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Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
(CWS) is located 18 km north of Marayoor
Marayoor
on SH 17 in the Marayoor
Marayoor
and Kanthalloor
Kanthalloor
panchayats of Devikulam
Devikulam
taluk in the Idukki district
Idukki district
of Kerala
Kerala
state in South India. It is one of twelve wildlife sanctuaries among the protected areas of Kerala.[1] It is under the jurisdiction of and contiguous with Eravikulam National Park to the south. Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary is to the north and Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary is to the east. It forms an integral part of the 1,187 km2 (458 sq mi) block of protected forests straddling the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border in the Anaimalai Hills.[2] The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, is under consideration by the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.[3]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Settlements and crops 3 Fauna 4 Flora 5 Regional Cooperation 6 Gallery 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit] CWS is located between latitude 10º15' - 10º21' N and longitude 77º5' - 77º16' E. [4] The Munnar
Munnar
– Udumalpet road SH 17 passes through the sanctuary for 16 km and divides it into nearly equal portions. Average annual rainfall is only 500 mm, spread over about 48 days, because it is in the rain shadow region of the southern Western Ghats.[2] The altitude ranges from 400 meters (1,300 ft) at east end of the Chinnar River
Chinnar River
to 2,522 meters (8,274 ft) at Kumarikkal Mala
Kumarikkal Mala
peak. Other major peaks in the sanctuary are Nandala Malai 2,372 meters (7,782 ft), Kottakombu malai (2,144 meters (7,034 ft)), Vellaikal malai (1,863 meters (6,112 ft)) and Viriyoottu malai 1,845 meters (6,053 ft). In contrast, Anamudi
Anamudi
peak 2,695 metres (8,842 ft), located 23 kilometers (14 mi) away in the adjacent Eravikulam National Park, is the highest peak in South India. The Chinnar and Pambar rivers are the major perennial water resources in the sanctuary. The Chinnar originates near Kumarikal Malai, follows the interstate boundary along the northwest edge of the sanctuary for 18 km and becomes the Amaravati River
Amaravati River
in Tamil Nadu. The Pambar River
Pambar River
originates in the Anaimudi Hills and is joined by seasonal rivulets and a few perennial streams originating from sholas in the upper reaches. It traverses the Turner’s Valley in Eravikulam National Park and flows down into the sanctuary through the Taliar Valley between Kanthalloor
Kanthalloor
and Marayoor
Marayoor
villages and eastwards through the sanctuary. It joins the Chinnar River
Chinnar River
at Koottar. The Thoovanam water falls lie deep within the sanctuary on the Pambar River. This cascade is a major tourist attraction. The Chinnar, Pambar, Kabani and Bhavani
Bhavani
are the only rivers of the 44 in Kerala
Kerala
that flow eastwards. Settlements and crops[edit] There are 11 tribal settlements inside the Chinnar WLS, each is well demarcated by temporary stone walls. The main inhabitants are Muthuvas and Pulayars. Cultivation of maize, ragi and lemongrass is practiced in the settlements. The Mudhuvas carry out small scale ganja cultivation for their religious purposes.[5] Fauna[edit]

Albino gaur
Albino gaur
or Manjampatti white bison. Albino gaur
Albino gaur
are very rare; this photograph was taken in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary.

The sanctuary's fauna comprises:[6]

28 mammal species, including Indian leopard
Indian leopard
and spotted deer, Indian elephant, gaur, Bengal tiger, sambar deer, common langur, bonnet macaque, gray langur, Nilgiri tahr, rusty-spotted cat and grizzled giant squirrel; 225 bird species including yellow-throated bulbul; 52 reptile species including 29 species of snakes, Indian star tortoise and the largest population of mugger crocodiles in Kerala; 14 fish species observed in the Chinnar and Pambar rivers include Garra mullya, river-carp baril, giant danio and the endangered hill stream game fish Deccan mahseer; 15 amphibian species; 156 species of butterflies.

In 2016, 101 species of spiders were reported.[7] Flora[edit]

View of Chinnar montane rain forest

There are 963 species of flowering plants in the sanctuary.[6] Ecoregions of the sanctuary comprise mostly grassland and wet grasslands vegetation and some South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests and high shola at the higher western elevations. South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests at mid elevations give way to dry deciduous forests and thorny scrub forests in the lower dryer eastern edges of the valley. The major xerophyticspecies in the thorny scrub forests are Acacia arabica, Acacia leucofolia, Acacia concinna, Prosporis juliflora, and Opuntia stricta.[8] The Marayoor
Marayoor
sandalwood forest is located here.[9] Regional Cooperation[edit] Senior officials of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (India), Principal Chief Conservators of Forests of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, together with other senior forest officials of these states and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, met at Thiruvananthapuram on November 3 and 4, 2006 and resolved several mutual issues concerning conservation and protection of forests and wildlife of the region. A regular conference of the forest ministers and forest officials of the southern states is held once a year, in rotation in each state.[10] Gallery[edit]

Information board at Chinnar Checkpost

Chinnar Watchtower

River Pambar

Thoovanam Waterfalls

Chinnar Forest Kerala

References[edit]

^ Kerala
Kerala
Forests and Wildlife Department (2004). "The Sanctuaries and National Parks in Kerala". Govt. of Kerala. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  ^ a b Eco-Informatics Centre, Conservation Database. "Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary". ATREE. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  ^ UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats
Western Ghats
sub cluster, Niligiris. retrieved 4/20/2007 World Heritage sites, Tentative lists ^ Centre for Environment & Development (2004) Forest Fire Forecasting in Western Ghats, India
India
Chinnar wildlife sanctuary[permanent dead link] ^ CED Chinnar wildlife sanctuary[permanent dead link] ^ a b The Kerala
Kerala
Forest Department (2012). "Annexure - 4-10: Flora and Fauna Of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary" (PDF). Government of Kerala. pp. 140–182. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-03-07.  ^ Adarsh, C. K.; Nameer, P. O. (2016). "A preliminary checklist of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 8 (4): 8703–8713. doi:10.11609/jott.2740.8.4.8703-8713.  ^ Department of Forests and Wildlife. "Management Plan (2002-2011)". Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  ^ keralatourism.org, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary ^ CONFERENCE OF THE FOREST MINISTERS OF SOUTHERN STATES, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, 3 – 4 November 2006 Forest Ministers Resolution

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary.

Chinnar wildlife sanctuary Hut Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary

v t e

Protected areas of Kerala

Biosphere reserves

Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

National parks

Anamudi
Anamudi
Shola
Shola
National Park Eravikulam National Park Karimpuzha National Park Mathikettan Shola
Shola
National Park Pampadum Shola
Shola
National Park Periyar National Park Silent Valley National Park

Wildlife sanctuaries

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary Kurinjimala Sanctuary Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Bird sanctuaries

Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary Pathiramanal Thattekad Bird Sanctuary

Protected areas of India

v t e

Tourism in Kerala

Organizations

Kerala
Kerala
Tourism Development Corporation Department of Tourism (Kerala) Gandhi Seva Sadan

Informative articles

Chinese fishing nets God's Own Country Chundan Vallam Kerala
Kerala
backwaters Pooram Puli Kali Temple Festivals of Kerala Tourist Resorts (Kerala) Vallam Kali Wildlife of Kerala

Airports

Aranmula International Airport Sabarigiri International Airport Calicut International Airport Cochin Duty Free Cochin International Airport Kannur International Airport Kollam Airport(Defunct) Trivandrum International Airport

Amusement parks

Fantasy Park Kottakkunnu Vismaya Wonderla

Archaeological sites

Anchuthengu Ariyannur Umbrellas Cheraman Parambu Kadavallur Kandanissery Kudakkallu Parambu Pattanam Tangasseri Thovarimala Ezhuthupara

Beaches

Alappuzha Beach Azheekal beach Chavakkad Beach Cherai Beach Fort Kochi beach Kappad Kappil, Thiruvananthapuram Kappkadavu Kollam Beach Kovalam Mappila Bay Marari Beach Meenkunnu Beach Munakkal Beach Mundakkal Beach Muzhappilangad Beach Muziris beach Payyambalam Beach Poovar Shankumugham Beach Snehatheeram Beach Paravur Thekkumbhagam Thirumullavaram Beach Thottada Beach Varkala Beach

Boat races

Aranmula Boat Race Champakulam Moolam Boat Race Indira Gandhi Boat Race Kallada Boat Race Kandassankadavu Boat Race Nehru Trophy Boat Race Payippadu Vallam Kali President's Trophy Boat Race Sree Narayana Jayanthi Boat Race Triprayar Boat Race

Caves

Chovvanur burial cave Edakkal Caves Kottukal cave temple Nedumala caves, Piralimattam Vizhinjam rock caves

Dams

Banasura Sagar Dam Bhoothathankettu Cheruthoni Dam Chimmony Dam Idamalayar Dam Idukki Dam Kakki Reservoir Karapuzha Dam Malampuzha Dam Mangalam Dam (dam) Mattupetty Dam Mullaperiyar Dam Neyyar Dam Parambikulam Dam Pazhassi Dam Peechi Dam Peringalkuthu Dam Peruvaripallam Dam Ponmudi
Ponmudi
Dam Poomala
Poomala
Dam Pothundi Dam Sholayar Dam Siruvani Dam Thanneermukkom Bund Thenmala Dam Thunakkadavu Dam Vazhani Dam Walayar Dam

Festivals

Aanayoottu Aaraattu Aluva Sivarathri festival Arattupuzha Pooram Edakkunni Uthram Vilakku Feast of Saint Raphael, Ollur Gandharvanpattu Ilanjithara Melam India
India
International Boat Show International Film Festival of Kerala Kadavallur
Kadavallur
Anyonyam Kanyarkali Karivela Kerala
Kerala
Adventure Carnival Keralotsavam Kollam Pooram Kottakkal pooram Kottankulangara Festival Machad Mamangam Nalukulangara Pooram Kalpathi Ratholsavam Nenmara Vallanghy Vela Onam Onathallu or Avittathallu Peruvanam Pooram Tattamangalam Kuthira Vela Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram Thrissur Pooram Uthralikavu Pooram

Forts

Anchuthengu
Anchuthengu
Fort Bekal Fort Chandragiri Fort, Kerala Cranganore Fort East Fort Fort Emmanuel Hosdurg Fort Nedumkotta Overbury's Folly Palakkad Fort Pallipuram Fort St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri St. Angelo Fort Tellicherry Fort William Fort

Islands

Dharmadam Island Ezhumanthuruthu Gundu Island Islands of Kollam Kavvayi Kuruvadweep Munroe Island Parumala Pizhala Pulinkunnoo Ramanthuruthu Valiyaparamba Vallarpadam Vypin Willingdon Island

Lakes

Ashtamudi Lake Enamakkal Lake Mananchira Oranju Poika Padinjarechira Paravur Lake Pookode Lake Sasthamcotta Lake Veeranpuzha Vellayani Lake Vadakkechira Vanchikulam Vembanad

Lighthouses

Vizhinjam Tangasseri Kovilthottam Alappuzha Manakkodam Vypin Azhikode Chetwai Ponnani Beypore Kozhikode Kannur

Mountains

Aathanad Agastya Mala Ambanad Hills Ambukuthi mala Anamudi Anginda peak Banasura Hill Chembra Peak Elivai Malai Ilaveezha Poonchira Illickal Kallu Kunnathoor Padi Marayur Meenuliyan Para Nelliampathi Paithalmala Ponmudi Poomala Urakam Hill Vagamon Vagavurrai Vellarimala

Museums

8 Point Gallery Cafe, Kollam Arakkal Museum Archaeological Museum, Thrissur Indian Business Museum Indo-Portuguese Museum Kerala
Kerala
Science and Technology Museum Kerala
Kerala
Soil Museum Munnar
Munnar
Tea Museum Napier Museum Pazhassi Raja Archaeological Museum Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum, Kollam Teak Museum Wayanad Heritage Museum

Palaces

Aranmula Kottaram Bolgatty Palace British Residency Cheena Kottaram Halcyon Castle Hill Palace, Tripunithura Kanakakkunnu Palace Kilimanoor Palace Kodungallur Kovilakam Kollengode Palace Kowdiar Palace Koyikkal Palace Krishnapuram Palace Kuthira Malika Laxmipuram Palace Mattancherry Palace Merry Lodge Palace Pandalam Palace Punnathurkotta Puthen Kovilakam Shakthan Thampuran Palace Sri Moolam Thirunal Palace Thevally Palace

Waterfalls

Adyanpara Falls Aripara Falls Aruvikkuzhi Waterfalls Athirappilly Falls Charpa Falls Cheeyappara Kumbhavurutty Waterfalls Lakkom Water Falls Manalar Waterfalls Marmala waterfall Meenmutty Falls, Thiruvananthapuram Meenmutty Falls, Wayanad Oliyarik Waterfalls Palaruvi Falls Panieli Poru waterfalls Pattathippara Falls Perunthenaruvi Perunthenaruvi
Perunthenaruvi
Falls Soochipara Falls Thommankuthu Thusharagiri Falls Thuvanam Waterfalls Vazhachal Falls Vazhvanthol waterfalls

Wildlife sanctuaries

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary Kurinjimala Sanctuary Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Pathiramanal Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Periyar Tiger Reserve Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary Thattekad Bird Sanctuary Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Zoos

Crocodile Rehabilitation and Research Centre Parassinikkadavu Snake Park Thiruvananthapuram Zoo Thrissur Zoo Thrissur Zoological Park Wildlife Conversation & Research Centre

Templates Portal Cat

.