HOME
The Info List - Christian Denominations


--- Advertisement ---



A Christian denomination
Christian denomination
is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine. Individual bodies, however, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by authority and doctrine; issues such as the nature of Jesus, the authority of apostolic succession, eschatology, and papal primacy may separate one denomination from another. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity". Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, however, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which has 1.2 billion members — slightly over half of all Christians worldwide — does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church,[1] a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant
Protestant
denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.[2] Together, Catholicism
Catholicism
and Protestantism
Protestantism
(including Anglicanism, and other denominations sharing historical ties) comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern, Central and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas
Americas
and Oceania.[citation needed] The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents,[3] is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and also considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. (There are also some smaller groups of Eastern Catholics which are in communion with the Bishop of Rome but have cultural and historical ties with other Eastern Christians.) Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East
Middle East
and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church (the body of the faithful that they believe Jesus
Jesus
Christ established) and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants
Protestants
separated from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Generally, members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge historically orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus
Jesus
and doctrines of sin and salvation, even though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding Vatican II
Vatican II
of 1962-1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant
Protestant
communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
(see subsistit in and branch theory). But some non-denominational Christians[4] do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants.[not verified in body]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Major branches

2.1 Denominationalism 2.2 Taxonomy

3 Historical schisms and divisions

3.1 Antiquity 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
(16th century) 3.4 Old and Liberal Catholic Churches (19th-20th centuries) 3.5 Eastern churches 3.6 Western churches 3.7 Christians with Jewish roots

4 Modern history

4.1 Quakers 4.2 Latter Day Saint movement 4.3 Second Great Awakening 4.4 Russian sectarianism 4.5 Iglesia ni Cristo 4.6 New Thought
New Thought
Movement 4.7 The Christian Community 4.8 Other movements

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Terminology[edit] See also: Christian Church
Christian Church
§ Related concepts Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs. This section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity
Christianity
can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church"; major synonyms include "religious group, sect, Church," etc.[notes 1][5] "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy, buildings, and distinctive doctrines";[6] "church" can also more broadly be defined as the entire body of Christians, the "Christian Church". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants
Protestants
draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; one then may join a fellowship of other local believers.[7] Some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts, usually targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.[8] A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices.[9] (Conversely, "denominationalism" can also refer to "emphasizing of denominational differences to the point of being narrowly exclusive", similar to sectarianism).[10] Protestant
Protestant
leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, the two largest Christian denominations. Each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus
Jesus
Christ, from whom other denominations later broke away.[1] These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism. Major branches[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Christianity
Christianity
can be taxonomically divided into five main groups: the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism. The last is a broad umbrella term including many groups which do not share any ecclesiastical governance and have widely diverging beliefs and practices. Christianity
Christianity
has denominational families (or movements) and also has individual denominations (or communions). The difference between a denomination and a denominational family is sometimes unclear to outsiders. Some denominational families can be considered major branches. Groups that are members of a branch, while sharing historical ties and similar doctrines, are not necessarily in communion with one another. There were some movements considered heresies by the early church which do not exist today and are not generally referred to as denominations. Examples include the Gnostics (who had believed in an esoteric dualism called gnosis), the Ebionites
Ebionites
(who denied the divinity of Jesus), and the Arians (who subordinated the Son to the Father by denying the pre-existence of Christ, thus placing Jesus
Jesus
as a created being), Bogumilism
Bogumilism
and Bosnian Church. The greatest divisions in Christianity
Christianity
today, however, are between the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholicism, and the various denominations formed during and after the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. There also exists a number of non-Trinitarian groups. There also exist some non-traditional groups that the majority of other Christians view as apostate or heretical, and not as legitimate versions of Christianity. Comparisons between denominational churches must be approached with caution. For example, in some churches, congregations are part of a larger church organization, while in other groups, each congregation is an independent autonomous organization. This issue is further complicated by the existence of groups of congregations with a common heritage that are officially nondenominational and have no centralized authority or records, but which are identified as denominations by non-adherents. Study of such churches in denominational terms is therefore a more complex proposition. Some groups count membership based on adult believers and baptized children of believers, while others only count adult baptized believers. Others may count membership based on those adult believers who have formally affiliated themselves with the congregation. In addition, there may be political motives of advocates or opponents of a particular group to inflate or deflate membership numbers through propaganda or outright deception. Denominationalism
Denominationalism
[edit] Denominationalism
Denominationalism
is the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices.[9] The idea was first articulated by Independents within the Puritan
Puritan
movement. They argued that differences among Christians were inevitable, but that separation based on these differences was not necessarily schism. Christians are obligated to practice their beliefs rather than remain within a church with which they disagree, but they must also recognize their imperfect knowledge and not condemn other Christians as apostate over unimportant matters.[11] Some Christians view denominationalism as a regrettable fact. As of 2011, divisions are becoming less sharp, and there is increasing cooperation between denominations.[citation needed] Theological denominationalism ultimately denies reality to any apparent doctrinal differences among the "denominations", reducing all differences to mere matters de nomina ("of names").[citation needed] A denomination in this sense is created when part of a church no longer feel they can accept the leadership of that church as a spiritual leadership due to a different view of doctrine or what they see as immoral behaviour, but the schism does not in any way reflect either group leaving the Church as a theoretical whole.[citation needed] This particular doctrine is rejected by Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and the Oriental Orthodoxy. In these churches, it is not possible to have a separation over doctrinal or leadership issues, and any such attempts automatically are a type of schism. Some Protestant
Protestant
groups reject denominationalism as well.[citation needed] Taxonomy[edit]

A schematic of Christian denominational taxonomy.[12] Protestantism
Protestantism
in general, as well as Restorationism
Restorationism
in particular, claims a direct connection with Early Christianity.

Major branches and movements within Protestantism.

Historical schisms and divisions[edit] Christianity
Christianity
has not been a monolithic faith since the first century or Apostolic Age, if ever, and today there exist a large variety of groups that share a common history and tradition within and without mainstream Christianity. Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in the world (making up approximately one-third of the population) and the various divisions have commonalities and differences in tradition, theology, church government, doctrine, and language. The largest schism or division in many classification schemes is between the families of Eastern and Western Christianity. After these two larger families come distinct branches of Christianity. Most classification schemes list six (in order of size: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Church of the East, which was originally referred to as Nestorianism
Nestorianism
but in modern times is embodied by the Assyrian Church of the East). Unlike Roman Catholicism, Protestantism
Protestantism
is a general movement that has no universal governing authority. As such, diverse groups such as Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Binitarians, Charismatics, Congregationalists, Evangelicals, Holiness churches, Methodists, Moravians, Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Reformed, and Unitarians (depending on one's classification scheme) are all a part of the same family but have distinct doctrinal variations within each group – Lutherans
Lutherans
see themselves not to be a part of the rest of what they call " Reformed
Reformed
Protestantism" due to radical differences in sacramental theology and historical approach to the Reformation itself (both Reformed
Reformed
and Lutherans
Lutherans
see their reformation in the sixteenth century to be a 'reforming' of the Catholic Church, not a rejection of it entirely). From these come denominations, which in the West, have independence from the others in their doctrine. The Eastern and Roman Catholic churches, due to their hierarchical structures, are not said to be made up of denominations, rather, they include kinds of regional councils and individual congregations and church bodies, which do not officially differ from one another in doctrine. Antiquity[edit] The initial differences between the East and West traditions stem from socio-cultural and ethno-linguistic divisions in and between the Western Roman and Byzantine Empires. Since the West (that is, Western Europe) spoke Latin
Latin
as its lingua franca and the East (Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and northern Africa) largely used Aramaic
Aramaic
and Koine Greek
Koine Greek
to transmit writings, theological developments were difficult to translate from one branch to the other. In the course of ecumenical councils (large gatherings of Christian leaders), some church bodies split from the larger family of Christianity. Many earlier heretical groups either died off for lack of followers and/or suppression by the church at large (such as Apollinarians, Montanists, and Ebionites). The first significant, lasting split in historic Christianity
Christianity
came from the Church of the East, who left following the Christological controversy over Nestorianism
Nestorianism
in 431 (the Assyrians in 1994 released a common Christological statement with the Roman Catholic Church). Today, the Assyrian and Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
view this schism as largely linguistic, due to problems of translating very delicate and precise terminology from Latin
Latin
to Aramaic
Aramaic
and vice versa (see Council of Ephesus). Following the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451, the next large split came with the Syriac and Coptic churches dividing themselves, with the dissenting churches becoming today's Oriental Orthodoxy. In modern times, there have also been moves towards healing this split, with common Christological statements being made between Pope
Pope
John Paul II and Syriac patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, as well as between representatives of both Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy. There has been a claim that the Chalcedonian Creed
Creed
restored Nestorianism, however this is refuted by maintaining the following distinctions associated with the person of Christ: two hypostases, two natures (Nestorian); one hypostasis, one nature (Monophysite); one hypostasis, two natures (Orthodox/Catholic).[13] Middle Ages[edit] Main article: East-West Schism In Western Christianity, there were a handful of geographically isolated movements that preceded the spirit of the Protestant Reformation. The Cathars
Cathars
were a very strong movement in medieval southwestern France, but did not survive into modern times. In northern Italy
Italy
and southeastern France, Peter Waldo
Peter Waldo
founded the Waldensians
Waldensians
in the 12th century. This movement has largely been absorbed by modern-day Protestant
Protestant
groups. In Bohemia, a movement in the early 15th century by Jan Hus
Jan Hus
called the Hussites defied Roman Catholic dogma and still exists to this day (alternately known as the Moravian Church). Although the church as a whole did not experience any major divisions for centuries afterward, the Eastern and Western groups drifted until the point where patriarchs from both families excommunicated one another in about 1054 in what is known as the Great Schism. The political and theological reasons for the schism are complex, but one major controversy was the inclusion and acceptance in the West of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed, which the East viewed as erroneous. Another was the definition of papal primacy. Both West and East agreed that the patriarch of Rome was owed a "primacy of honour" by the other patriarchs (those of Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople
Constantinople
and Jerusalem), but the West also contended that this primacy extended to jurisdiction, a position rejected by the Eastern patriarchs. Various attempts at dialogue between the two groups would occur, but it was only in the 1960s, under Pope
Pope
Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras, that significant steps began to be made to mend the relationship between the two.

Door of the Schlosskirche (castle church) in Wittenberg to which Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses
95 Theses
on 31st October 1517, sparking the Reformation.

Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
(16th century)[edit] Main article: Protestant
Protestant
Reformation The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
began with the posting of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses in Saxony
Saxony
on October 31, 1517, written as a set of grievances to reform the pre- Reformation
Reformation
Western Church. Luther's writings, combined with the work of Swiss theologian Huldrych Zwingli and French theologian and politician John Calvin
John Calvin
sought to reform existing problems in doctrine and practice. Due to the reactions of ecclesiastical office holders at the time of the reformers, these reformers separated from the Roman Catholic Church, instigating a rift in Western Christianity. In England, Henry VIII of England
England
declared himself to be supreme head of the Church of England
England
with the Act of Supremacy in 1531, founding the Church of England, repressing both Lutheran
Lutheran
reformers and those loyal to the pope. Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
as Archbishop of Canterbury introduced the Reformation, in a form compromising between the Calvinists and Lutherans. Old and Liberal Catholic Churches (19th-20th centuries)[edit] The Old Catholic Church
Catholic Church
split from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 1870s because of the promulgation of the dogma of Papal Infallibility as promoted by the First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
of 1869–1870. The term 'Old Catholic' was first used in 1853 to describe the members of the See of Utrecht that were not under Papal authority. The Old Catholic movement grew in America but has not maintained ties with Utrecht, although talks are under way between independent Old Catholic bishops and Utrecht. The Liberal Catholic Church
Catholic Church
started in 1916 via an Old Catholic bishop in London, bishop Matthew, who consecrated bishop James Wedgwood to the Episcopacy. This stream has in its relatively short existence known many splits, which operate worldwide under several names. Eastern churches[edit] In the Eastern world, the largest body of believers in modern times is the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, sometimes imprecisely called "Greek Orthodox" because from the time of Christ through the Byzantine empire, Greek was its common language. However, the term "Greek Orthodox" actually refers to only one portion of the entire Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
believes itself to be the continuation of the original Christian Church
Christian Church
established by Jesus Christ, and the Apostles. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and the Roman Catholics have been separated since the 11th century, following the East–West Schism, with each of them claiming to represent the original pre-schism Church. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
consider themselves to be spiritually one body, which is administratively grouped into several autocephalous jurisdictions (also commonly referred to as "Churches", despite being parts of one Church). They do not recognize any single bishop as universal church leader, but rather each bishop governs only his own diocese. The Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
is known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, and holds the title "first among equals", meaning only that if a great council is called, the Patriarch sits as president of the council. He has no more power than any other bishop. Currently, the largest synod with the most members is the Russian Orthodox Church. Others include the ancient Patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch
Antioch
and Jerusalem, the Georgian, Romanian, Serbian and Bulgarian Orthodox Churches, and several smaller ones. The second largest Eastern Christian communion is Oriental Orthodoxy, which is organized in a similar manner, with six national autocephalous groups and two autonomous bodies, although there are greater internal differences than among the Eastern Orthodox (especially in the diversity of rites being used). The six autocephalous Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Churches are the Coptic (Egyptian), Syriac, Armenian, Malankara (Indian), Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. In the Aramaic-speaking areas of the Middle East, the Syriac Orthodox Church has long been dominant. Although the region of modern-day Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
has had a strong body of believers since the infancy of Christianity, these regions only gained autocephaly in 1963 and 1994 respectively. The Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
are distinguished from the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
by doctrinal differences concerning the union of human and divine natures in the person of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and the two communions separated as a consequence of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in the year 451, although there have been recent moves towards reconciliation. Since these groups are relatively obscure in the West, literature on them has sometimes included the Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
as a part of the Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Communion, but the Assyrians, after adopting Christianity
Christianity
in the 1st century AD, have maintained theological, cultural, and ecclesiastical independence from all other Christian bodies since 431. The Assyrian Church therefore represents a third Eastern Christian communion in its own right. It is administered in a hierarchical model not entirely unlike the Catholic Church, with the head of the church being the Patriarch Catholicos of the Assyrian Church of the East, since 1976 HH Mar Dinkha IV. Due to oppression, the church's headquarters is in Chicago, Illinois, rather than the ancient Assyrian homelands in northern Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey
Turkey
and northwest Iran, though the core of believers remain there. Even within the Assyrian Church, there were two splits, with a number of Assyrians breaking away in 1552 and later forming the Chaldean Catholic Church, and in the 1960s another group forming the Ancient Church of the East, with a rival Catholicos (Patriarch) in California. There are also the Eastern Catholic Churches, which are counterparts of the various Churches listed above, in that they preserve the same theological and liturgical traditions as they do. But they differ from their Orthodox mother Churches (and Church of the East) in that they recognize the Bishop of Rome as the universal head of the Church. Though adherents of Eastern Catholicism
Catholicism
are fully part of the Catholic communion, most do not to use the term "Roman Catholic" to describe themselves, associating that name instead with members of the Latin Church.[14] Rather, they prefer to use the name of whichever Church they belong to—Ukrainian Catholic, Coptic Catholic, Assyrian-Chaldean Catholic, etc. Western churches[edit]

Christian denominations in English-speaking world

International associations Interdenominational associations

World Council of Churches World Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance

Denominational associations

Friends World Committee for Consultation Mennonite World Conference Anglican Communion Baptist
Baptist
World Alliance World Convention of Churches of Christ Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Confessional Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Conference International Lutheran
Lutheran
Council Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation World Methodist
Methodist
Council Pentecostal
Pentecostal
World Conference International Conference of Reformed
Reformed
Churches Reformed
Reformed
Ecumenical Council World Communion of Reformed
Reformed
Churches World Reformed
Reformed
Fellowship

Regional associations

Africa

All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) Association of Evangelicals of Africa (AEA) All Africa Baptist
Baptist
Fellowship Africa Lutheran
Lutheran
Communion

Asia

Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) Evangelical
Evangelical
Fellowship of Asia Asia Pacific Baptist
Baptist
Federation Asia Lutheran
Lutheran
Communion

Caribbean

Caribbean Conference of Churches (CCC) Evangelical
Evangelical
Association of the Caribbean Caribbean Baptist
Baptist
Fellowship

Europe

Conference of European Churches (CEC) European Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance European Baptist
Baptist
Federation Pentecostal
Pentecostal
European Fellowship

Middle East

Middle East
Middle East
Council of Churches (MECC)

Latin
Latin
America

Latin
Latin
American Council of Churches (CLAI) Latin
Latin
American Evangelical
Evangelical
Fellowship (FIDE) Union of Baptists
Baptists
in Latin
Latin
America

North America

North American Baptist
Baptist
Fellowship Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America North American Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Council

Pacific

Pacific Conference of Churches
Pacific Conference of Churches
(PCC) Evangelical
Evangelical
Fellowship of the South Pacific (EFSP) Asia Pacific Baptist
Baptist
Federation

Australia

Christian denominations in Australia

Australian interchurch

Australian Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance  • website National Council of Churches

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church of Australia Roman Catholic Church

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance Christian Outreach Centre Church of the Nazarene Salvation
Salvation
Army Seventh-day Adventist Church

Historical Protestantism

Australian Friends Australian Baptist
Baptist
Ministries Open Brethren

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Churches of Australia

Churches of Christ Fellowship of Congregational Churches Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Australia Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Australia Uniting Church in Australia Wesleyan Methodist
Methodist
Church of Australia

Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox of Australia and New Z. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia Serbian Orthodox of Australia and New Z.

Non-Chalcedonic

Coptic Orthodox Church in Australia

Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and related

Australian Christian Churches
Australian Christian Churches
(AOG) Christian City Church Intl. CRC Churches International Revival Centres International Vineyard Churches Australia Worldwide Church of God

Other

LDS Church

v t e

Canada

Canadian Christian bodies

v t e

Canadian interchurch

Canadian Council of Churches Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of North and Central America North Am. Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Council

Anabaptist
Anabaptist
and Friends

Canadian Mennonite Brethren Churches Canadian Yearly Meeting (Quakers) Mennonite Church Canada

Baptist
Baptist
and Stone-Campbell

Baptist

Association of Regular Baptist
Baptist
Churches Baptist
Baptist
General Conference of Canada Canadian Baptist
Baptist
Ministries Canadian Convention of Southern Baptists Fellowship of Evgcl. Baptist
Baptist
Churches, Canada North American Baptist
Baptist
Conference

Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement

Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ) Evangelical
Evangelical
Christian Church
Christian Church
in Canada

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church of Canada Anglican Church in North America Polish National Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Winnipeg

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance, Canada Church of the Nazarene Evangelical
Evangelical
Free Church of Canada The Salvation
Salvation
Army Wesleyan Church

Lutheran

Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Canada Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Canada Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod

Methodist

British Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church Free Methodist
Methodist
Church in Canada United Church of Canada

Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox

Eastern Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese, N.Am. Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Toronto (Canada) Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Canada Orthodox Church in America American-Canadian Macedonian Orthodox Diocese Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
Outside Russia Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Apostolic Diocese
Diocese
of Am. Coptic Orthodox Church in Canada

Syncretic

Evangelical
Evangelical
Orthodox Church

Pentecostal

Apostolic Church of Pentecost Canadian Assemblies of God Church of God of Prophecy Intl. Foursquare Gospel, Canada Intl. Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Holiness Church Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Assemblies of Canada Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church of God

Oneness Pentecostal

United Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Intl.

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Canadian and American Reformed
Reformed
Churches Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church in North America L'Église réformée du Québec Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Canada Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America Reformed
Reformed
Church in America United Church of Canada

Other

Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Plymouth Brethren Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
in Canada LDS Church Vineyard Canada Watch Tower Bible
Bible
and Tract Society of Canada

Syncretic

Evangelical
Evangelical
Orthodox Church

Ireland

Irish Christian bodies

v t e

Irish interchurch

Irish Council of Churches Churches Together in Britain and Ireland Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance, UK

Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
(Anglican) Association of Baptist
Baptist
Churches Roman Catholicism Assemblies of God Elim Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Ireland

Nigeria

Christian denominations in Nigeria

Nigerian interchurch

Christian Association of Nigeria Fellowship of Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Nigeria

African initiated

Cherubim and Seraphim Society Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Church of God Mission International Church of the Lord (Aladura)

Anglican

The African Church Church of Nigeria

Baptist, Anabaptist, DC

Church of the Brethren
Church of the Brethren
in Nigeria Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Nigeria Mambila Baptist
Baptist
Convention of Nigeria Nigerian Baptist
Baptist
Convention

Catholic

Roman Catholic Church

Holiness and Methodist

African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church in Nigeria Deeper Christian Life Ministry Redeemed Christian Church
Christian Church
of God United Methodist
Methodist
Church of Nigeria

Lutheran

Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Christ in Nigeria Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Nigeria

Pentecostal

The Apostolic Church Nigeria Christ Apostolic Church General Council of the Assemblies of God Nigeria Gospel
Gospel
Faith Mission International Church of the Foursquare Gospel The Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement New Apostolic Church in Nigeria Winners' Chapel

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church of Nigeria Church of Christ in Nigeria Church of Christ in the Sudan Among the Tiv Evangelical
Evangelical
Reformed
Reformed
Church of Christ N.K.S.T Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Nigeria Reformed
Reformed
Church of Christ in Nigeria

Other Protestant

Evangelical
Evangelical
Church of West Africa QIC-United Evangelical
Evangelical
Church Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
in Nigeria Word of Faith Ministries

v t e

South Africa

Christian denominations in South Africa

South African interchurch

South African Council of Churches

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church Reformed
Reformed
Evangelical
Evangelical
Anglican Church Roman Catholicism

Holiness and AIC

Die Heilsleër Zion Christian Church

Pentecostal

Apostolic Faith Mission [Assemblies of God]

Protestantism, Other

Baptist
Baptist
Union Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Church LDS Church Methodist
Methodist
Church

Reformed

Dutch Reformed: NGK Dutch Reformed: NHK Evangelical
Evangelical
Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Africa Reformed
Reformed
Church in Africa Reformed
Reformed
Churches: GKSA United Congregational Church Uniting Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Uniting Reformed
Reformed
Church

v t e

United Kingdom

Christian denominations in the United Kingdom

v t e

UK interchurch

Affinity (formerly British Evangelical
Evangelical
Council) Churches Together in Britain and Ireland Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance, UK Fellowship of Independent Evangelical
Evangelical
Churches

Churches Together in England

Action of Churches Together, Scotland (ACTS) Churches Together in Wales Evangelical
Evangelical
Movement of Wales

Anglican

Church of England Church of Ireland Scottish Episcopal Church Church in Wales

Baptist

Association of Baptist
Baptist
Churches in Ireland Baptist
Baptist
Union of Great Britain Baptist
Baptist
Union of Scotland Baptist
Baptist
Union of Wales

Catholic

Roman Catholicism

Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in England
England
and Wales Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in Ireland Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in Scotland

Holiness and Pietist

Church of the Nazarene Salvation
Salvation
Army Seventh-day Adventist Church Wesleyan Holiness Church

Lutheran

Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Great Britain

Methodist
Methodist
and Wesleyan

Methodist
Methodist
Church of Great Britain Methodist
Methodist
Church in Ireland

New Church Movement

Newfrontiers Pioneer Church

Orthodox

Greek Orthodox of G.B. (Eastern Orthodox)

Pentecostal

Assemblies of God Church of God in Christ Elim Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Asso. Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Churches, Scotland Church of Scotland Congregational Federation Evangelical
Evangelical
Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Ireland Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Wales United Free Church of Scotland United Reformed
Reformed
Church

Other

Newfrontiers LDS Church in England

United States

Christian denominations in the U.S.

U.S. interchurch

National Association of Evangelicals National Council of Churches Churches Uniting in Christ

Anabaptist
Anabaptist
and Friends

Church of the Brethren Mennonite Church USA Amish

Anglican

Anglican Church in North America Episcopal Church

Baptist

Alliance of Baptists American Baptist
Baptist
Association American Baptist
Baptist
Churches Baptist
Baptist
Bible
Bible
Fellowship International Baptist
Baptist
Missionary Association of America Conservative Baptist
Baptist
Association of America Converge General Association of Regular Baptist
Baptist
Churches National Association of Free Will Baptists National Primitive Baptist
Baptist
Convention of the U.S.A. North American Baptist
Baptist
Conference Southern Baptist
Baptist
Convention Independent Baptist Churches

African-American Baptist

National Baptist
Baptist
Convention of America National Baptist
Baptist
Convention, USA, Inc. National Missionary Baptist
Baptist
Convention of America Progressive National Baptist
Baptist
Convention

Catholic

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the United States

Eastern Christian Eastern Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America Orthodox Church in America Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
Outside Russia Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
in USA

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
in USA Coptic Orthodox Church in USA Syriac Orthodox Church

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) Evangelical
Evangelical
Covenant Church Evangelical
Evangelical
Free Church of America Church of the Nazarene The Salvation
Salvation
Army Seventh-day Adventist Church Wesleyan Church

Lutheran

Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Missouri Synod North American Lutheran
Lutheran
Church Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod

Methodist

African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Zion Church Christian Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church Free Methodist
Methodist
Church United Methodist
Methodist
Church

Pentecostal

Assemblies of God Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) Church of God in Christ Church of God of Prophecy Church on the Rock International Full Gospel
Gospel
Fellowship International Church of the Foursquare Gospel International Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Holiness Church Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church of God

Oneness Pentecostal

Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Assemblies of the World United Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Intl.

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church in North America Conservative Congregational Christian Conference Cumberland Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Evangelical
Evangelical
Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Korean Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America International Council of Community Churches National Association of Congregational Christian Churches Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church (USA) Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America Reformed
Reformed
Church in America United Church of Christ

Stone-Campbell

Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ) Christian churches and churches of Christ Churches of Christ International Churches of Christ

Other

LDS Church Community of Christ Grace Gospel
Gospel
Fellowship IFCA International Jehovah's Witnesses Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Plymouth Brethren Vineyard USA

v t e

v t e

The Latin
Latin
portion of the Catholic Church, along with Anglicanism
Anglicanism
and Protestantism, comprise the three major divisions of Christianity
Christianity
in the Western world. Roman Catholics do not describe themselves as a denomination but rather as the original Holy and Universal Church; which all other branches broke off from in schism. The Baptist, Methodist, and Lutheran
Lutheran
churches are generally considered to be Protestant
Protestant
denominations, although strictly speaking, of these three, only the Lutherans
Lutherans
took part in the official Protestation at Speyer after the decree of the Second Diet of Speyer mandated the burning of Luther's works and the end of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. Anglicanism
Anglicanism
was generally classified as Protestant, but since the "Tractarian" or Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
of the 19th century, led by John Henry Newman, Anglican writers emphasize a more catholic understanding of the church and characterize it as more properly understood as its own tradition—a via media ("middle way"), both Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic. The American province of the Anglican Communion, the Episcopal Church USA, describes itself as a modern via media church in this tradition. A case is sometimes also made to regard Lutheranism
Lutheranism
in a similar way, considering the catholic character of its foundational documents (the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
and other documents contained in the Book of Concord) and its existence prior to the Anglican, Anabaptist, and Reformed
Reformed
churches, from which nearly all other Protestant denominations derive. One central tenet of Catholicism
Catholicism
(which is a common point between Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and some other Churches), is its practice of apostolic succession. "Apostle" means "one who is sent out". Jesus
Jesus
commissioned the first twelve apostles (see Biblical Figures for the list of the Twelve), and they, in turn laid hands on subsequent church leaders to ordain (commission) them for ministry. In this manner, Roman Catholics and Anglicans trace their ordained ministers all the way back to the original Twelve. Roman Catholics believe that the Pope
Pope
has authority which can be traced directly to the apostle Peter whom they hold to be the original head of and first Pope
Pope
of the Church. There are smaller churches, such as the Old Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which rejected the definition of Papal Infallibility at the First Vatican Council, and Anglo-Catholics, Anglicans who believe that Anglicanism
Anglicanism
is a continuation of historical Catholicism
Catholicism
and who incorporate many Catholic beliefs and practices. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
refers to itself simply by the terms Catholic and Catholicism
Catholicism
(which mean universal). Sometimes, Catholics, based on a strict interpretation of extra ecclesiam nulla salus ("Outside the Church, there is no salvation"), rejected any notion those outside its communion could be regarded as part of any true Catholic Christian faith, an attitude rejected by the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
(1962–1965).[15] Catholicism
Catholicism
has a hierarchical structure in which supreme authority for matters of faith and practice are the exclusive domain of the Pope, who sits on the Throne of Peter, and the bishops when acting in union with him. Most Catholics are unaware of the existence of Old Catholicism
Catholicism
which represents a relatively recent split from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and is particularly vocal in rejecting their use of the term Catholic. Each Protestant
Protestant
movement has developed freely, and many have split over theological issues. For instance, a number of movements grew out of spiritual revivals, like Methodism
Methodism
and Pentecostalism. Doctrinal issues and matters of conscience have also divided Protestants. The Anabaptist
Anabaptist
tradition, made up of the Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites, rejected the Roman Catholic and Lutheran
Lutheran
doctrines of infant baptism; this tradition is also noted for its belief in pacifism. Many churches with roots in Restorationism
Restorationism
reject being identified as Protestant
Protestant
or even as a denomination at all, as they use only the Bible
Bible
and not creeds, and model the church after what they feel is the first-century church found in scripture; the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
are one example; African Initiated Churches, like Kimbanguism, mostly fall within Protestantism, with varying degrees of syncretism. The measure of mutual acceptance between the denominations and movements varies, but is growing largely due to the ecumenical movement in the 20th century and overarching Christian bodies such as the World Council of Churches. Christians with Jewish roots[edit] Messianic Jews
Messianic Jews
maintain a Jewish identity while accepting Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
and the New Testament
New Testament
as authoritative. After the founding of the church, the disciples of Jesus
Jesus
generally retained their ethnic origins while accepting the Gospel
Gospel
message. The first church council was called in Jerusalem to address just this issue, and the deciding opinion was written by James the Just, the first bishop of Jerusalem and a pivotal figure in the Christian movement. The history of Messianic Judaism includes many movements and groups and defies any simple classification scheme. The Nasrani or Syrian Malabar Nasrani community in Kerala, India
India
is conscious of their Jewish origins. However, they have lost many of their Jewish traditions due to western influences. The Nasrani are also known as Syrian Christians or St. Thomas Christians. This is because they follow the traditions of Syriac Christianity
Christianity
and are descendants of the early converts by St. Thomas the Apostle. Today, they belong to various denominations of Christianity
Christianity
but they have kept their unique identity within each of these denominations.[16] An existing community that still maintain their Jewish traditions is the Knanaya. They are an endogamous sub-ethnic group among the Syrian Malabar Nasrani and are the descendants of early Jewish Christian settlers who arrived in Kerala
Kerala
in A.D 345. Although affiliated with a variety of Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
denominations, they have remained a cohesive community, shunning intermarriage with outsiders (but not with fellow- Knanaya
Knanaya
of other denominations). Modern history[edit] Quakers[edit] Some denominations which arose alongside the Western Christian tradition consider themselves Christian, but neither Roman Catholic nor wholly Protestant, such as the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Quakerism began as an evangelical Christian movement in 17th century England, eschewing priests and all formal Anglican or Roman Catholic sacraments in their worship, including many of those practices that remained among the stridently Protestant
Protestant
Puritans such as baptism with water. They were known in America for helping with the Underground Railroad, and like the Mennonites, Quakers
Quakers
traditionally refrain from participation in war. Latter Day Saint movement[edit] Main articles: Latter Day Saint movement
Latter Day Saint movement
and Mormonism See also: List of sects in the Latter Day Saint movement
Latter Day Saint movement
and Mormonism and Christianity Most Latter Day Saint denominations are derived from the Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints) established by Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
in 1830. The largest worldwide denomination, and the one publicly recognized as Mormonism, is The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, although there are various considerably smaller sects that broke from it after its relocation to the Rocky Mountains in the mid-1800s. Several of these broke away over the abandonment of practicing plural marriage after the 1890 Manifesto. Most of the "Prairie Saint" denominations (see below) were established after Smith's death by the remnants of the Latter Day Saints who did not go west with Brigham Young. Many of these opposed some of the 1840s theological developments in favor of 1830s theological understandings and practices. Other denominations are defined by either a belief in Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
as a prophet or acceptance of the Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
as scripture. Mormons
Mormons
generally consider themselves to be restorationist, believing that Smith, as prophet, seer, and revelator, restored the original and true Church of Christ to the earth. Some Latter Day Saint denominations are regarded by other Christians as being nontrinitarian or even non-Christian, but the Latter Day Saints are predominantly in disagreement with these claims. Mormons
Mormons
see themselves as believing in a Godhead comprising the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost as separate personages united in purpose. Mormons
Mormons
regard traditional definitions of the Trinity
Trinity
as aberrations of true doctrine and emblematic of the Great Apostasy[17] but they do not accept certain trinitarian definitions in the post-apostolic creeds, such as the Athanasian Creed. Second Great Awakening[edit] Main articles: Second Great Awakening, Restorationism, and Restoration Movement The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement
Restoration Movement
began on the American frontier during the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
(1790–1870) of the early 19th century. The movement sought to restore the church and "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the church of the New Testament."[18]:54 Members do not identify as Protestant
Protestant
but simply as Christian.[19][20][21]:213 The Restoration Movement
Restoration Movement
developed from several independent efforts to return to apostolic Christianity, but two groups, which independently developed similar approaches to the Christian faith, were particularly important.[22]:27–32 The first, led by Barton W. Stone, began at Cane Ridge, Kentucky and called themselves simply as "Christians". The second began in western Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia) and was led by Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander Campbell; they used the name "Disciples of Christ". Both groups sought to restore the whole Christian church on the pattern set forth in the New Testament, and both believed that creeds kept Christianity
Christianity
divided. In 1832 they joined in fellowship with a handshake. Among other things, they were united in the belief that Jesus
Jesus
is the Christ, the Son of God; that Christians should celebrate the Lord's Supper on the first day of each week; and that baptism of adult believers by immersion in water is a necessary condition for salvation. Because the founders wanted to abandon all denominational labels, they used the biblical names for the followers of Jesus.[23]:27 Both groups promoted a return to the purposes of the 1st-century churches as described in the New Testament. One historian of the movement has argued that it was primarily a unity movement, with the restoration motif playing a subordinate role.[24]:8 The Restoration Movement
Restoration Movement
has since divided into multiple separate groups. There are three main branches in the US: the Churches of Christ, the Christian churches and churches of Christ, and the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ). Other U.S. based groups affiliated with the movement are the International Churches of Christ and the International Christian Churches. Non-U.S. groups include the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Australia, the Evangelical
Evangelical
Christian Church
Christian Church
in Canada, the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Europe. The Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren
are a similar though historically unrelated group which originated in the United Kingdom. Some churches, such as Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
or the Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren
reject formal ties with other churches within the movement. Other groups originating during the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
include the Adventist movement, the Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
and Christian Science (which had roots in Congregationalism, but regarded itself as restorative). Each of these groups, founded within fifty years of one another, originally claimed to be an unprecedented, late restoration of the primitive Christian church. Some Baptist
Baptist
churches with Landmarkist views have similar beliefs concerning their connection with primitive Christianity. Russian sectarianism[edit] The Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
has a long history of opposing heresies, beginning with Bogomilism
Bogomilism
and the Old Believers, a sect opposing the reforms introduced in Tsarist Russia
Tsarist Russia
under Patriarch Nikon
Patriarch Nikon
in 1666. In 18th to 19th century Imperial Russia, there arose a new type of denominational schism grouped as Spiritual Christianity (духовное христианство). Many heresies, nicknamed by the church or government, called themselves "spiritual Christians", such as: Dukhobors, Ikonobortsy ("Iconoclasts"), Khlysts, Molokans, Pryguny, Skoptsy, Shtundists, Subbotniki, etc. These sects often have radically divergent notions of spirituality. Their common denominator is that they sought God in "Spirit and Truth", ( Gospel
Gospel
of John 4:24) rather than in the Church of official Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
or ancient rites of Old Believers. Rejecting the official church, they considered their religious organization as a homogeneous community, without division into laymen and clergy. In the 1830s, Ivan Grigorev Kanygin founded religious communities with communal practices in the Novouzensk
Novouzensk
region. They called themselves Communists or Methodists, but from the 1870s became known as "Mormons", by comparison with the contemporaneous American movement. An unrelated community known as "Samara Mormons" developed near the Volga
Volga
city of Samara. They avoided alcohol, tobacco, and swearing, cooperated in commercial enterprises, and governed themselves by "apostles" and "prophets". A more recent charismatic movement in Russia is the "Church of the Last Testament", which established a substantial settlement in the Siberian Taiga in the 1990s. Iglesia ni Cristo[edit] Due to a number of similarities, some Protestant
Protestant
writers describe the doctrines of the Philippines originating Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
as restorationist in outlook and theme.[25] INC, however, does not consider itself to be part of the Restoration Movement. On the other hand, some Catholic leaders viewed Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
as an offshoot of the Roman Catholic Church, since the then first leader or Executive Minister (Felix Ysagun Manalo) was a former Catholic member. However, INC is working and functioning spiritually and financially on its own, thus, completely independent from any religious body and communion. The church hierarchical administration (Filipino: Pamamahala),[26] centralized church governance, theological orientation, places of worship architectural design, adaptation to modern technology, very strong and strict discipline, and country of origin or establishment, are some of the INC features, polity and organizational structure that identify itself different from Restoration Movement, Protestantism, Catholicism
Catholicism
and mainstream Christianity. Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
members are noted for bloc voting in political elections[27] which is unique to the church due to their doctrine on unity and a practice that cannot be found outside INC. New Thought
New Thought
Movement[edit] Main article: New Thought See also: History of New Thought Another group of churches are known under the banner of "New Thought". These churches share a spiritual, metaphysical and mystical predisposition and understanding of the Bible
Bible
and were strongly influenced by the Transcendentalist
Transcendentalist
movement—particularly the work of Emerson. Another antecedent of this movement was Swedenborgianism, founded in 1787 on the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, who claimed to have received a new revelation from Jesus
Jesus
Christ through continuous heavenly visions which he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years.[28] The New Thought
New Thought
concept was named by Emma Curtis Hopkins
Emma Curtis Hopkins
("teacher of teachers") after Hopkins broke off from Mary Baker Eddy's Church of Christ, Scientist—the movement had been previously known as the Mental Sciences. The New Thought
New Thought
movement includes Religious Science founded by Ernest Holmes; Divine Science, founded by Malinda Cramer and the Brook sisters; and Unity founded by Charles Fillmore and Myrtle Fillmore. The founders of these denominations all studied with Emma Curtis Hopkins. Each of one these New Thought
New Thought
Churches has been influenced by a wide variety of ancient spiritual ideas.[29] Each of these churches identify to different degrees with Christianity, Unity and Divine Science
Divine Science
being the most explicit in the use of the Bible. The Christian Community[edit] The Christian Community
The Christian Community
is a movement for religious renewal. It was founded in 1922 in Switzerland
Switzerland
by the Lutheran
Lutheran
theologian and minister Friedrich Rittlemeyer, inspired by Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher and founder of anthroposophy. Christian Community congregations exist as financially independent groups with regional and international administrative bodies overseeing their work. There are approximately 350 worldwide. The international headquarters are in Berlin, Germany. The Christian Community
The Christian Community
does not require its members to conform to any specific teaching or behaviour.[30] Seven sacraments are celebrated within the Community: the Eucharist, generally called the Act of Consecration of Man, and six other sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, The Last Anointing, Sacramental Consultation (replacing Confession), and Ordination.[31] Other movements[edit] Protestant
Protestant
denominations have shown a strong tendency towards diversification and fragmentation, giving rise to numerous churches and movements, especially in Anglo-American religious history, where the process is cast in terms of a series of "Great Awakenings". The most recent wave of diversification, known as the Fourth Great Awakening took place during the 1960s to 1980s and resulted in phenomena such as the Charismatic Movement, the Jesus
Jesus
movement, and a great number of Parachurch organizations based in Evangelicalism. Many independent churches and movements considered themselves to be non-denominational, but may vary greatly in doctrine. Many of these, like the local churches movement, reflect the core teachings of traditional Christianity. Others however, such as The Way International, have been denounced as cults by the Christian anti-cult movement. Two movements, which are entirely unrelated in their founding, but share a common element of an additional Messiah
Messiah
(or incarnation of Christ) are the Unification Church and the Rastafari movement. These movements fall outside of traditional taxonomies of Christian groups, though both cite the Christian Bible
Bible
as a basis for their beliefs. Syncretism
Syncretism
of Christian beliefs with local and tribal religions is a phenomenon that occurs throughout the world. An example of this is the Native American Church. The ceremonies of this group are strongly tied to the use of peyote. (Parallels may be drawn here with the Rastafari spiritual use of cannabis.) While traditions vary from tribe to tribe, they often include a belief in Jesus
Jesus
as a Native American cultural hero, an intercessor for man, or a spiritual guardian; belief in the Bible; and an association of Jesus
Jesus
with peyote. There are also some Christians that reject organized religion altogether. Some Christian anarchists believe that the original teachings of Jesus
Jesus
were corrupted by Roman statism (compare Early Christianity
Christianity
and State church of the Roman Empire), and that earthly authority such as government, or indeed the established Church, do not and should not have power over them. Following "The Golden Rule", many oppose the use of physical force in any circumstance, and advocate nonviolence. The Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
wrote The Kingdom of God Is Within You,[32] and was a Christian anarchist. See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal

Christian tradition Great Church List of Christian denominations List of Christian denominations by number of members

Notes[edit]

^ The Oxford Dictionary's full list of synonyms for "denomination" includes: "religious group, sect, Church, cult, movement, faith community, body, persuasion, religious persuasion, communion, order, fraternity, brotherhood, sisterhood, school; faith, creed, belief, religious belief, religion. rare: sodality."

References[edit]

^ a b Olson, Roger E. (1999). The story of Christian theology: twenty centuries of tradition & reform. Downer's Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press (652 pages). p. 278 ^ "Pewforum: Christianity
Christianity
(2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ Fairchild, Mary. "Christianity:Basics: Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Denomination". about.com. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ " Nondenominational & Independent Congregations". Hartford Institute for Religion
Religion
Research. Hartford Seminary, Hartford Institute for Religion
Religion
Research. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-04-23. Retrieved 2016-05-09.  ^ "Denomination". Oxford Dictionaries: English. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Church". Oxford Dictionaries:English. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ Gilbert, T. B. "Church Membership and Church Fellowship. Is there a difference?". Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ Hill, Alec (1 July 2003). "Church". Intervarsity Christian Fellowship. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ a b Jackson, Wayne. " Denominationalism
Denominationalism
– Permissible or Reprehensible?". Christian Courier. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ "Denominationalism". Merriam Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ Guenther, Bruce. "Life in a Muddy World: Reflections on Denominationalism". Fresno Pacific Biblical Seminary; first published in Fall/Winter 2008 edition of In Touch Magazine. For reprint permission contact the Director of Public Relations at 1-800-251-6227. Archived from the original on 2015-03-10.  ^ "Branches of Christianity". Waupun, WI: Waupun Area School District. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Chapman, J. (1911). Monophysites and Monophysitism. in The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved June 4, 2009 ^ http://www.crisismagazine.com/2011/we-are-non-roman-catholics ^ «It remains true that all who have been justified by faith in Baptism
Baptism
are members of Christ's body, and have a right to be called Christian, and so are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church.» Second Vatican Council, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio, n.3 Archived March 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thomas The Apostole Archived 2011-02-08 at the Wayback Machine.. Stthoma.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-03. ^ "Articles of Faith, no. 1".  ^ Rubel Shelly, I Just Want to Be a Christian, 20th Century Christian, Nashville, Tennessee 1984, ISBN 0-89098-021-7 ^ "The church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ is non-denominational. It is neither Catholic, Jewish nor Protestant. It was not founded in 'protest' of any institution, and it is not the product of the 'Restoration' or 'Reformation.' It is the product of the seed of the kingdom (Luke 8:11ff) grown in the hearts of men." V. E. Howard, What Is the Church of Christ? 4th Edition (Revised), 1971, page 29 ^ Batsell Barrett Baxter and Carroll Ellis, Neither Catholic, Protestant
Protestant
nor Jew, tract, Church of Christ (1960) ASIN: B00073CQPM. According to Richard Thomas Hughes in Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in America, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996 (ISBN 0-8028-4086-8, ISBN 978-0-8028-4086-8), this is "arguably the most widely distributed tract ever published by the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
or anyone associated with that tradition." ^ Samuel S. Hill, Charles H. Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Encyclopedia of Religion
Religion
in the South, Mercer University Press, 2005, (ISBN 0-86554-758-0, ISBN 978-0-86554-758-2) 854 pages ^ Monroe E. Hawley, Redigging the Wells: Seeking Undenominational Christianity, Quality Publications, Abilene, Texas, 1976, ISBN 0-89137-512-0 (paper), ISBN 0-89137-513-9 (cloth) ^ McAlister, Lester G. and Tucker, William E. (1975), Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ), St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press, ISBN 978-0-8272-1703-4 ^ Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 0-89900-909-3, ISBN 978-0-89900-909-4, 573 pages ^ Harper, Ann C. (2001). "The Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
and Evangelical Christianity" (PDF). Journal of Asian Mission. 3 (1): 101–119. Retrieved 2008-11-05.  ^ Katherine Adraneda (2009-09-02). " Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
leader Manalo passes away". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2011-06-11.  ^ an article in Pasugo (Manila: Iglesia ni Cristo, 1986) cited by "Pepe" 'Iglesia ni Kristo - religion and politics in Philippine society'[dead link] Pepeslog (Berkeley: University of California, 21 February 2001). Retrieved July 3, 2005 ^ William James, "The Varieties of Religious Experience"[permanent dead link]. pp.92-93. New York 1929 ^ "New Thought. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07" Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tom Ravetz: Free From Dogma. Theological Reflections in The Christian Community. Edinburgh 2009 ^ Evelyn Francis Capel and Tom Ravetz, Seven Sacraments in the Christian Community, Floris Books, 1999 ^ Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
- The Kingdom of God is Within You Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine.. Kingdomnow.org. Retrieved on 2010-11-03.

External links[edit]

Christian Denominations History, profiles and comparison charts of major Christian denominations Denominational links from the Ecumenism
Ecumenism
in Canada site

Find out more on's Sister projects

Media from Commons Definitions from Wiktionary Source texts from Wikisource Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

v t e

Christianity

Jesus

Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection Son of God

Foundations

Church Creed Gospel New Covenant

Bible

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

God Trinity

Father Son Holy Spirit

Apologetics Baptism Christology Ecclesiology History of theology Mission Salvation

History and tradition

Mary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Constantine Ecumenical councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Reformation Luther

Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

Adventist Anabaptist Anglican Baptist Calvinist Catholic Charismatic Evangelical Holiness Lutheran Methodist Pentecostal Protestant

Eastern

Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
(Miaphysite) Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
("Nestorian") Eastern Catholic Churches

Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Oneness Pentecostalism

Related topics

Art Criticism Culture Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religions Prayer Sermon Symbolism

Category C

.