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LIST OF CHOLA KINGS AND EMPERORS

EARLY CHOLAS

* Ellalan
Ellalan
* Kulakkottan * Ilamchetchenni * Karikala * Nedunkilli * Nalankilli * Killivalavan * Kopperuncholan * Kochchenganan * Perunarkilli

INTERREGNUM (C. 200 – C. 848)

MEDIEVAL CHOLAS

Vijayalaya Chola 848–891(?)

Aditya Chola
Chola
I 891–907

Parantaka Chola
Chola
I 907–950

Gandaraditya Chola
Chola
950–957

Arinjaya Chola
Chola
956–957

Sundara Chola
Chola
957–970

Aditya Chola
Chola
II (co-regent)

Uttama Chola 970–985

Rajaraja Chola I 985–1014

Rajendra Chola I 1012–1044

Rajadhiraja Chola 1044–1054

Rajendra Chola II 1054–1063

Virarajendra Chola 1063–1070

Athirajendra Chola 1070–1070

LATER CHOLAS

Kulothunga Chola I 1070–1120

Vikrama Chola 1118–1135

Kulothunga Chola II 1133–1150

Rajaraja Chola II 1146–1173

Rajadhiraja Chola II 1166–1178

Kulothunga Chola III 1178–1218

Rajaraja Chola III 1216–1256

Rajendra Chola III 1246–1279

RELATED DYNASTIES

Telugu Cholas of Andhra

Chodagangas of Kalinga

Rajahnate of Cebu

CHOLA SOCIETY

* Chola government * Chola military * Chola Navy * Chola art * Chola literature * Flag of Chola * Great Living Chola Temples * Solesvara Temples
Temples
* Poompuhar * Uraiyur * Melakadambur * Gangaikonda Cholapuram * Thanjavur
Thanjavur
* Tiruvarur

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

HISTORY OF TAMIL NADU

Main

* Tamiḻakam * Chronology of Tamil history * List of Tamil monarchs

Sangam period

* Sources * Three Crowned Kings * Education * Legal system * Naming conventions * Government * Economy * Society * Religion
Religion
* Music
Music
* Early Pandyas * Early Cheras * Early Cholas * Velirs

Medieval history

* Pallava Empire * Pandya Empire
Empire
* Chola Empire
Chola Empire
* Chera Kingdom
Chera Kingdom
* Madurai Sultanate * Vijayanagara Empire * Madurai Nayaks * Tanjore Nayaks * Kalahasti Nayaks * Gingee Nayaks * Thondaiman Kingdom

* v * t * e

The CHOLA DYNASTY was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India
India
. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka
Ashoka
, of the Maurya Empire . As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam , the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.

The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River , but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I , Rajadhiraja Chola , Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia . The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges
Ganges
which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
, as well as by the repeated embassies to China. The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power .

During the period 1010–1153, the Chola
Chola
territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives
Maldives
in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River
Godavari River
in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India
India
, annexed parts of which is now Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola
Chola
sent a victorious expedition to North India
India
that touched the river Ganges
Ganges
and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra , Mahipala . He also successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan Dynasty , which ultimately caused their downfall.

The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. The Chola
Chola
kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity. They pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola
Chola
school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early Cholas * 2.2 Interregnum * 2.3 Imperial Cholas * 2.4 Overseas conquests * 2.5 Later Cholas (1070–1279)

* 3 Administration and society

* 3.1 Chola
Chola
territory * 3.2 Government * 3.3 Military * 3.4 Economy * 3.5 Hospitals * 3.6 Society * 3.7 Foreign trade * 3.8 Canals and water tanks

* 4 Cultural contributions

* 4.1 Art
Art
* 4.2 Literature
Literature
* 4.3 Cultural centres * 4.4 Religion
Religion

* 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

ORIGINS

The Cholas are also known as the _Choda_. There is very little information available in regarding their origin. Its antiquity is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature and in inscriptions. Later medieval Cholas also claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c. 150 CE) indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South.

A commonly held view is that _Chola_ is, like _Chera_ and _Pandya_, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. The annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are _Killi_ (கிள்ளி), _Valavan_ (வளவன்) and _Sembiyan_ (செம்பியன்). _Killi_ perhaps comes from the Tamil _kil_ (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola
Chola
names like Nedunkilli , Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. _Valavan_ is most probably connected with "_valam_" (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. _Sembiyan_ is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola
Chola
legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism
Buddhism
. In Tamil lexicon _Chola_ means _Soazhi_ or _Saei_ denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of _Pandya_ or the old country.

There is very little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions . The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are also brief notices on the Chola
Chola
country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the _ Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _ (_Periplus Maris Erythraei_), and in the slightly later work of the geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
. _ Mahavamsa _, a Buddhist
Buddhist
text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon
Ceylon
and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.

HISTORY

The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Later Chola
Chola
dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century.

EARLY CHOLAS

Main article: Early Cholas Further information: Legendary early Chola
Chola
kings

The earliest Chola
Chola
kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars generally agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era . The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived. It records the names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them.

The Sangam literature also records legends about mythical Chola kings. These myths speak of the Chola
Chola
king Kantaman, a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya , whose devotion brought the river Kaveri into existence. Two names are prominent among those Chola
Chola
kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan . There are no sure means of settling the order of succession, of fixing their relations with one another and with many other princelings of around the same period. Urayur (now a part of Thiruchirapalli ) was their oldest capital. Kaveripattinam also served as an early Chola
Chola
capital. The _ Mahavamsa _ mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola
Chola
prince known as Elara , invaded the island Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and conquered it around 235 BCE with the help of a Mysore
Mysore
army.

INTERREGNUM

South India
India
in BC 300, showing the Chera, Pandya and Chola Kingdoms

There is not much information about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (c. 300) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominated the Tamil country. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras invaded Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled during that time. They were displaced by the Pallava dynasty and the Pandyan dynasty in the 6th century. Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the 9th century. As per inscriptions found in and around Thanjavur shows that the kingdom was ruled by Mutharaiyars for three centuries which was ended by Vijayalaya chola by Capturing Thanjavur
Thanjavur
from Ilango Mutharaiyar somewhere between 848-851.

Epigraphy and literature provide few glimpses of the transformations that came over this line of kings during this long interval. It is certain that when the power of the Cholas fell to its lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to the north and south of them, this dynasty was compelled to seek refuge and patronage under their more successful rivals. The Cholas continued to rule over a diminished territory in the neighbourhood of Uraiyur, but only in a minor capacity. In spite of their reduced powers, the Pandayas and Pallavas accepted Chola
Chola
princesses in marriage, possibly out of regard for their reputation. Numerous Pallava inscriptions of this period mention their having fought rulers of the Chola
Chola
country. Despite this loss in influence and power, it is unlikely that the Cholas lost total grip of the territory around Uraiyur, their old capital, as Vijayalaya, when he rose to prominence hailed from that area. An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
showing the tiger emblem of the Chola
Chola
and in Nagari script.

Around the 7th century, a Chola
Chola
kingdom flourished in present-day Andhra Pradesh. These Telugu Cholas traced their descent to the early Sangam Cholas. However, it is not known if they had any relation to the early Cholas. It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own, away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas. The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang , who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639–640 writes about the "kingdom of Culi-ya", in an apparent reference to these Telugu Cholas.

IMPERIAL CHOLAS

Main article: Medieval Cholas See also: List of Chola
Chola
Temples
Temples
in Bangalore

Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Chola
Chola
dynasty which was the beginning of one of the most splendid empires in Indian history. Vijayalaya , possibly a feudatory of the Pallava dynasty, took an opportunity arising out of a conflict between the Pandya dynasty and Pallava dynasty in c. 850, captured Thanjavur
Thanjavur
from Muttarayar , and established the imperial line of the medieval Chola
Chola
Dynasty. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
became the capital of the Imperial Chola
Chola
Dynasty. Detail of the statue of Rajaraja Chola at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
.

The Chola
Chola
dynasty was at the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period. Through their leadership and vision, Chola
Chola
kings expanded their territory and influence. The second Chola
Chola
King, Aditya I , caused the demise of the Pallava dynasty and defeated the Pandyan dynasty of Madurai
Madurai
in 885, occupied large parts of the Kannada country, and had marital ties with the Western Ganga dynasty. In 925, his son Parantaka I conquered Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(known as Ilangai). Parantaka I also defeated the Rashtrakuta dynasty under Krishna
Krishna
II in the battle of Vallala.

Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I were the greatest rulers of the Chola
Chola
dynasty, extending it beyond the traditional limits of a Tamil kingdom. At its peak, the Chola Empire
Chola Empire
stretched from the island of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in the south to the Godavari- Krishna
Krishna
river basin in the north, up to the Konkan coast in Bhatkal, the entire Malabar Coast in addition to Lakshadweep , Maldives, and vast areas of Chera country. Rajaraja Chola I was a ruler with inexhaustible energy, and he applied himself to the task of governance with the same zeal that he had shown in waging wars. He integrated his empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and at the same time strengthened local self-government. Therefore, he conducted a land survey in 1000 CE to effectively marshall the resources of his empire. He also built the Brihadeeswarar Temple in 1010 CE.

Rajendra Chola I conquered Odisha
Odisha
and his armies continued to march further north and defeated the forces of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and reached the Ganges
Ganges
river in north India. Rajendra Chola I built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram to celebrate his victories in northern India. Rajendra Chola I successfully invaded the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
kingdom in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
which led to the decline of the empire there. This expedition had such a great impression to the Malay people of the medieval period that his name was mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle _Sejarah Melayu_. He also completed the conquest of the island of Sri Lanka and took the Sinhala king Mahinda V as a prisoner, in addition to his conquests of Rattapadi (territories of the Rashtrakutas, Chalukya country, Talakkad , and Kolar
Kolar
, where the Kolaramma temple still has his portrait statue) in Kannada country. Rajendra's territories included the area falling on the Ganges-Hooghly-Damodar basin, as well as Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Maldives. The kingdoms along the east coast of India
India
up to the river Ganges
Ganges
acknowledged Chola
Chola
suzerainty. Three diplomatic missions were sent to China
China
in 1016, 1033, and 1077. Gopuram Corner View of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Brihadeeswara Temple. Brihadeeswara Temple Entrance Gopurams, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Model of a Chola
Chola
's ship's hull (200—848 CE), built by the ASI , based on a wreck 19 miles off the coast of Poombuhar, displayed in a Museum in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
. Airavateswara Temple, Darasuram
Darasuram
in Thanjavur District.

The Western Chalukya Empire under Satyashraya and Someshvara I tried to wriggle out of Chola
Chola
domination from time to time, primarily due to the Chola
Chola
influence in the Vengi kingdom. The Western Chalukyas mounted several unsuccessful attempts to engage the Chola
Chola
emperors in war, and except for a brief occupation of Vengi territories between 1118–1126, all their other attempts ended in failure with successive Chola
Chola
emperors routing the armies of the Chalukyas at various places in many wars. Virarajendra Chola defeated Someshvara II of the Western Chalukya Empire
Empire
and made an alliance with Prince Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
. Cholas always successfully controlled the Chalukyas in the western Deccan by defeating them in war and levying tribute on them. Even under the emperors of the Cholas like Kulothunga I and Vikrama Chola, the wars against the Chalukyas were mainly fought in Chalukya territories in Karnataka or in the Telugu country like Vengi, Kakinada, Anantapur, or Gutti. Then the former feudatories like the Hoysalas, Yadvas, and Kakatiyas steadily increased their power and finally replaced the Chalukyas. With the occupation of Dharwar in North Central Karnataka by the Hoysalas under Vishnuvardhana , where he based himself with his son Narasimha I in-charge at the Hoysala capital Dwarasamudra around 1149, and with the Kalachuris occupying the Chalukyan capital for over 35 years from around 1150–1151, the Chalukya kingdom was already starting to dissolve.

The Cholas under Kulothunga Chola III collaborated to the herald the dissolution of the Chalukyas by aiding Hoysalas under Veera Ballala II , the son-in-law of the Chola
Chola
monarch, and defeated the Western Chalukyas in a series of wars with Someshvara IV between 1185–1190. The last Chalukya king's territories did not even include the erstwhile Chalukyan capitals Badami, Manyakheta or Kalyani. That was the final dissolution of Chalukyan power though the Chalukyas existed only in name since 1135–1140. But the Cholas remained stable until 1215, were absorbed by the Pandyan empire and ceased to exist by 1279.

On the other hand, throughout the period from 1150–1280, the staunchest opponents of the Cholas were Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories. This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and the Pandyas. The Cholas also fought regular wars with the Eastern Gangas of Kalinga , protected Vengi though it remained largely independent under Chola
Chola
control, and had domination of the entire eastern coast with their feudatories the Telugu Cholas, Velananti Cholas, Renandu Cholas etc. who also always aided the Cholas in their successful campaigns against the Chalukyas and levying tribute on the Kannada kingdoms and fought constantly with the Sinhalas , who attempted to overthrow the Chola
Chola
occupation of Lanka
Lanka
, but until the time of the Later Chola king Kulottunga I the Cholas had firm control over Lanka. A Later Chola king, Rajadhiraja Chola
Chola
II , was strong enough to prevail over a confederation of five Pandya princes who were aided by their traditional friend, the king of Lanka, this once again gave control of Lanka
Lanka
to the Cholas despite the fact that they were not strong under the resolute Rajadhiraja Chola II. However, his successor, the last great Chola
Chola
monarch Kulottunga Chola
Chola
III reinforced the hold of the Cholas by quelling rebellion and disturbances in Lanka
Lanka
and Madurai, defeated Hoysala generals under Veera Ballala II in Karuvur, in addition to holding on to his traditional territories in Tamil country, Eastern Gangavadi, Draksharama, Vengi and Kalinga. After this, he entered into a marital alliance with Veera Ballala II (with Ballala's marriage to a Chola princess) and his relationship with Hoysalas seems to have become friendlier.

OVERSEAS CONQUESTS

See also: Chola invasion of Srivijaya and Chola
Chola
rule in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola
Chola
I, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the Chola
Chola
armies invaded Sri Lanka, the Maldives
Maldives
and parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
like Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Southern Thailand of the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire
Empire
in the 11th century. Rajaraja Chola I launched several naval campaigns that resulted in the capture of Sri Lanka, Maldives
Maldives
and the Malabar Coast. In 1025, Rajendra Chola
Chola
launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and against the Burmese kingdom of Pegu. A Chola inscription states that he captured or plundered 14 places, which have been identified with Palembang, Tambralinga and Kedah among others. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola, who conquered Kedah in Malaysia
Malaysia
of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in the late 11th century.

LATER CHOLAS (1070–1279)

Main article: Later Cholas

Marital and political alliances between the Eastern Chalukyas began during the reign of Rajaraja following his invasion of Vengi. Rajaraja Chola's daughter married Chalukya prince Vimaladitya and Rajendra Chola's daughter Ammanga Devi was married to the Eastern Chalukya prince Rajaraja Narendra . Virarajendra Chola's son, Athirajendra Chola
Chola
, was assassinated in a civil disturbance in 1070, and Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I, the son of Ammanga Devi and Rajaraja Narendra, ascended the Chola
Chola
throne. Thus began the Later Chola dynasty.

The Later Chola dynasty was led by capable rulers such as Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I, his son Vikrama Chola , other successors like Rajaraja Chola II, Rajadhiraja Chola II, and Kulothunga Chola
Chola
III, who conquered Kalinga, Ilam , and Kataha . However, the rule of the later Cholas between 1218, starting with Rajaraja Chola II , to the last emperor Rajendra Chola III was not as strong as those of the emperors between 850–1215. Around 1118, they lost control of Vengi to the Western Chalukya and Gangavadi (southern Mysore
Mysore
districts) to the Hoysala Empire
Empire
. However, these were only temporary setbacks, because immediately following the accession of king Vikrama Chola, the son and successor of Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I, the Cholas lost no time in recovering the province of Vengi by defeating Chalukya Someshvara III and also recovering Gangavadi from the Hoysalas. The Chola
Chola
Empire, though not as strong as between 850–1150, was still largely territorially intact under Rajaraja Chola II (1146–1175) a fact attested by the construction and completion of the third grand Chola
Chola
architectural marvel, the chariot-shaped Airavatesvara Temple at Dharasuram on the outskirts of modern Kumbakonam. Chola
Chola
administration and territorial integrity until the rule of Kulothunga Chola III was stable and very prosperous up to 1215, but during his rule itself, the decline of the Chola
Chola
power started following his defeat by Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II in 1215–16. Subsequently, the Cholas also lost control of the island of Lanka
Lanka
and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power. Portrait of Rajaraja Chola and his guru Karuvurar at Brihadeeswarar Temple

In continuation of the decline, also marked by the resurgence of the Pandyan dynasty as the most powerful rulers in South India, a lack of a controlling central administration in its erstwhile-Pandyan territories prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy. Details of the Pandyan civil war and the role played by the Cholas and Sinhalas, are present in the _ Mahavamsa _ as well as the Pallavarayanpettai Inscriptions.

The Cholas, under Rajaraja Chola III and later, his successor Rajendra Chola
Chola
III, were quite weak and therefore, experienced continuous trouble. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I , even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. At the close of the 12th century, the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the Kannada country, but they too faced constant trouble from the Seunas and the Kalachuris, who were occupying Chalukya capital because those empires were their new rivals. So naturally, the Hoysalas found it convenient to have friendly relations with the Cholas from the time of Kulothunga Chola
Chola
III, who had defeated Hoysala Veera Ballala II, who had subsequent marital relations with the Chola
Chola
monarch. This continued during the time of Rajaraja Chola III the son and successor of Kulothunga Chola III

The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power who ultimately banished the Hoysalas from Malanadu or Kannada country, who were allies of the Cholas from Tamil country and the demise of the Cholas themselves ultimately was caused by the Pandyas in 1279. The Pandyas first steadily gained control of the Tamil country as well as territories in Sri Lanka, Chera country, Telugu country under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II and his able successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan before inflicting several defeats on the joint forces of the Cholas under Rajaraja Chola III, his successor Rajendra Chola III and the Hoysalas under Someshwara, his son Ramanatha Rajendra III tried to survive by aligning with the Kadava Pallavas and the Hoysalas in turn in order to counter the constantly rising power of the Pandyans who were the major players in the Tamil country from 1215 and had intelligently consolidated their position in Madurai-Rameswaram-Ilam-Cheranadu and Kanniyakumari belt, and had been steadily increasing their territories in the Kaveri belt between Dindigul-Tiruchy-Karur-Satyamangalam as well as in the Kaveri Delta i.e., Thanjavur-Mayuram-Chidambaram-Vriddhachalam-Kanchi, finally marching all the way up to Arcot—Tirumalai-Nellore-Visayawadai-Vengi-Kalingam belt by 1250.

OUTLINE OF SOUTH ASIAN HISTORY

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BCE)

Madrasian Culture (2,500,000 BCE)

Riwatian Culture (1,900,000 BCE)

Soanian Culture (500,000–250,000 BCE)

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BCE)

Bhirrana Culture (7570–6200 BCE)

Mehrgarh Culture (7000–3300 BCE)

Chalcolithic (3500–1500 BCE)

Jorwe Culture (3500–2000 BCE)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BCE)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BCE)

Bronze
Bronze
Age (3300–1300 BCE)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BCE)

– Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BCE)

– Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BCE)

– Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BCE)

– Swat culture (1600–500 BCE)

Iron Age (1300–230 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

– Janapadas (1500–600 BCE)

– Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BCE)

Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BCE)

Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BCE)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BCE)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BCE)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BCE–1600 CE)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BCE)

Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BCE)

Ror Dynasty (450 BCE–489 CE)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BCE)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BCE)

Macedonian Empire
Empire
(330–323 BCE)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BCE)

Seleucid India
India
(312–303 BCE)

Pandya Empire
Empire
(c. 300 BCE–1345 CE)

Chera Kingdom
Chera Kingdom
(c. 300 BCE–1102 CE)

Chola
Chola
Empire (c. 300 BCE–1279 CE)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BCE–800 CE)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire
Empire
(c. 250 BCE–c. 500 CE)

Parthian Empire (247 BCE–224 CE)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BCE–1206 CE)

Satavahana Empire
Empire
(230 BCE–220 CE)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BCE–300 CE)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (200 BCE–400 CE)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 BCE–c. 50 BCE)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE)

Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE–10 CE)

Kanva Empire
Empire
(75–26 BCE)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (21–c. 130 CE)

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Empire
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* v * t * e

The Pandyas steadily routed both the Hoysalas and the Cholas. They also dispossessed the Hoysalas, by defeating them under Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan at Kannanur Kuppam. At the close of Rajendra's reign, the Pandyan empire was at the height of prosperity and had taken the place of the Chola
Chola
empire in the eyes of the foreign observers. The last recorded date of Rajendra III is 1279. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. The Hoysalas were routed from Kannanur Kuppam around 1279 by Kulasekhara Pandiyan and in the same war the last Chola
Chola
emperor Rajendra III was routed and the Chola
Chola
empire ceased to exist thereafter. Thus the Chola
Chola
empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire and sank into obscurity and ceased to exist by the end of the 13th century.

ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIETY

CHOLA TERRITORY

Main article: Chola
Chola
Nadu

According to Tamil tradition, the Chola
Chola
country comprised the region that includes the modern-day Tiruchirapalli District , Tiruvarur District , Nagapattinam District , Ariyalur District , Perambalur district , Pudukkottai district , Thanjavur
Thanjavur
District in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Karaikal District . The river Kaveri and its tributaries dominate this landscape of generally flat country that gradually slopes towards the sea, unbroken by major hills or valleys. The river, which is also known as the _Ponni_ (_Golden_) river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. The annual floods in the Kaveri marked an occasion for celebration, known as _ Adiperukku _, in which the whole nation took part.

Kaveripoompattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
knew of this, which he called Khaberis, and the other port town of Nagappattinam as the most important centres of Cholas. These two towns became hubs of trade and commerce and attracted many religious faiths, including Buddhism. Roman ships found their way into these ports. Roman coins dating from the early centuries of the common era have been found near the Kaveri delta.

The other major towns were Thanjavur, Uraiyur and Kudanthai, now known as Kumbakonam . After Rajendra Chola
Chola
moved his capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
lost its importance.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Chola Government

In the age of the Cholas, the whole of South India
India
was for the first time brought under a single government.

The Cholas' system of government was monarchical, as in the Sangam age. However, there was little in common between the local chiefdoms of the earlier period and the imperial-like states of Rajaraja Chola and his successors. Aside from the early capital at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and the later on at Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Kanchipuram and Madurai
Madurai
were considered to be regional capitals in which occasional courts were held. The king was the supreme leader and a benevolent authoritarian. His administrative role consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him. Due to the lack of a legislature or a legislative system in the modern sense, the fairness of king's orders dependent on his morality and belief in _Dharma_. The Chola
Chola
kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth. The temples acted not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity, benefiting the community as a whole. Some of the output of villages throughout the kingdom was given to temples that reinvested some of the wealth accumulated as loans to the settlements. The Chola
Chola
Dynasty was divided into several provinces called Mandalams which were further divided into Valanadus and these Valanadus were sub-divided into units called Kottams or Kutrams. According to Kathleen Gough , during the Chola
Chola
period the Vellalar were the "dominant secular aristocratic caste ... providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the kingdom's bureaucracy, and the upper layer of the peasantry".

Before the reign of Rajaraja Chola I huge parts of the Chola territory were ruled by hereditary lords and local princes who were in a loose alliance with the Chola
Chola
rulers. Thereafter, until the reign of Vikrama Chola in 1133 CE when the Chola
Chola
power was at its peak, these hereditary lords and local princes virtually vanished from the Chola records and were either replaced or turned into dependent officials. Through these dependent officials the administration was improved and the Chola
Chola
kings were able to exercise a closer control over the different parts of the empire. There was an expansion of the administrative structure, particularly from the reign of Rajaraja Chola
Chola
I onwards. The government at this time had a large land revenue department, consisting of several tiers, which was largely concerned with maintaining accounts. The assessment and collection of revenue were undertaken by corporate bodies such as the ur, nadu, sabha, nagaram and sometimes by local chieftains who passed the revenue to the centre. During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I, the state initiated a massive project of land survey and assessment and there was a reorganisation of the empire into units known as valanadus.

The order of the King
King
was first communicated by the executive officer to the local authorities. Afterwards the records of the transaction was drawn up and attested by a number of witnesses who were either local magnates or government officers.

At local government level, every village was a self-governing unit. A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a _Kurram_, _Nadu_ or _Kottam_, depending on the area. A number of _Kurrams_ constituted a _valanadu_. These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola
Chola
period.

Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola
Chola
Empire; minor disputes were settled at the village level. Punishment for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished with fines. Crimes of the state, such as treason, were heard and decided by the king himself; the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or confiscation of property.

MILITARY

The Chola
Chola
dynasty had a professional military, of which the king was the supreme commander. It had four elements, comprising the cavalry, the elephant corps, several divisions of infantry and a navy. There were regiments of bowmen and swordsmen while the swordsmen were the most permanent and dependable troops. The Chola
Chola
army was spread all over the country and was stationed in local garrisons or military camps known as _Kodagams_. The elephants played a major role in the army and the dynasty had numerous war elephants . These carried houses or huge Howdahs on their backs, full of soldiers who shot arrows at long range and who fought with spears at close quarters.

The Chola
Chola
rulers built several palaces and fortifications to protect their cities. The fortifications were mostly made up of bricks but other materials like stone, wood and mud were also used. According to the ancient Tamil text _Silappadikaram_, the Tamil kings defended their forts with catapults that threw stones, huge cauldrons of boiling water or molten lead, and hooks, chains and traps.

The soldiers of the Chola
Chola
dynasty used weapons such as swords, bows, javelins, spears and shields which were made up of steel. Particularly the famous Wootz steel , which has a long history in south India
India
dating back to the period before the Christian era, seems also be used to produce weapons. The army consisted of people from different castes but the warriors of the Kaikolar and Vellalar castes played a prominent role.

The Chola
Chola
navy was the zenith of ancient India
India
sea power. It played a vital role in the expansion of the empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon
Ceylon
islands and naval raids on Srivijaya. The navy grew both in size and status during the medieval Cholas reign. The Chola admirals commanded much respect and prestige. The navy commanders also acted as diplomats in some instances. From 900 to 1100, the navy had grown from a small backwater entity to that of a potent power projection and diplomatic symbol in all of Asia, but was gradually reduced in significance when the Cholas fought land battles subjugating the Chalukyas of the Andhra-Kannada area in South India.

A martial art called _ Silambam _ was patronised by the Chola
Chola
rulers. Ancient and medieval Tamil texts mention different forms of martial traditions but the ultimate expression of the loyalty of the warrior to his commander was a form of martial suicide called _Navakandam_. The medieval _Kalingathu Parani_ text, which celebrates the victory of Kulothunga Chola I and his general in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail.

ECONOMY

Land revenue and trade tax were the main source of income. The Chola rulers issued their coins in gold, silver and copper. The Chola economy was based on three tiers—at the local level, agricultural settlements formed the foundation to commercial towns nagaram, which acted as redistribution centres for externally produced items bound for consumption in the local economy and as sources of products made by nagaram artisans for the international trade. At the top of this economic pyramid were the elite merchant groups (_samayam_) who organised and dominated the regions international maritime trade.

One of the main articles which were exported to foreign countries were cotton cloth. Uraiyur, the capital of the early Chola
Chola
rulers, was a famous centre for cotton textiles which were praised by Tamil poets. The Chola
Chola
rulers actively encouraged the weaving industry and derived revenue from it. During this period the weavers started to organise themselves into guilds. The weavers had their own residential sector in all towns. The most important weaving communities in early medieval times were the Saliyar and Kaikolar . During the Chola
Chola
period silk weaving attained a high degree and Kanchipuram became one of the main centres for silk.

Metal crafts reached its zenith during the 10th to 11th centuries because the Chola
Chola
rulers like Chembian Maadevi extended their patronage to metal craftsmen. Wootz steel was a major export item.

The farmers occupied one of the highest positions in society. These were the Vellalar community who formed the nobility or the landed aristocracy of the country and who were economically a powerful group. Agriculture was the principal occupation for many people. Besides the landowners, there were others dependent on agriculture. The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola
Chola
rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry.

In almost all villages the distinction between persons paying the land-tax (iraikudigal) and those who did not was clearly established. There was a class of hired day-labourers who assisted in agricultural operations on the estates of other people and received a daily wage. All cultivable land was held in one of the three broad classes of tenure which can be distinguished as peasant proprietorship called vellan-vagai, service tenure and eleemosynary tenure resulting from charitable gifts. The vellan-vagai was the ordinary ryotwari village of modern times, having direct relations with the government and paying a land-tax liable to revision from time to time. The vellan-vagai villages fell into two broad classes- one directly remitting a variable annual revenue to the state and the other paying dues of a more or less fixed character to the public institutions like temples to which they were assigned. The prosperity of an agricultural country depends to a large extent on the facilities provided for irrigation. Apart from sinking wells and excavating tanks, the Chola
Chola
rulers threw mighty stone dams across the Kaveri and other rivers, and cut out channels to distribute water over large tracts of land. Rajendra Chola I dug near his capital an artificial lake, which was filled with water from the Kolerun and the Vellar rivers.

There existed a brisk internal trade in several articles carried on by the organised mercantile corporations in various parts of the country. The metal industries and the jewellers art had reached a high degree of excellence. The manufacture of sea-salt was carried on under government supervision and control. Trade was carried on by merchants organised in guilds. The guilds described sometimes by the terms nanadesis were a powerful autonomous corporation of merchants which visited different countries in the course of their trade. They had their own mercenary army for the protection of their merchandise. There were also local organisations of merchants called "_nagaram_" in big centres of trade like Kanchipuram and Mamallapuram.

HOSPITALS

Hospitals were maintained by the Chola
Chola
kings, whose government gave lands for that purpose. The Tirumukkudal inscription shows that a hospital was named after Vira Chola. Many diseases were cured by the doctors of the hospital, which was under the control of a chief physician who was paid annually 80 Kalams of paddy, 8 Kasus and a grant of land. Apart from the doctors, other remunerated staff included a nurse, barber (who performed minor operations) and a waterman.

The Chola
Chola
queen Kundavai also established a hospital at Tanjavur and gave land for the perpetual maintenance of it.

SOCIETY

During the Chola
Chola
period several guilds, communities and castes emerged. The guild was one of the most significant institutions of south India
India
and merchants organised themselves into guilds. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds though other guilds such as Anjuvannam and Valanjiyar were also in existence. The farmers occupied one of the highest positions in society. These were the Vellalar community who formed the nobility or the landed aristocracy of the country and who were economically a powerful group. The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola
Chola
rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry. The Vellalar were also sent to northern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
by the Chola
Chola
rulers as settlers. The Ulavar community were working in the field which was associated with agriculture and the peasants were known as Kalamar.

The Kaikolar community were weavers and merchants but they also maintained armies. During the Chola
Chola
period they had predominant trading and military roles. During the reign of the Imperial Chola rulers (10th-13th century) there were major changes in the temple administration and land ownership. There was more involvement of non-Brahmin elements in the temple administration. This can be attributed to the shift in money power. Skilled classes like the weavers and the merchant-class had become prosperous. Land ownership was no longer a privilege of the Brahmins (priest caste) and the Vellalar land owners.

There is little information on the size and the density of the population during the Chola
Chola
reign The stability in the core Chola region enabled the people to lead a productive and contented life. However, there were reports of widespread famine caused by natural calamities.

The quality of the inscriptions of the regime indicates a high level of literacy and education. The text in these inscriptions was written by court poets and engraved by talented artisans. Education in the contemporary sense was not considered important; there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that some village councils organised schools to teach the basics of reading and writing to children, although there is no evidence of systematic educational system for the masses. Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons. Tamil was the medium of education for the masses; Religious monasteries (_matha_ or _gatika_) were centres of learning and received government support.

FOREIGN TRADE

See also: Chola Navy and Relationship of the Cholas with the Chinese This is the Anchor of an Unknown LOLA class Chola
Chola
ship, excavated by the Indian Navy divers off the coast of Poombuhar.

The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China
China
and Southeast Asia. Towards the end of the 9th century, southern India
India
had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity. The south Indian guilds played a major role in interregional and overseas trade. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds who followed the conquering Chola armies. The encouragement by the Chola
Chola
court furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Ayyavole and Manigramam guilds into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and China. The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. The Tang dynasty of China, the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
empire under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid
Abbasid
Kalifat at Baghdad
Baghdad
were the main trading partners.

Some credit for the emergence of a world market must also go to the dynasty. It played a significant role in linking the markets of China to the rest of the world. The market structure and economic policies of the Chola
Chola
dynasty were more conducive to a large-scale, cross-regional market trade than those enacted by the Chinese Song Dynasty . A Chola
Chola
record gives their rationale for engagement in foreign trade: "Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses attach to yourself by providing them with villages and decent dwellings in the city, by affording them daily audience, presents and allowing them profits. Then those articles will never go to your enemies."

Song dynasty
Song dynasty
reports record that an embassy from _Chulian_ (Chola) reached the Chinese court in 1077, and that the king of the Chulian at the time, Kulothunga I, was called _Ti-hua-kia-lo_. This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with copper coins in exchange for articles of tribute , including glass and spices. Probably, the motive behind Rajendra's expedition to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was the protection of the merchants' interests.

CANALS AND WATER TANKS

There was tremendous agrarian expansion during the rule of the imperial Chola
Chola
Dynasty (c. 900-1270 AD) all over Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and particularly in the Kaveri Basin. Most of the canals of the Kaveri River belongs to this period e.g., Uyyakondan canal, Rajendran vaykkal, Sembian Mahadegvi vaykkal. There was a well-developed and highly efficient system of water management from the village level upwards. The increase in the royal patronage and also the number of devadana and bramadeya lands which increased the role of the temples and village assemblies in the field. Committees like eri-variyam(tank-committee) and totta-variam(garden committees) were active as also the temples with their vast resources in land, men and money. The water tanks that came up during the Chola
Chola
period are too many to be listed here. But a few most outstanding may be briefly mentioned. Rajendra Chola
Chola
built a huge tank named Solagangam in his capital city Gangaikonda Solapuram and was described as the liquid pillar of victory. About 16 miles long, it was provided with sluices and canals for irrigating the lands in the neighbouring areas. Another very large lake of this period, which even today seems an important source of irrigation was the Viranameri near Kattumannarkoil in South Arcot district founded by Parantaka Chola. Other famous lakes of this period are Madurantakam, Sundra-cholapereri, Kundavai-Pereri (after a Chola
Chola
queen).

CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Temple

Under the Cholas, the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art , religion , music and literature . In all of these spheres, the Chola
Chola
period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India.

The Chola
Chola
conquest of Kadaram (Kedah) and Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire
Empire
, enabled them to influence the local cultures. Examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
owe much to the legacy of the Cholas. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan
Prambanan
in Indonesia
Indonesia
exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture.

According to the Malay chronicle _Sejarah Melayu_, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Chola
Chola
rule is remembered in Malaysia
Malaysia
today as many princes there have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, one such being Raja Chulan , the Raja of Perak .

ART

Main article: Chola
Chola
Art
Art
With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls, the Airavateswara temple at Darasuram
Darasuram
is a classic example of Chola art and architecture

The Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design. They built a number of Shiva
Shiva
temples along the banks of the river Kaveri. The template for these and future temples was formulated by Aditya I and Parantaka. The Chola
Chola
temple architecture has been appreciated for its magnificence as well as delicate workmanship, ostensibly following the rich traditions of the past bequeathed to them by the Pallava Dynasty. Architectural historian James Fergusson says that "the Chola
Chola
artists conceived like giants and finished like jewelers". A new development in Chola art that characterised the Dravidian architecture in later times was the addition of a huge gateway called gopuram to the enclosure of the temple, which had gradually taken its form and attained maturity under the Pandya Dynasty. The Chola
Chola
school of art also spread to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia.

Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola
Chola
I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola
Chola
architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and Gangaikondacholapuram. The magnificent Shiva
Shiva
temple of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
, completed around 1009, is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, it is at the apex of South Indian architecture. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram , the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to excel its predecessor. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and in the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire
Chola Empire
under Rajendra. The Brihadisvara Temple, the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram
Darasuram
were declared as World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO
UNESCO
and are referred to as the Great living Chola
Chola
temples .

The Chola
Chola
period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India
India
may be seen many fine figures of Shiva
Shiva
in various forms, such as Vishnu
Vishnu
and his consort Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, and the Shaivite saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.

LITERATURE

Main article: Chola literature Chola
Chola
bronze from the Ulster Museum

The Imperial Chola
Chola
era was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature. Chola
Chola
records cite many works, including the _Rajarajesvara Natakam_, _Viranukkaviyam_ and _Kannivana Puranam_.

The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the construction of numerous temples and these in turn generated Shaiva and Vaishnava devotional literature. Jain and Buddhist
Buddhist
authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. _ Jivaka-chintamani _ by Tirutakkatevar and _Sulamani_ by Tolamoli are among notable works by non-Hindu authors. The grammarian Buddhamitra wrote a text on Tamil grammar called _Virasoliyam_. Commentaries were written on the great text _Tolkāppiyam_ which deals with grammar but which also mentions ethics of warfare. _Periapuranam_ was another remarkable literary piece of this period. This work is in a sense a national epic of the Tamil people because it treats of the lives of the saints who lived in all parts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and belonged to all classes of society, men and women, high and low, educated and uneducated.

Kamban flourished during the reign of Kulothunga Chola
Chola
III. His _ Ramavataram _ (also referred to as _Kambaramayanam_) is an epic of Tamil literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki 's _ Ramayana
Ramayana
_, it is generally accepted that his work is not a simple translation or adaptation of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epic. He imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola
Chola
country.

Jayamkondar 's masterpiece, _Kalingattuparani_, is an example of narrative poetry that draws a clear boundary between history and fictitious conventions. This describes the events during Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I's war in Kalinga and depicts not only the pomp and circumstance of war, but the gruesome details of the field. The Tamil poet Ottakuttan was a contemporary of Kulothunga Chola I and served at the courts of three of Kulothunga's successors. Ottakuttan wrote _Kulothunga Cholan Ula_, a poem extolling the virtues of the Chola
Chola
king.

_Nannul_ is a Chola
Chola
era work on Tamil grammar. It discusses all five branches of grammar and, according to Berthold Spuler, is still relevant today and is one of the most distinguished normative grammars of literary Tamil.

Of the devotional literature, the arrangement of the Shaivite canon into eleven books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi, who lived close to the end of the 10th century. However, relatively few Vaishnavite works were composed during the Later Chola period, possibly because of the rulers' apparent animosity towards them.

CULTURAL CENTRES

Chola
Chola
rulers took an active interest in the development of temple centres and used the temples to widen the sphere of their royal authority. They established educational institutions and hospitals around the temple, enhanced the beneficial aspects of the role of the temple, and projected the royalty as a very powerful and genial presence. A record of Virarajendra Chola's reign relates to the maintenance of a school in the Jananamandapa within the temple for the study of the Vedas, Sastras, Grammar, and Rupavatara, as well as a hostel for students. The students were provided with food, bathing oil on Saturdays, and oil for pups. A hospital named Virasolan was provided with fifteen beds for sick people. The items of expense set apart for their comforts are rice, a doctor, a surgeon, two maid servants for nursing the patients, and a general servant for the hospital.

RELIGION

_ Bronze
Bronze
Chola
Chola
Statue of Nataraja _ at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Art
, New York City

In general, Cholas were followers of Hinduism. They were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. Kocengannan, an Early Chola, was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Shaivite canon as a Hindu saint.

While the Cholas did build their largest and most important temple dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
, it can be by no means concluded that either they were followers of Shaivism only or that they were not favourably disposed to other faiths. This is borne out by the fact that the second Chola
Chola
king, Aditya I (871–903 CE), built temples for Shiva and also for Vishnu. Inscriptions of 890 refer to his contributions to the construction of the Ranganatha Temple at Srirangapatnam
Srirangapatnam
in the country of the Western Gangas, who were both his feudatories and had connections by marriage with him. He also pronounced that the great temples of Shiva
Shiva
and the Ranganatha temple were to be the _Kuladhanam_ of the Chola
Chola
emperors.

Parantaka II was a devotee of the reclining Vishnu
Vishnu
(Vadivu Azhagiya Nambi) at Anbil, on the banks of the Kaveri river on the outskirts of Tiruchy, to whom he gave numerous gifts and embellishments. He also prayed before him before his embarking on war to regain the territories in and around Kanchi and Arcot from the waning Rashtrakutas and while leading expeditions against both Madurai
Madurai
and Ilam (Sri Lanka). Parantaka I and Parantaka Chola II endowed and built temples for Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu. Rajaraja Chola I patronised Buddhists and provided for the construction of the Chudamani Vihara , a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery in Nagapattinam , at the request of Sri Chulamanivarman, the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Sailendra king.

During the period of the Later Cholas, there are alleged to have been instances of intolerance towards Vaishnavites especially towards their acharya, Ramanuja . Kulothunga Chola II , a staunch Shaivite, is said to have removed a statue of Vishnu
Vishnu
from the Shiva
Shiva
temple at Chidambaram, though there are no epigraphical evidences to support this theory. There is an inscription from 1160 that the custodians of Shiva
Shiva
temples who had social intercourses with Vaishnavites would forfeit their property. However, this is more of a direction to the Shaivite community by its religious heads than any kind of dictat by a Chola
Chola
emperor. While Chola
Chola
kings built their largest temples for Shiva and even while emperors like Rajaraja Chola I held titles like _Sivapadasekharan_, in none of their inscriptions did the Chola emperors proclaim that their clan only and solely followed Shaivism or that Shaivism was the state religion during their rule.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Standing Hanuman
Hanuman
, Chola
Chola
Dynasty, 11th century.

The Chola
Chola
dynasty has inspired many Tamil authors. The most important work of this genre is the popular _ Ponniyin Selvan _ (The son of _Ponni_), a historical novel in Tamil written by Kalki Krishnamurthy . Written in five volumes, this narrates the story of Rajaraja Chola, dealing with the events leading up to the ascension of Uttama Chola to the Chola
Chola
throne. Kalki had used the confusion in the succession to the Chola
Chola
throne after the demise of Parantaka Chola
Chola
II. The book was serialised in the Tamil periodical _Kalki _ during the mid-1950s. The serialisation lasted for nearly five years and every week its publication was awaited with great interest.

Kalki's earlier historical romance, _ Parthiban Kanavu _, deals with the fortunes of the imaginary Chola
Chola
prince Vikraman, who was supposed to have lived as a feudatory of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I during the 7th century. The period of the story lies within the interregnum during which the Cholas were in decline before Vijayalaya Chola
Chola
revived their fortunes. _Parthiban Kanavu_ was also serialised in the _Kalki_ weekly during the early 1950s.

Sandilyan , another popular Tamil novelist, wrote _Kadal Pura_ in the 1960s. It was serialised in the Tamil weekly _ Kumudam _. _Kadal Pura_ is set during the period when Kulothunga Chola I was in exile from the Vengi kingdom after he was denied the throne. It speculates the whereabouts of Kulothunga during this period. Sandilyan's earlier work, _ Yavana Rani _, written in the early 1960s, is based on the life of Karikala Chola. More recently, Balakumaran wrote the novel _Udaiyar _, which is based on the circumstances surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur.

There were stage productions based on the life of Rajaraja Chola during the 1950s and in 1973 Sivaji Ganesan acted in a screen adaptation of a play titled _ Rajaraja Cholan _. The Cholas are featured in the History of the World board game, produced by Avalon Hill .

The Cholas were the subject of the 2010 Tamil-language movie _Aayirathil Oruvan _.

SEE ALSO

* History of Tamil Nadu * List of Tamil monarchs * Tamil and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscriptions in Malaysia
Malaysia

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as _Periplus_. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri , _A History of Cyril and Lulu Charles_, p 106 * ^ The period covered by the Sangam poetry is likely to extend not longer than five or six generations. * ^ The Ashokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural, implying that, in his time, there were more than one Chola. * ^ The direct line of Cholas of the Vijayalaya dynasty came to an end with the death of Virarajendra Chola and the assassination of his son Athirajendra Chola . Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I, ascended the throne in 1070. * ^ The only evidence for the approximate period of these early kings is the Sangam literature and the synchronisation with the history of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as given in the _ Mahavamsa _. Gajabahu I who is said to be the contemporary of the Chera Senguttuvan , belonged to the 2nd century and this means the poems mentioning Senguttuvan and his contemporaries date to that period. * ^ Pandya Kadungon and Pallava Simhavishnu overthrew the Kalabhras. Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king. * ^ _ Periyapuranam _, a Shaivite religious work of 12th century tells us of the Pandya king Nindrasirnedumaran, who had for his queen a Chola
Chola
princess. * ^ Copperplate grants of the Pallava Buddhavarman (late 4th century) mention that the king as the "underwater fire that destroyed the ocean of the Chola
Chola
army". Simhavishnu (575–600) is also stated to have seized the Chola
Chola
country. Mahendravarman I was called the "crown of the Chola
Chola
country" in his inscriptions. * ^ K. A. Nilakanta Sastri postulates that there was a live connection between the early Cholas and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra country. The northward migration probably took place during the Pallava domination of Simhavishnu. Sastri also categorically rejects the claims that these were the descendants of Karikala Chola. * ^ "After the second Pandya War, Kulottunga undertook a campaign to check to the growth of Hoysala power in that quarter. He re-established Chola
Chola
suzerainty over the Adigaimans of Tagadur, defeated a Chera ruler in battle and performed a _vijayabhisheka_ in Karuvur (1193). His relations with the Hoysala Ballala II seem to have become friendly afterwards, for Ballala married a Chola
Chola
princess". * ^ The Buddhist
Buddhist
work _Milinda Panha_ dated to the early Christian era, mentions Kolapttna among the best-known sea ports on the Chola coast. * ^ The only other time when peninsular India
India
would be brought under one umbrella before the independence of India
India
was during the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1614). * ^ By common consent, the finest Chola
Chola
masterpieces are the bronze images of Siva Nataraja.

CITATIONS

* ^ "Chronicles of the past in copper". _The Hindu_. 25 December 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2017. * ^ A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century (2008), Upinder Singh, p. 559. * ^ John N. Miksic 2013 , p. 79"...the north end of the Straits, from Barus to Kedah and Takuapa, may have been under direct Chola administration; a crown prince of the Chola
Chola
dynasty probably served as viceroy in Kedah." * ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri , _A History of South India_, p 157 * ^ _A_ _B_ Keay, p 215 * ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri , _A History of South India_, p 158 * ^ Majumdar (contains no mention of Maldives) * ^ Meyer, p 73 * ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri , _A History of South India_, p 195 * ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri , _A History of South India_, p 196 * ^ Vasudevan, pp 20–22 * ^ Keay, pp 217–218 * ^ Thai Art
Art
with Indian Influences by Promsak Jermsawatdi p.57 * ^ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Stewart Bowman p.335 * ^ Prasad (1988) , p. 120 * ^ Sastri (1984) , pp. 19-20 * ^ Archaeological News A. L. Frothingham, Jr. _The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts_, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 69–125 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 3 * ^ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Bowman p.401 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 20 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 170-172 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 19-20, 104-106 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Tripathi (1967) , p. 457 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 137 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , p. 104 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tripathi (1967) , p. 458 * ^ _A_ _B_ Sastri (2002) , p. 116 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 105-106 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 113 * ^ R, Narasimhacharya (1942). _History of the Kannada Language_. Asian Educational Services. p. 48. ISBN 9788120605596 . * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 130, 135, 137 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 139 * ^ Thapar (1995) , p. 268 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 135 * ^ _A_ _B_ Sastri (2002) , pp. 130, 133Quote:"The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land almost completely in this debacle, though a branch of them can be traced towards the close of the period in Rayalaseema – the Telugu-Chodas , whose kingdom is mentioned by Yuan Chwang in the seventh century A.D." * ^ _A_ _B_ Sastri (1984) , p. 102 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , p. 115 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 95 * ^ Sastri (1984) , pp. 104-105 * ^ Tripathi (1967) , p. 459 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 31 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 4Quote:"it is not known what relation, if any, the Telugu-Chodas of the Renadu country in the Ceded District, bore to their namesakes of the Tamil land, though they claimed descent from Karikala, the most celebrated of the early Chola
Chola
monarchs of the Sangam age." * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 107 * ^ Tripathi (1967) , pp. 458-459 * ^ Sen (1999) , pp. 477-478 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Dehejia (1990) , p. xiv * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , pp. 122–123 * ^ Eraly (2011) , p. 67 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 157 * ^ Sen (1999) , pp. 373 * ^ Eraly (2011) , p. 68 * ^ "Endowments to the Temple". Archaeological Survey of India. * ^ _The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India_ by Balaji Sadasivan p.133 * ^ _A Comprehensive History of Medieval India_, by Farooqui Salma Ahmed, Salma Ahmed Farooqui p.25 * ^ _Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium_ by Ronald Findlay, Kevin H. O'Rourke p.67 * ^ _History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800_ by Geoffrey C. Gunn p.43 * ^ Sen (2009) , p. 91 * ^ _Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations_ by Tansen Sen p.226 * ^ Kalā: The Journal of Indian Art
Art
History Congress, The Congress, 1995, p.31 * ^ Sastri (1984) , pp. 194-210 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 407 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 158 * ^ _Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India_ by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar p.233 * ^ _A_ _B_ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , pp. 107-109 * ^ ndia: The Most Dangerous Decades by Selig S. Harrison p.31 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 184 * ^ Mukund (2012) , p. xlii * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 178 * ^ Between 2 Oceans (2nd Edn): A Military History of Singapore from 1275 to 1971 by Malcolm H. Murfett, John Miksic, Brian Farell, Chiang Ming Shun p.16 * ^ _South India_ by Stuart Butler, Jealous p.38 * ^ _Asia: A Concise History_ by Arthur Cotterell p.190 * ^ Paine (2014) , p. 281 * ^ _History of Asia_ by B.V. Rao p.211 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 405 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 120 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 408 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tripathi (1967) , p. 471 * ^ _South Indian Inscriptions_, Vol. 12 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , pp. 128-129 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 194 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tripathi (1967) , p. 472 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 410 * ^ South India
India
and Her Muhammadan Invaders by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar p.40-41 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 195-196 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 196 * ^ Tripathi (1967) , p. 485 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 197 * ^ _A_ _B_ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 130 * ^ Proceedings, American Philosophical Society _(1978), vol. 122, No. 6, p 414_ * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 23 * ^ Nagasamy (1981) * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 107 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 106 * ^ Stein (1998) , p. 26 * ^ Vasudevan (2003) , pp. 20-22 * ^ A Global History of Architecture by Francis D. K. Ching, Mark M. Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash p.338 * ^ History of India
India
by N. Jayapalan p.171 ISBN 81-7156-914-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gough (2008) , p. 29 * ^ Talbot (2001) , p. 172. * ^ Singh (2008) , p. 590 * ^ _Administrative System in India: Vedic Age to 1947_ by U. B. Singh p.77 * ^ Tripathi (1967) , pp. 474-475 * ^ Stein (1998) , p. 20 * ^ _A_ _B_ Sastri (2002) , p. 185 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 150 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 465 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 477 * ^ Sakhuja & Sakhuja (2009) , p. 88 * ^ _A_ _B_ Barua (2005) , p. 18 * ^ Dehejia (1990) , p. 79 * ^ Subbarayalu (2009) , pp. 97-99 * ^ Eraly (2011) , p. 176 * ^ Rajasuriar (1998) , p. 15 * ^ Sen (1999) , p. 205 * ^ Technology and Society by Menon R.V.G. p.15 * ^ Stein (1980) , p. 130 * ^ Lucassen & Lucassen (2014) , p. 120 * ^ The State at War in South Asia by Pradeep Barua p.17 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 175 * ^ _The Pearson General Studies Manual_ 2009, 1/e by Showick Thorpe Edgar Thorpe p.59 * ^ Singh (2008) , p. 54 * ^ _A_ _B_ Schmidt (1995) , p. 32 * ^ Devare (2009) , p. 179 * ^ Eraly (2011) , p. 208 * ^ Ramaswamy (2007) , p. 20 * ^ _A_ _B_ Singh (2008) , p. 599 * ^ _Trade and Politics on the Coromandel Coast: Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth centuries_ by Radhika Seshan p.18 * ^ _Indian Textiles: Past and Present_ by G. K. Ghosh, Shukla Ghosh p.123-124 * ^ _Kanchipuram: Land of Legends, Saints and Temples_ by P. V. L. Narasimha Rao p.134 * ^ Ramaswamy (2007) , p. 51 * ^ Mukherjee (2011) , p. 105 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _History of People and Their Environs: Essays in Honour of Prof. B.S. Chandrababu_ by S.Ganeshram p.319 * ^ _A_ _B_ Singh (2008) , p. 592 * ^ Sen (1999) , pp. 490-492 * ^ Indian History by Reddy p.B57 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mukund (1999) , pp. 30-32 * ^ Ramaswamy (2007) , p. 86 * ^ Rothermund (1993) , p. 9 * ^ _Economic History of India_ by N. Jayapalan p.49 * ^ Temple art under the Chola
Chola
queens by Balasubrahmanyam Venkataraman p.72 * ^ _Temple Art
Art
Under the Chola
Chola
Queens_ by Balasubrahmanyam Venkataraman p.72 * ^ _A_ _B_ Mukund (1999) , p. 29-30 * ^ Hellmann-Rajanayagam (2004) , p. 104 * ^ _The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire
Empire
in South India_, by Carla M. Sinopoli p.188 * ^ Sadarangani (2004) , p. 16 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 284 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , pp. 125, 129 * ^ Scharfe (2002) , p. 180 * ^ 17th century Italian traveler Pietro Della Valle (1623) has given a vivid account of the village schools in South India. These accounts reflect the system of primary education in existence until the morder times in Tamil Nadu * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 293 * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , pp. 116-117 * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , pp. 12, 118 * ^ Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p.159 * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , p. 124 * ^ Tripathi (1967) , pp. 465, 477 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 604 * ^ _Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations_ by Tansen Sen p.156 * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , p. 117 * ^ Thapar (1995) , p. xv * ^ Mukund (2012) , p. 92 * ^ Mukund (2012) , p. 95 * ^ _History of Agriculture in India, Up to c. 1200 A.D._ by Lallanji Gopal p.501 * ^ Mitter (2001) , p. 2 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 418 * ^ Thapar (1995) , p. 403Quote: "It was, however, in bronze sculptures that the Chola
Chola
craftsmen excelled, producing images rivalling the best anywhere." * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , p. 159 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 789 * ^ Kulke & Rothermund (2001) , pp. 159-160 * ^ A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development by Kenneth R. Hall * ^ Aryatarangini, the Saga of the Indo-Aryans, by A. Kalyanaraman p.158 * ^ India
India
and Malaya Through the Ages: by S. Durai Raja Singam * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tripathi (1967) , p. 479 * ^ Dehejia (1990) , p. 10 * ^ Harle (1994) , p. 295 * ^ Mitter (2001) , p. 57 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _ Temples
Temples
of South India_ by V. V. Subba Reddy p.110 * ^ Jermsawatdi (1979) , p. 57 * ^ _Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture_ by John Stewart Bowman p.335 * ^ Vasudevan (2003) , pp. 21-24 * ^ Nagasamy (1970) * ^ "Great Living Chola
Chola
Temples". UNESCO
UNESCO
. Retrieved 2008-06-03. * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 186 * ^ Mitter (2001) , p. 163 * ^ Thapar (1995) , p. 309-310 * ^ Wolpert (1999) , p. 174 * ^ Mitter (2001) , p. 59 * ^ Sastri (1984) , pp. 663-664 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 333 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 339 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 188 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 339-340 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ismail (1988) , p. 1195 * ^ _Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of southern India_ by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar p.127 * ^ _The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics_ by Roland Greene, Stephen Cushman, Clare Cavanagh, Jahan Ramazani, Paul F. Rouzer, Harris Feinsod, David Marno, Alexandra Slessarev p.1410 * ^ Singh (2008) , p. 27 * ^ _Portraits of a Nation: History of Ancient India_, by Kamlesh Kapur p.617 * ^ _Concise Encyclopaedia Of India_ by Kulwant Rai Gupta, Amita Gupta p.288 * ^ _Legend of Ram_ By Sanujit Ghose * ^ _Rays and Ways of Indian Culture_ By D. P. Dubey * ^ _A_ _B_ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 116 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 20, 340-341 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 184, 340 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 20 * ^ _Encyclopaedia of Indian literature, vol. 1_, p 307 * ^ Spuler (1975) , p. 194 * ^ Sastri (2002) , pp. 342-343 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 115 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 681 * ^ Sadarangani (2004) , p. 15 * ^ _South Indian Shrines_, Illustrated by P. V. Jagadisa Ayyar p.23 * ^ Darasuram
Darasuram
Temple Inscriptions @. Whatisindia.com (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ Tripathi (1967) , p. 480 * ^ Vasudevan (2003) , p. 102 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 214 * ^ Majumdar (1987) , p. 4067 * ^ Stein (1998) , p. 134 * ^ Vasudevan (2003) , p. 104 * ^ Sastri (2002) , p. 176 * ^ Sastri (1984) , p. 645 * ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003) , p. 126 * ^ Das (1995) , p. 108 * ^ "Versatile writer and patriot". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 2008-05-29. * ^ Das (1995) , pp. 108-109 * ^ "English translation of Ponniyin Selvan". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 2008-05-29. * ^ "Lines that Speak". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 2008-05-29. * ^ Das (1995) , p. 109 * ^ _Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, vol. 1_, pp 631–632 * ^ "Book review of Udaiyar". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2005-02-22. Retrieved 2008-05-30.

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EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CHOLA DYNASTY _.

* UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites – Chola
Chola
temples * Art
Art
of Cholas * Chola
Chola
coins of Sri Lanka

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Tribes and kingdoms mentioned in the _ Mahabharata _

* Abhira * Andhra * Anarta * Anga * Anupa * Assaka * Asmaka * Avanti * Ay * Bahlika * Bhārata * Chedi * Chera * Chola
Chola
* Chinas * Dakshina Kosala * Dakshinatya * Danda * Dasarna *

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