection
of Jesus The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provides a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline Epistles.[70] A central element in the Christology
Christology
presented in the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus
Jesus
by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan".[71] In this view, as in Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
"at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God.[71][72] Paul's Christology
Christology
has a specific focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels.[73] For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in Cor 2:8.[73] In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (Phil 2:8), died "at the right time" (Rom 4:25) based on the plan of God.[73] For Paul, the "power of the cross" is not separable from the resurrection of Jesus.[73] Threefold office[edit] Main article: threefold office The threefold office (Latin munus triplex) of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is a Christian
Christian
doctrine based upon the teachings of the Old Testament. It was described by Eusebius
Eusebius
and more fully developed by John Calvin. It states that Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
performed three functions (or "offices") in his earthly ministry – those of prophet (Deuteronomy 18:14–22), priest (Psalm 110:1-4), and king (Psalm 2). In the Old Testament, the appointment of someone to any of these three positions could be indicated by anointing him or her by pouring oil over the head. Thus, the term messiah, meaning "anointed one", is associated with the concept of the threefold office. While the office of king is that most frequently associated with the Messiah, the role of Jesus
Jesus
as priest is also prominent in the New Testament, being most fully explained in chapters 7 to 10 of the Book of Hebrews. Mariology[edit] Main article: Roman Catholic
Catholic
Mariology Some Christians, notably Roman Catholics, view Mariology
Mariology
as a key component of Christology.[74] In this view, not only is Mariology
Mariology
a logical and necessary consequence of Christology, but without it, Christology
Christology
is incomplete, since the figure of Mary contributes to a fuller understanding of who Christ
Christ
is and what he did.[75] Protestants
Protestants
have criticized Mariology
Mariology
because many of its assertions lack any biblical foundation.[76] Strong Protestant reaction against Roman Catholic
Catholic
Marian devotion and teaching has been a significant issue for ecumenical dialogue.[77] Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
(later Pope Benedict XVI) expressed this sentiment about Roman Catholic
Catholic
Mariology
Mariology
when in two separate occasions he stated, "The appearance of a truly Marian awareness serves as the touchstone indicating whether or not the Christological substance is fully present"[78] and "It is necessary to go back to Mary, if we want to return to the truth about Jesus
Jesus
Christ."[79] See also[edit]

Arianism Catholic
Catholic
spirituality Chalcedonian Definition Christian
Christian
views of Jesus Council of Chalcedon Council of Ephesus Docetism Dyophysitism Eutychianism Gnosticism Great Church Mariology Miaphysitism Monophysitism Names and titles of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Nestorianism New Testament
New Testament
view on Jesus' life Religious perspectives on Jesus Patriology
Patriology
(Christianity) Pneumatology (Christianity) Scholastic Lutheran Christology Third Council of Constantinople

Notes[edit]

^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology
Christology
by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-664-25752-6 p. xvi ^ a b c Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus
Jesus
by Gerald O'Collins
Gerald O'Collins
2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X pp. 1–3 ^ Compare: Ramm, Bernard L. (February 1993). " Christology
Christology
at the Center". An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic. Regent College Publishing (published 1993). p. 15. ISBN 9781573830089. Retrieved 2016-05-09. Christology
Christology
is the reflective and systematic study of the person and work of Jesus Christ.  ^ Michael F. Bird; Dr. Craig A. Evans; Simon Gathercole (25 March 2014). "Endnotes – Chapter 1". How God Became Jesus: The Real Origins of Belief in Jesus' Divine Nature – A Response to Bart Ehrman. Zondervan. p. 134, n. 5. ISBN 978-0-310-51961-4. New Testament scholars often speak about “Christology,” which is the study of the career, person, nature, and identity of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. There are, of course, many different ways of doing Christology. Some scholars study Christology
Christology
by focusing on the major titles applied to Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament, such as “Son of Man,” “Son of God,” “Messiah,” “Lord,” “Prince,” “Word,” and the like. Others take a more functional approach and look at how Jesus acts or is said to act in the New Testament
New Testament
as the basis for configuring beliefs about him. It is possible to explore Jesus
Jesus
as a historical figure (i.e., Christology
Christology
from below), or to examine theological claims made about Jesus
Jesus
(i.e., Christology
Christology
from above). Many scholars prefer a socio-religious method by comparing beliefs about Jesus
Jesus
with beliefs in other religions to identify shared sources and similar ideas. Theologians often take a more philosophical approach and look at Jesus’ “ontology” or “being” and debate how best to describe his divine and human natures.  ^ a b c d Catholic
Catholic
encyclopedia: Christology ^ a b c d Christ
Christ
in Christian
Christian
Tradition: From the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
to Chalcedon by Aloys Grillmeier, John Bowden 1975 ISBN 0-664-22301-X pp. 15–19 [1] ^ Theology for Today by Elmer L. Towns 2008 ISBN 0-15-516138-5 p. 173 ^ "Angel of the Lord" by T. E. McComiskey in The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology 2001 ISBN 0-8010-2075-1 p. 62 ^ a b c d Davis, SJ, Leo Donald (1990), The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325–787): Their History and Theology (Theology and Life Series 21), Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press, p. 342, ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7  ^ Gilson, Etienne (1994), The Christian
Christian
Philosophy of Saint
Saint
Thomas Aquinas, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, p. 502, ISBN 978-0-268-00801-7  ^ Christology: Biblical And Historical by Mini S. Johnson, 2005 ISBN 81-8324-007-0 pp. 76–79 [2] ^ Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus by Gerald O'Collins
Gerald O'Collins
2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X pp. 208–12 [3] ^ Aquinas as authority by Paul van Geest, Harm J. M. J. Goris pp. 25–35 [4] ^ Christology: Key Readings in Christian
Christian
Thought by Jeff Astley, David Brown, Ann Loades 2009 ISBN 0-664-23269-8 p. 106 ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 pp. 755–67 ^ Compare: Grillmeier, Alois (1975). " Jesus
Jesus
Christ: III. Christology". In Rahner, Karl. Encyclopedia of Theology: A Concise Sacramentum Mundi (reprint ed.). A&C Black. p. 755. ISBN 9780860120063. Retrieved 2016-05-09. The most urgent task of a contemporary Christology
Christology
is to formulate the Church's dogma – 'God became man and that God-made-man is the individual Jesus
Jesus
Christ' – in such a way that the true meaning of these statements can be understood, and all trace of a mythology impossible to accept nowadays is excluded.  ^ John 1:1–14 ^ a b Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus
Jesus
by Gerald O'Collins
Gerald O'Collins
2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X pp. 16–17 ^ a b Jesus
Jesus
God and Man by Wolfhart Pannenberg
Wolfhart Pannenberg
1968 ISBN 0-664-24468-8 p. 33 ^ a b The Witness of Jesus, Paul and John: An Exploration in Biblical Theology by Larry R. Helyer 2008 ISBN 0-8308-2888-5 p. 282 ^ Christology
Christology
from within and ahead by Mark L. Y. Chan 2001 ISBN 90-04-11844-6 pp. 59–62 [5] ^ Christology: Biblical And Historical by Mini S. Johnson, 2005 ISBN 81-8324-007-0 pp. 74–76 [6] ^ a b c Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 978-1-4051-0901-7. pp. 137–41 ^ Creation and redemption: a study in Pauline theology by John G. Gibbs 1971 Brill Publishers pp. 151–53 ^ Mercer Commentary on the New Testament
New Testament
by Watson E. Mills 2003 ISBN 0-86554-864-1 pp. 1109–10 ^ a b Christology: Biblical And Historical by Mini S. Johnson, 2005 ISBN 81-8324-007-0 pp. 229–35 [7] ^ The Christology
Christology
of the New Testament
New Testament
by Oscar Cullmann 1959 ISBN 0-664-24351-7 pp. 234–37 [8] ^ The Christology
Christology
of the New Testament
New Testament
by Oscar Cullmann 1959 ISBN 0-664-24351-7 p. 202 [9] ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 p. 731 ^ Witherington, Ben (20 September 2009). "Christology – Paul's christology". In Gerald F. Hawthorne. Dictionary of Paul and His Letters: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. Ralph P. Martin; Daniel G. Reid. InterVarsity Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8308-7491-0. [Christ’s Divinity] We have already seen that Paul, in appropriating the language of the christological hymns, subscribed to the christological notion that Christ
Christ
existed prior to taking on human flesh. Paul spoke of Jesus
Jesus
both as the wisdom of God, his agent in creation (1 Cor 1:24, 30; 8:6; Col 1:15–17; see Bruce, 195), and as the one who accompanied Israel as the “rock” in the wilderness (1 Cor 10:4). In view of the role Christ
Christ
plays in 1 Corinthians 10:4, Paul is not founding the story of Christ
Christ
on the archetypal story of Israel, but rather on the story of divine Wisdom, which helped Israel in the wilderness.  ^ Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus by Gerald O'Collins
Gerald O'Collins
2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X p. 142 ^ R. Bauckham, Jesus: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 110-111. ^ Andrew Ter Ern Loke, The Origin of Divine Christology
Christology
(Cambridge University Press. 2017) ^ Enslin, Morton S. (1975). "John and Jesus". ZNW. De Gruyter. 66 (1–2): 1–18. doi:10.1515/zntw.1975.66.1-2.1. ISSN 1613-009X. [Per the Gospel of John] No longer is John [the Baptizer] an independent preacher. He is but a voice, or, to change the figure, a finger pointing to Jesus. The baptism story is not told, although it is referred to (John 1:32f). But the baptism of Jesus
Jesus
is deprived of any significance for Jesus – not surprising since the latter has just been introduced as the preexistent Christ, who had been the effective agent responsible for the world’s creation. (Enslin, p. 4)  ^ a b Editors, Erwin Fahlbusch (1999), The encyclopedia of Christianity, Leiden, Netherland: Brill, p. 463, ISBN 0-8028-2413-7  ^ a b Rausch, Thomas P. (2003), Who is Jesus? : an introduction to Christology, Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, p. 149, ISBN 0-8146-5078-3  ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (1993), The Orthodox corruption of scripture: the effect of early Christological controversies on the text of the New Testament, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-510279-6  ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2007), Christian
Christian
theology : an introduction, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, p. 282, ISBN 1-4051-5360-1  ^ Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. XIV p. 207, translated edition by H.R. Percival. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/ephesus.html ^ The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, trans H. R. Percival, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, (repr. Grand Rapids MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1955), XIV, pp. 192–42 ^ Jonathan Kirsch, God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism (2004) ^ Charles Freeman, The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason (2002) ^ Edward Gibbons, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–88), 21 ^ The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0-89622-537-2 p. 114 [10] ^ Mary and the Saints by James P. Campbell 2005 0829417257 pp. 17–20 ^ Essential theological terms by Justo L. González 2005 ISBN 0-664-22810-0 p. 120 [11] ^ Doctrine and practice in the early church by Stuart George Hall 1992 ISBN 0-8028-0629-5 pp. 211–18 [12] ^ Systematic Theology by Lewis Sperry Chafer 1993 ISBN 0-8254-2340-6 pp. 382–84 [13] ^ The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity
Christianity
by Ken Parry 2009 ISBN 1-4443-3361-5 p. 88 [14] ^ Fundamentals of Catholicism: God, Trinity, Creation, Christ, Mary by Kenneth Baker 1983 ISBN 0-89870-019-1 pp. 228–31 [15] ^ Mary, Mother of God by Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson 2004 ISBN 0802822665 p. 84 ^ The acts of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
by Council of Chalcedon, Richard Price, Michael Gaddis 2006 ISBN 0-85323-039-0 pp. 1–5 [16] ^ a b An Episcopal dictionary of the church by Donald S. Armentrout, Robert Boak Slocum 2005 ISBN 0-89869-211-3 p. 81 [17] ^ An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies by Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff 2007 ISBN 0-8146-5856-3 p. 217 ^ Sourcebook of the world's religions by Joel Diederik Beversluis 2000 ISBN 1-57731-121-3 pp. 21–22 [18] ^ a b c Introducing Christian
Christian
Doctrine by Millard J. Erickson, L. Arnold Hustad 2001 ISBN p. 234 ^ a b Karl Barth's christology by Charles T. Waldrop 1985 ISBN 90-279-3109-7 pp. 19–23 ^ Calvin's Christology
Christology
by Stephen Edmondson 2004 ISBN 0-521-54154-9 p. 217 ^ Calvin's First Catechism by I. John Hesselink 1997 ISBN 0-664-22725-2 p. 217 ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 p. 1822 ^ The eschatology of Hans Urs von Balthasar
Hans Urs von Balthasar
by Nicholas J. Healy 2005 ISBN 0-19-927836-9 pp. 22–23 ^ Theology of the New Testament
New Testament
by Georg Strecker 2000 ISBN 0-664-22336-2 pp. 401–03 ^ Matthew by Grant R. Osborne
Grant R. Osborne
2010 ISBN 0-310-32370-3 lxxix ^ Matthew 1-13 by Manlio Simonetti 2001 ISBN 0-8308-1486-8 p. 17 ^ Matthew 1-2/ Luke 1-2 by Louise Perrotta 2004 ISBN 0-8294-1541-6 p. 19 ^ All the Doctrines of the Bible
Bible
by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0-310-28051-6 p. 159 ^ a b Matthew's Emmanuel by David D. Kupp 1997 ISBN 0-521-57007-7 pp. 220–24 ^ Who do you say that I am?: essays on Christology
Christology
by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-664-25752-6 p. 17 ^ The theology of the Gospel of Matthew by Ulrich Luz 1995 ISBN 0-521-43576-5 p. 31 ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology
Christology
by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-664-25752-6 p. 106 ^ a b New Testament
New Testament
christology by Frank J. Matera 1999 ISBN 0-664-25694-5 p. 67 ^ The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN 0-664-25221-4 p. 34 ^ a b c d Christology
Christology
by Hans Schwarz 1998 ISBN 0-8028-4463-4 pp 132–34 ^ " Mariology
Mariology
Is Christology", in Vittorio Messori, The Mary Hypothesis, Rome: 2005. [19] ^ Paul Haffner, 2004 The mystery of Mary Gracewing Press ISBN 0-85244-650-0 p. 17 ^ Walter A. Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Second Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001), 736. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch et al., “Mariology,” The Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
(Grand Rapids, MI; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003), 409. ^ Communio, 1996, Volume 23, p. 175 ^ Raymond Burke, 2008 Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1-57918-355-7 p. xxi

References[edit]

Chilton, Bruce. “The Son of Man: Who Was He?” Bible
Bible
Review. August 1996, 35+. Cullmann, Oscar. The Christology
Christology
of the New Testament. trans. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1980. ISBN 0-664-24351-7 Fuller, Reginald H. The Foundations of New Testament
New Testament
Christology. New York: Scribners, 1965. ISBN 0-684-15532-X Greene, Colin J.D. Christology
Christology
in Cultural Perspective: Marking Out the Horizons. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-8028-2792-6 Hodgson, Peter C. Winds of the Spirit: A Constructive Christian Theology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. Kingsbury, Jack Dean. The Christology
Christology
of Mark's Gospel. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1989. Letham, Robert. The Work of Christ. Contours of Christian
Christian
Theology. Downer Grove: IVP, 1993, ISBN 0-8308-1532-5 MacLeod, Donald. The Person Of Christ: Contours of Christian
Christian
Theology. Downer Grove: IVP. 1998, ISBN 0-8308-1537-6 Wolfhart Pannenberg, Systematic Theology, T & T Clark, 1994 Vol.2. Rausch, Thomas P. Who is Jesus?: An Introduction to Christology (Michael Glazier Books)]. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2003 ISBN 0-8146-5078-3 Schwarz, Hans. Christology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-8028-4463-4

Further reading[edit]

Battle, Donald E. " Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
Study Bible" JCSB Bible: Pleasant Word Publishers, 2009. ISBN 1-4141-1372-2 Berkhof, Louis. The History of Christian
Christian
Doctrine. Carlisle: Banner of Truth, 1996. ISBN 0-85151-005-1 Bonino, Jose Miquez. Faces of Jesus: Latin American Christologies. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-59244-097-5 Brana, Fernando Ocariz. The Mystery of Jesus
Jesus
Christ: A Christology
Christology
and SoteriologyTextbook. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1994. ISBN 1-85182-127-9 Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to New Testament
New Testament
Christology. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8091-3516-7 Brummer, Vincent. Atonement, Christology
Christology
and the Trinity: Making Sense of Christian
Christian
Doctrine. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2005. ISBN 0-7546-5230-0 Casey, Michael. Fully Human, Fully Divine: And Interactive Christology. Liquori: Liguori Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-7648-1149-5 Chemnitz, Martin. The Two Natures in Christ. trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1970. ISBN 0-570-03210-5 Dunn, James D.G. Christology
Christology
in the Making: A New Testament
New Testament
Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-8028-4257-7 Dupuis, Jacques. Who Do You Say I Am?: Introduction to Christology. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994. ISBN 0-88344-940-4 Dyson, A. O. Who Is Jesus? in series, S.C.M. Centrebooks [sic]. London: S.C.M. Press, 1969. ISBN 978-0334017868 Ehrman, Bart. How Jesus
Jesus
Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee. HarperOne, USA. 2014. ISBN 978-0-06-177818-6. Fruchtenbaum, Arnold. Messianic Christology. San Antonio: Ariel Ministries, 1998. ISBN 0-914863-07-X Fuller, Reginald Horace. The Foundations of New Testament
New Testament
Christology. Cambridge: James Clarke, 2003. ISBN 978-0-227-17075-5 Gathercole, Simon J. The Pre-existent Son: Recovering the Christologies of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-8028-2901-5 Grillmeier, Aloys. Christ
Christ
in Christian
Christian
Tradition: from the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451). Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. ISBN 0-664-22301-X Guardini, R., The Lord, Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1954, 1996. ISBN 978-0-89526-714-6 Haight, Roger. The Future of Christology. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-1764-7 Hatzidakis, Emmanuel. Jesus: Fallen? The Human Nature of Christ Examined from an Eastern Orthodox Perspective. Clearwater: Orthodox Witness, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9778970-5-6 Hengstenberg, E. W. Christology
Christology
of the Old Testament. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel Publications, 1970. 715 p. N.B.: On verso of t.p.: "[A]n abridgement by Thomas Kerchever Arnold of the translation [of the author's work] from the German of Dr. Reuel Keith. Reproduced from the ... Rivington edition, London, 1847." Hick, John. The Metaphor of God Incarnate: Christology
Christology
in a Pluralistic Age. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. ISBN 0-664-23037-7 Hovorun, Cyril (2008). Will, Action and Freedom: Christological Controversies in the Seventh Century. Leiden-Boston: BRILL. ISBN 9004166661.  Johnson, Elizabeth. Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Herder & Herder, 1992. ISBN 0-8245-1161-1 Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti. Christology: A Global Introduction. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003. ISBN 0-8010-2621-0 Kraus, C. Norman. Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
Our Lord: Christology
Christology
from a Disciple’s Perspective. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-59244-789-9 Krikorian, Mesrob K. (2010). Christology
Christology
of the Oriental Orthodox Churches: Christology
Christology
in the Tradition of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Peter Lang. ISBN 9783631581216.  Loke, Andrew Ter Ern. The Origin of Divine Christology. Cambridge University Press. 2017. ISBN 11-071-9926-3 Marchesi S.J., Giovanni. Gesu di Nazaret:Chi Sei? Lineamenti di cristologia. San Paolo Edizioni. 2004. ISBN 88-215-5218-7 Matera, Frank J. New Testament
New Testament
Christology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. ISBN 0-664-25694-5 Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, New York: Anchor Doubleday,

v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, 1991. ISBN 0-385-26425-9 v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, 1994. ISBN 0-385-46992-6

Moule, C.F.D. The Origin of Christology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-29363-4 McIntyre, John. The shape of christology: studies in the doctrine of the person of Christ
Christ
2nd edn, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998; 1st edn, London: SCM, 1966. Murphy, Francsca Aran (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Christology, New York: Oxford University Press 2015. Neuman, Matthias and Thomas P. Walters. Christology: True God, True Man ( Catholic
Catholic
Basics). Chicago: Loyola Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8294-1719-2 Neville, Robert Cummings. Symbols of Jesus: A Christology
Christology
of Symbolic Engagement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-00353-9 Newlands, George M. God in Christian
Christian
Perspective. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994. ISBN 0-567-29259-2 Norris, Richard A. and William G. Rusch. The Christological Controversy. Sources of Early Christian
Christian
Thought Series. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1980. ISBN 0-8006-1411-9 O'Collins, Gerald. Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-875502-3 Outler, Albert C. Christology. Bristol House, 1996. ISBN 1-885224-08-7 Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph. Introduction to Christianity. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1969. ISBN I586170295 Scaer, David P. Christology
Christology
Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics Vol. VI. Northville: The Luther Academy, 1989. ISBN 0-9622791-6-1 Skurja, Katie. Living in the Intersection. Imago Dei Ministries, Portland, OR. (1/06), pp. 82. Sobrino, Jon. Christology
Christology
at the Crossroads. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-59244-095-9 Torrance, Iain R. Christology
Christology
After Chalcedon. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-57910-110-0 Witherington, Ben. The Christology
Christology
of Jesus. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 1997. ISBN 0-8006-3108-0 Chesnut, Roberta C. (1978). "The Two Prosopa in Nestorius' Bazaar of Heracleides". The Journal of Theological Studies (29): 392–409. JSTOR 23958267. 

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