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The GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA (CHLOROBIACEAE) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria . Together with the non-photosynthetic IGNAVIBACTERIACEAE, they form the phylum CHLOROBI. Most closely related to the distant Bacteroidetes , they are accordingly assigned their own phylum .

Green sulfur bacteria are nonmotile (except Chloroherpeton thalassium, which may glide ). Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is achieved using a Type 1 reaction centre using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and in chlorosomes which employ BChl c, d, or e; in addition chlorophyll a is also present. They use sulfide ions, hydrogen or ferrous iron as an electron donor and the process is mediated by the type I reaction centre and Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex . Elemental sulfur deposited outside the cell may be further oxidized. By contrast, the photosynthesis in plants uses water as the electron donor and produces oxygen.

Chlorobium tepidum has emerged as a model organism for the group; although only 10 genomes have been sequenced, these are quite comprehensive of the family's biodiversity. Their 2-3 Mb genomes encode 1750-2800 genes , 1400-1500 of which are common to all strains. The apparent absence of two-component histidine -kinases and response regulators suggest limited phenotypic plasticity . Their small dependence on organic molecule transporters and transcription factors also indicate these organisms are adapted to a narrow range of energy-limited conditions, an ecology shared with the simpler cyanobacteria , Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus
Synechococcus
.

A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico
Mexico
at a depth of 2,500 m in the Pacific Ocean . At this depth, the bacterium, designated GSB1, lives off the dim glow of the thermal vent since no sunlight can penetrate to that depth.

Green sulfur bacteria appear in Lake Matano , Indonesia, at a depth of about 110–120 m. The population may include the species Chlorobium ferrooxidans.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phylogeny * 2 Taxonomy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

PHYLOGENY

The currently accepted phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by The All-Species Living Tree Project .

Ignavibacteriaceae

Ignavibacterium Iino et al. 2010 emend. Podosokorskaya et al. 2013

Melioribacter Podosokorskaya et al. 2013

Chlorobiaceae

Chloroherpeton thalassium Gibson et al. 1985

Prosthecochloris

P. aestuarii Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

P. vibrioformis (Pelsh 1936) Imhoff 2003

Chlorobium chlorovibrioides ♦ (Gorlenko et al. 1974) Imhoff 2003

Chlorobaculum

C. tepidum (Wahlund et al. 1996) Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

C. thiosulfatiphilum Imhoff 2003

Chlorobium

C. luteolum (Schmidle 1901) emend. Imhoff 2003

C. phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003

C. limicola Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

C. clathratiforme (Szafer 1911) emend. Imhoff 2003

C. phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003

TAXONOMY

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) See also: Bacterial taxonomy

* Phylum
Phylum
CHLOROBI Iino et al. 2010

* Class Ignavibacteria Iino et al. 2010

* Order Ignavibacteriales Iino et al. 2010

* Family Ignavibacteriaceae Iino et al. 2010

* Genus Ignavibacterium Iino et al. 2010 emend. Podosokorskaya et al. 2013

* Species Ignavibacterium album Iino et al. 2010 emend. Podosokorskaya et al. 2013

* Genus Melioribacter roseus Podosokorskaya et al. 2013

* Species Melioribacter roseus Podosokorskaya et al. 2011

* Class Chlorobea Cavalier-Smith 2002

* Order Chlorobiales Gibbons and Murray 1978

* Family Chlorobiaceae Copeland 1956

* Genus Ancalochloris Gorlenko and Lebedeva 1971

* Species Ancalochloris perfilievii ♪ Gorlenko and Lebedeva 1971

* Genus Chlorobaculum Imhoff 2003

* Species "C. macestae " ♠ Keppen et al. 2008 * Species C. limnaeum Imhoff 2003 * Species C. parvum Imhoff 2003 * Species C. tepidum (Wahlund et al. 1996) Imhoff 2003 (type sp.) * Species C. thiosulfatiphilum Imhoff 2003 * Species C. ferrooxidans Heising et al. 1998 emend. Imhoff 2003 * Species C. luteolum (Schmidle 1901) emend. Imhoff 2003 * Species C. limicola Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003 (type sp.) * Species C. phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003 * Species C. phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003

* Genus Chloroherpeton Gibson et al. 1985

* Species Chloroherpeton thalassium Gibson et al. 1985

* Genus Clathrochloris Witt et al. 1989

* Species "Clathrochloris sulfurica " ♠ Witt et al. 1989

* Genus Pelodictyon Lauterborn 1913

* Species Pelodictyon phaeum Gorlenko 1972

* Genus Prosthecochloris Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003

* Species "P. phaeoasteroides " ♠ Puchkova ">

* ^ A B C D E Bryant DA; Frigaard DU (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and hototrophy illuminated". Trends Microbiol. 14 (11): 488–96. PMID 16997562 . doi :10.1016/j.tim.2006.09.001 . * ^ Green, Beverley R. (2003). Light-Harvesting Antennas in Photosynthesis. p. 8. ISBN 0792363353 . * ^ Beatty JT, Overmann J, Lince MT, Manske AK, Lang AS, Blankenship RE, Van Dover CL, Martinson TA, Plumley FG (2005). "An obligately photosynthetic bacterial anaerobe from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent" . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . 102 (26): 9306–10. PMC 1166624  . PMID 15967984 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0503674102 . * ^ Crowe, S. A.; Jones, C; Katsev, S; Magen, C; O'Neill, A. H.; Sturm, A; Canfield, D. E.; Haffner, G. D.; Mucci, A; Sundby, B; Fowle, D. A. (2008). "Photoferrotrophs thrive in an Archean Ocean analogue" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (published 2008-10-14). 105 (41): 15938–43. ISSN 0148-0227 . PMC 2572968  . PMID 18838679 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0805313105 . * ^ See the All-Species Living Tree Project . Data extracted from the "16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database . Retrieved 2016-03-20. * ^ See the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature . Data extracted from J.P. Euzéby. "Chlorobi". Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2016-03-20. * ^ See the NCBI webpage on Chlorobi Data extracted from Sayers; et al. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved 2016-03-20.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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