A CHRISTIAN ( /ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ) or /ˈkrɪstjən/ ) is a
person who follows or adheres to
Christianity , an Abrahamic ,
monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of
. "Christian" derives from the
Koine Greek word Christ ós
(Χριστός), a translation of the
Biblical Hebrew term mashiach .
While there are diverse interpretations of
sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that
Jesus has a
unique significance. The term "Christian" is also used as an
adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a
proverbial sense "all that is noble, and good, and Christ-like."
According to a 2011
Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2
Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million
in 1910. By 2050, the
Christian population is expected to exceed 3
billion. According to a 2012
Pew Research Center survey Christianity
will remain the world\'s largest religion in 2050, if current trends
Today, about 37% of all
Christians live in the
Americas , about 26%
Europe , 24% live in sub-Saharan
Africa , about 13% live in
Asia and the
Pacific , and 1% live in the
Middle east and North Africa
. About half of all
Christians worldwide are
Catholic , while more
than a third are
Protestant (37%). Orthodox communions comprise 12%
of the world's Christians. Other
Christian groups make up the
Christians make up the majority of the population in 158
countries and territories. 280 million
Christian live as a minority.
Christians have significantly influenced and contributed to human
progress in many fields, including philosophy , ethics , literature ,
business and economics , fine arts and architecture , music ,
theatre and medicine , as well as science and technology , both
historically and in modern times.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Early usage
* 2.1 Nazarenes
* 3 Modern usage
* 3.1 Definition
* 3.2 Hebrew terms
* 3.3 Arabic terms
* 3.4 Asian terms
* 3.5 Russian terms
* 3.6 Other non-religious usage
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Socioeconomics
* 5 Notable individuals
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Bibliography
The Greek word Χριστιανός (Christianos), meaning "follower
of Christ", comes from Χριστός (Christos), meaning "anointed
one", with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote
adhering to, or even belonging to, as in slave ownership. In the
Septuagint , christos was used to translate the Hebrew
מָשִׁיחַ (Mašíaḥ, messiah), meaning " anointed." In other
European languages, equivalent words to
Christian are likewise derived
from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.
Church of Saint Peter near
the city where the disciples were called "Christians".
The first recorded use of the term (or its cognates in other
languages) is in the
New Testament , in
Acts 11 :26, after Barnabas
brought Saul (Paul) to
Antioch where they taught the disciples for
about a year, the text says: " the disciples were called Christians
first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26
Herod Agrippa II replied to
Paul the Apostle , "Then
Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian."
The third and final
New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter
4 :16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if as a Christian, let him not
be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf."
Kenneth Samuel Wuest holds that all three original New Testament
verses' usages reflect a derisive element in the term
refer to followers of Christ who did not acknowledge the emperor of
Rome. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name
Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames.
However Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being
preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter
becomes the standard term in the
Early Church Fathers from Ignatius
The earliest occurrences of the term in non-
Josephus , referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named
Pliny the Younger in correspondence with Trajan ; and
Tacitus , writing near the end of the 1st century. In the Annals he
relates that "by vulgar appellation commonly called Christians" and
Nero 's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome
Another term for
Christians which appears in the
New Testament is
"Nazarenes " which is used by the Jewish lawyer
Tertullus in Acts 24.
Tertullian (Against Marcion 4:8) records that "the
Jews call us
Nazarenes," while around 331 AD
Eusebius records that Christ was
called a Nazoraean from the name
Nazareth , and that in earlier
centuries "Christians," were once called "Nazarenes." The Hebrew
equivalent of "Nazarenes", Notzrim, occurs in the
Babylonian Talmud ,
and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian.
The Latin cross and
Ichthys symbols, two symbols often used by
Christians to represent their religion .
A wide range of beliefs and practices is found across the world among
those who call themselves Christian. Denominations and sects disagree
on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal
notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians
United States as follows:
Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian
theology and tradition, and although most would identify themselves as
Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category
as Christian. Most
Baptists and fundamentalists (Christian
Fundamentalism ), for example, would not acknowledge
Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of
Americans who self-identify as
Christian are a diverse pluribus of
Christianities that are far from any collective unity.
Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for
Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about,
Christians are at least united in believing that
Jesus has a unique
significance." Philosopher Michael Martin , in his book The Case
Against Christianity, evaluated three historical
Christian creeds (the
Creed , the
Nicene Creed and the
Athanasian Creed ) to
establish a set of basic assumptions which include belief in theism ,
the historicity of
Jesus , the Incarnation , salvation through faith
in Jesus, and
Jesus as an ethical role model.
Nazareth is described as the childhood home of
Jesus . Many
languages employ the word "Nazarene" as a general designation for
The identification of
Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by
Judaism. The term for a
Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי
(Notzri—"Nazarene"), a Talmudic term originally derived from the
Jesus came from the Galilean village of
Nazareth , today in
northern Israel. Adherents of
Messianic Judaism are referred to in
modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים (Yehudim
In Arabic-speaking cultures , two words are commonly used for
Christians: Naṣrānī (نصراني), plural Naṣārā (نصارى)
is generally understood to be derived from
Nazareth through the Syriac
(Aramaic); Masīḥī (مسيحي) means followers of the Messiah.
The term Nasara rose to prominence in July 2014 , after the Fall of
Mosul to the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the
Levant . The nun or ن— the first letter of Nasara—was
spray-painted on the property of
Christians ejected from the city.
Where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a
Christian culture and Masihi is used by
Christians themselves for
those with a religious faith in Jesus. In some countries Nasrani
tends to be used generically for non-
Muslim Western foreigners, e.g.
Another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a
political context, is Ṣalībī (صليبي "Crusader") from ṣalīb
(صليب "cross") which refers to Crusaders and has negative
connotations. However, Salibi is a modern term; historically, Muslim
writers described European
Christian Crusaders as al-Faranj or Alfranj
(الفرنج) and Firinjīyah (الفرنجيّة) in Arabic. This
word comes from the
Franks and can be seen in the Arab history text
Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh by
Ali ibn al-Athir .
The most common Persian word is Masīhī (مسیحی), from Arabic .
Other words are Nasrānī (نصرانی), from Syriac for "Nazarene",
and Tarsā (ترسا), from
Middle Persian word Tarsāg, also meaning
"Christian", derived from tars, meaning "fear, respect".
The Syriac term Nasrani (Nazarene) has also been attached to the
Saint Thomas Christians of
Kerala , India. In the Indian subcontinent
Christians call themselves Isaai (Hindi : ईसाई, Urdu :
عیسائی), and are also known by this term to adherents of
other religions. This is related to the name they call Jesus, 'Isa
Masih, and literally means 'the followers of 'Isa'.
In the past, the Malays used to call the Portuguese Serani from the
Arabic Nasrani, but the term now refers to the modern Kristang creoles
The Chinese word is 基督徒 (pinyin : jīdū tú), literally
"Christ follower." The two characters now pronounced Jīdū in
Mandarin Chinese, were originally pronounced Jīdū (基督) in
Cantonese as representation of Latin "Christus". In Vietnam, the
same two characters read Cơ đốc, and a "follower of Christianity"
is a tín đồ Cơ đốc giáo. Japanese Christians
("Kurisuchan") in Portuguese costume, 16–17th century.
In Japan, the term kirishitan (written in Edo period documents
吉利支丹, 切支丹, and in modern Japanese histories as
キリシタン), from Portuguese cristão, referred to Roman
Catholics in the 16th and 17th centuries before the religion was
banned by the
Tokugawa shogunate . Today,
Christians are referred to
Standard Japanese as キリスト教徒, Kirisuto-kyōto or the
English-derived term クリスチャン kurisuchan.
Korean still uses 기독교도, Kidok-kyo-do for "Christian", though
the Greek form Kurisudo 그리스도 has now replaced the old
Sino-Korean Kidok, which refers to Christ himself.
In Thailand, the most common terms are คนคริสต์ (khon
khrit) or ชาวคริสต์ (chao khrit) which literally
mean "Christ person/people" or "
Jesus person/people." The Thai word
คริสต์ (khrit) is derived from "Christ."
The region of modern Eastern
Europe and Central Eurasia (Russia,
Ukraine and other countries of the former
Soviet bloc ) has a long
Christian communities on its lands. In
ancient times, in the first centuries after the birth of Christ, when
this region was called Scythia, the geographical area of
Christians already lived there. Later the region saw the first states
Christianity officially - initially
Armenia (301 AD) and
Georgia (337 AD), later Bulgaria (c. 864) and the Great Russian
Principality (Kyivan Rus , Russian : Великое княжество
Русское, c. 988 AD).
In some areas, people of that time came to denote themselves as
Christians (Russian : христиане, крестьяне) and as
Russians (Russian : русские). Both terms had strong Christian
connotations. It is also interesting that in time the Russian term
"крестьяне" (khrest'yanye) acquired the meaning "peasants of
Christian faith" and later "peasants" (the main part of the population
of the region), while the term "христиане" (khristianye)
retained its religious meaning and the term "русские"
(russkiye) began to mean representatives of the heterogeneous Russian
nation formed on the basis of common
Christian faith and language,
which strongly influenced the history and development of the region.
In the region the term "Pravoslav faith" (Russian :
православная вера - Orthodox faith) or "Russian faith"
(Russian : русская вера) from earliest times became almost
as known as the original "
Christian faith" (христианская,
крестьянская вера). Also in some contexts the term
"cossack " (Russian : козак, казак - "free man" by the will
of God) was used to denote "free"
Christians of steppe origin and
OTHER NON-RELIGIOUS USAGE
Nominally "Christian" societies made "Christian" a default label for
citizenship or for "people like us". In this context, religious or
ethnic minorities can use "Christians" or "you Christians" loosely as
a shorthand term for mainstream members of society who do not belong
to "our" group - even in a thoroughly secular (though formerly
For a detailed breakdown of
Christian demographics, see Christianity
by country .
As of the early 21st century,
Christianity has approximately 2.4
billion adherents. The faith represents about a third of the
world's population and is the largest religion in the world.
Christians have composed about 33 percent of the world's population
for around 100 years. The largest
Christian denomination is the Roman
Catholic Church , with 1.17 billion adherents, representing half of
Christianity remains the dominant religion in the
Western World ,
where 70% are Christians. According to 2012 Pew Research Center
survey if current trends continue,
Christianity will remains the
world\'s largest religion by year 2050. By 2050, the Christian
population is expected to exceed 3 billion. While
Muslims have an
average of 3.1 children per woman—the highest rate of all religious
Christians are second, with 2.7 children per woman. High birth
rates and conversion were cited as the reason for the Christian
population growths . A 2015 study found that approximately 10.2
Muslim converted to
Christianity is growing in
Latin America ,
Muslim world , and
CHRISTIANS (SELF-DESCRIBED) BY REGION (
Pew Research Center , 2011)
Latin America –
Middle East –
According to a study from 2015,
Christians hold the largest amount of
wealth (55% of the total world wealth), followed by
Hindus (3.3%) and
Jews (1.1%). According to the same study it was
found that adherents under the classification
Irreligion or other
religions hold about 34.8% of the total global wealth. A study done
by the nonpartisan wealth research firm New
World Wealth found that
56.2% of the 13.1 million millionaires in the world were Christians.
Pew Center study about religion and education around the world in
2016, found that
Christians ranked as the second most educated
religious group around in the world after
Jews with an average of 9.3
years of schooling, and the highest of years of schooling among
Christians found in
New Zealand (13.5) and Estonia
Christians were also found to have the second highest number
of graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita while in absolute
numbers ranked in the first place (220 million). Between the various
Christian communities ,
Singapore outranks other nations in terms of
Christians who obtain a university degree in institutions of higher
education (67%), followed by the
Christians of Israel (63%), and the
Christians of Georgia (57%).
According to the study,
North America ,
Europe , Middle
North Africa and
Pacific regions are highly educated since
many of the world universities were built by the historic Christian
Churches , in addition to the historical evidence that "Christian
monks built libraries and, in the days before printing presses,
preserved important earlier writings produced in Latin, Greek and
Arabic". According to the same study,
Christians have a significant
amount of gender equality in educational attainment, and the study
suggests that one of the reasons is the encouragement of the
Protestant Reformers in promoting the education of women , which led
to the eradication of illiteracy among females in Protestant
Main articles: Lists of
Christians , List of
laureates , and List of converts to
Christians have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse
range of fields, including the sciences , arts , politics ,
literatures and business . According to 100 Years of Nobel
Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals
that (65.4%) of
Nobel Prizes laureates identified
Christianity in its
various forms as their religious preference.
Christians (particularly Nestorian
Christians ) contributed
to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayad and the Abbasid
periods by translating works of
Greek philosophers to Syriac and
afterwards to Arabic . They also excelled in philosophy , science ,
theology and medicine .
Christian population growth
* Conversion to
* List of
* List of
Christian denominations by number of members
List of Christian synonyms
List of religions and spiritual traditions
List of religious organizations
* ^ "
Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact"
(PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U ANALYSIS (19 December
2011). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
* ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF),
European Union :
European Commission , p. 233, 2012, retrieved
14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to
be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other
Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and
Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK.
Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
* ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World\'s Religions
in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography
(PDF). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
* ^ A history of ancient Greek by Maria Chritē, Maria Arapopoulou,
Centre for the Greek Language (Thessalonikē, Greece) pg 436 ISBN
* ^ Wilken, Robert Louis. The First Thousand Years: A Global
History of Christianity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
p. 26. ISBN 978-0-300-11884-1 .
* ^ Bickerman (1949) p. 145, The
Christians got their appellation
from "Christus," that is, "the Anointed," the Messiah.
* ^ A B C Woodhead, Linda (2004). Christianity: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. n.p.
* ^ Beal, Timothy (2008).
Religion in America: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 35, 39. Beal
states that, "Although all of them have their historical roots in
Christian theology and tradition, and although most would identify
themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the
larger category as Christian. Most
Baptists and Fundamentalists, for
example, would not acknowledge
Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who
Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities
that are far from any collective unity."
* ^ Schaff, Philip . "V. St. Paul and the Conversion of the
Gentiles (Note 496)". History of the
* ^ Koch, Carl (1994). The
Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and
Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4 .
* ^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the 'Rise of
the West': Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term
Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal
of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (416, table
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Property, poverty, and the poor,
* ^ Weber, Max (1905). The
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
* ^ Sir
Banister Fletcher , History of Architecture on the
* ^ Hall, p. 100.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Care for the sick
* ^ Susan Elizabeth Hough, Richter's Scale: Measure of an
Earthquake, Measure of a Man, Princeton University Press, 2007, ISBN
0691128073 , p. 68.
* ^ "
Christian Influences In The Sciences". rae.org. Archived from
the original on 2015-09-24.
* ^ "World\'s Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K".
* ^ Christ at Etymology Online
* ^ Bickerman, 1949 p. 147, All these Greek terms, formed with the
Latin suffix -ianus, exactly as the Latin words of the same
derivation, express the idea that the men or things referred to,
belong to the person to whose name the suffix is added.
p. 145, In Latin this suffix produced proper names of the type
Marcianus and, on the other hand, derivatives from the name of a
person, which referred to his belongings, like fundus Narcissianus,
or, by extension, to his adherents, Ciceroniani. * ^ Messiah at
* ^ Acts 11:26
* ^ Acts 26:28
1 Peter 4:16
* ^ #Wuest-1973 p. 19. The word is used three times in the New
Testament, and each time as a term of reproach or derision. Here in
Antioch, the name Christianos was coined to distinguish the
worshippers of the Christ from the Kaisarianos, the worshippers of
* ^ #Wuest-1973 p. 19. The city of
Antioch in Syria had a
reputation for coining nicknames.
* ^ Christine Trevett
Christian women and the time of the Apostolic
Fathers 2006 "'Christians' (christianoi) was a term first coined in
Antioch (Acts 11: 26) and which appeared next in Christian
sources in Ignatius, Eph 11.2; Rom 3.2; Pol 7.3. Cf. too Did 12.4;
MPol 3.1; 10.1; 12.1-2; EpDiog 1.1; 4.6; 5.1;"
Josephus . "Antiquities of the
Jews — XVIII, 3:3".
* ^ Tacitus, Cornelius; Murphy, Arthur (1836). The works of
Cornelius Tacitus: with an essay on his life and genius, notes,
supplements, &c. Thomas Wardle. p. 287.
* ^ Bruce, Frederick Fyvie (1988). The Book of the Acts. Eerdmans.
p. 228. ISBN 0-8028-2505-2 .
* ^ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies: Volume
65, Issue 1 University of London. School of Oriental and African
Studies - 2002 "... around 331,
Eusebius says of the place name
Nazareth that 'from this name the Christ was called a Nazoraean, and
in ancient times we, who are now called Christians, were once called
Nazarenes ';6 thus he attributes this designation ..."
* ^ Beal, Timothy (2008).
Religion in America: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 35.
* ^ Martin, Michael (1993). The Case Against Christianity. Temple
University Press. p. 12. ISBN 1-56639-081-8 .
* ^ Nazarene at Etymology Online
* ^ A B Society for Internet Research, The Hamas Charter, note 62
* ^ Euronews 22 July 2014 "Over the weekend, while the world’s
gaze was on Gaza and Syria, the situation of
Christians in northern
Iraq took a sharp turn for the worse, with thousands forced to flee
their homes. ... In Mosul, IS militants marked with a spray-painted ن
(the Arabic letter for “N”) all
Christian property to be seized
after the ultimatum."
Jeffrey Tayler , Trekking through the Moroccan Sahara.
* ^ "Nasara". Mazyan Bizaf Show.
Akbar S. Ahmed , Islam, Globalization, and Postmodernity, p
* ^ Rashid al-din Fazl Allâh, quoted in Karl Jahn (ed.) Histoire
Universelle de Rasid al-Din Fadl Allah Abul=Khair: I. Histoire des
Francs (Texte Persan avec traduction et annotations), Leiden, E. J.
Brill, 1951. (Source: M. Ashtiany)
* ^ سنة ٤٩١ - "ذكر ملك الفرنج مدينة
أنطاكية" في الكامل في التاريخ
* ^ "Account of al-Faranj seizing Antioch" Year 491AH, The Complete
* ^ MacKenzie, D. N. (1986). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-713559-5
* ^ "
Catholic priest in saffron robe called \'Isai Baba\'". The
Indian Express . December 24, 2008.
* ^ Christ in Cantonese, translation, English-
Christian - Meaning Definition Synonym Synopsis
* ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Christus
* ^ Вселенские Соборы читать, скачать
- профессор Антон Владимирович
* ^ Compare: Cross, Frank Leslie ; Livingstone, Elizabeth A., eds.
(1957). "Christian". The Oxford Dictionary of the
Christian Church (3
ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press (published 2005). p. 336. ISBN
9780192802903 . Retrieved 2016-12-05. In modern times the name
Christian has tended, in nominally
Christian countries, to lose any
credal significance and imply only that which is ethically
praiseworthy (e.g. 'a
Christian action') or socially customary
* ^ Compare: Sandmel, Samuel (1967). We
Jews and You Christians: An
Inquiry Into Attitudes. Lippincott. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
* ^ 33.39% of 7.174 billion world population (under "People and
Society") "World". CIA world facts.
* ^ "The List: The World\'s Fastest-Growing Religions".
foreignpolicy.com. March 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
* ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved
* ^ Pontifical Yearbook 2010,
Catholic News Agency. Accessed
September 22, 2011.
* ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers
in Christ from a
Muslim Background: A Global Census".
Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 8. Retrieved 30
* ^ "Study:
Christianity growth soars in
Africa – USATODAY.com".
USATODAY.COM. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
* ^ A B Ostling, Richard N. (24 June 2001). "The Battle for Latin
America\'s Soul". TIME.com. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
* ^ "In China, Protestantism\'s Simplicity Yields More Converts
Than Catholicism". International
Business Times. 28 March 2012.
Retrieved 14 February 2015.
* ^ Chris Arsenault. "Evangelicals rise in Latin America".
Retrieved 14 February 2015.
* ^ Believers in Christ from a
Muslim Background: A Global Census
* ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Europe". Pewforum.org. Retrieved
17 August 2012.
* ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Americas". Pewforum.org.
Retrieved 17 August 2012.
* ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Global religious landscape:
Christians". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
* ^ "
Christians hold largest percentage of global wealth: Report".
* ^ The religion of millionaires
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K "
Religion and Education Around the World"
(PDF). Pew Research Center. December 19, 2011. Retrieved December 13,
* ^ "المسيحيون العرب يتفوقون على يهود
إسرائيل في التعليم". Bokra. Retrieved 28 December
* ^ Religious Affiliation of History\'s 100 Most Influential People
* ^ The Scientific 100
* ^ 50 Nobel Laureates and Other Great Scientists Who Believe in
* ^ Religious Affiliation of the World\'s Greatest Artists
* ^ The Wealthy 100
* ^ Religious Affiliation of History\'s Greatest Philosophers
* ^ Baruch A. Shalev, 100 Years of
Nobel Prizes (2003), Atlantic
Publishers & Distributors, p.57: between 1901 and 2000 reveals that
654 Laureates belong to 28 different religion Most (65.4%) have
Christianity in its various forms as their religious
* ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic
Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh
Univ. Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3 , p.4
* ^ Brague, Rémi (15 April 2009). The Legend of the Middle Ages.
p. 164. ISBN 9780226070803 . Retrieved 11 February 2014.
* ^ Ferguson, Kitty Pythagoras: His Lives and the Legacy of a
Rational Universe Walker Publishing Company, New York, 2008, (page
number not available – occurs toward end of Chapter 13, "The Wrap-up
of Antiquity"). "It was in the Near and
Middle East and North Africa
that the old traditions of teaching and learning continued, and where
Christian scholars were carefully preserving ancient texts and
knowledge of the ancient Greek language."
* ^ Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic
* ^ Britannica, Nestorian
* Bickerman, Elias J. (April 1949). "The Name of Christians". The
Harvard Theological Review. 42 (2): 109–124.
JSTOR 1507955 . doi
:10.1017/s0017816000019635 . also available in Bickerman, Elias J.
(1986). Studies in Jewish and
Christian history. ISBN 90-04-04395-0 .
(from which page numbers are cited)
* Wuest, Kenneth Samuel (1973). Wuest\'s word studies from the Greek
New Testament. 1. ISBN 978-0-8028-2280-2 .
* GND : 4010071-6
* NDL : 00565968
* Virgin birth
* Son of God
* Holy Spirit
* History of theology
* Ecumenical councils
* Eastern Orthodox
* Oriental Orthodox (Miaphysite)
Assyrian Church of the East ("Nestorian")
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
* Jehovah\'s Witnesses
Latter Day Saint movement
* Other religions