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Chicago
Chicago
(/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ, -ˈkɔː-/ ( listen)), officially the City
City
of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is also the most populous city in both the state of Illinois
Illinois
and the Midwestern United States. It is the county seat of Cook County. The Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland, has nearly 10 million people and is the third-largest in the United States. Chicago
Chicago
has often been called a global architecture capital[6][7] and is considered one of the most important business centers in the world.[8] Chicago
Chicago
was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-nineteenth century.[9] After the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild on the damage.[10] The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900 Chicago
Chicago
was one of the five largest cities in the world.[11] During this period, Chicago
Chicago
made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, new construction styles (including the Chicago
Chicago
School of architecture), the development of the City
City
Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.[12] Positioned along Lake Michigan, the city is an international hub for finance, commerce, industry, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. O'Hare International Airport
O'Hare International Airport
is the second-busiest airport in the world when measured by aircraft traffic; the region also has the largest number of U.S. highways and railroad freight.[13] In 2012, Chicago
Chicago
was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network,[14] and it ranked seventh in the world in the 2016 Global Cities Index.[15] Chicago
Chicago
has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates.[16] The city has one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.[17] In 2017, Chicago
Chicago
hosted a record 55 million domestic and international visitors, making it one of the most visited cities in the United States.[18][19] Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art
Art
Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park
Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, novels, film, theater (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel,[20] and house music. There are many colleges and universities in the Chicago area, of which Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Chicago
Chicago
are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago
Chicago
has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best known being the Windy City
City
and Chi-Town.[21]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Beginnings 1.2 Founding and 19th century 1.3 20th and 21st centuries

1.3.1 1900 to 1939 1.3.2 1940 to 1979 1.3.3 1980 to present

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Topography 2.3 Communities 2.4 Streetscape 2.5 Architecture 2.6 Monuments and public art 2.7 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Economy 5 Culture and contemporary life

5.1 Entertainment and the arts 5.2 Festivals 5.3 Tourism 5.4 Cuisine 5.5 Literature

6 Sports 7 Parks and greenspace 8 Law and government

8.1 Government 8.2 Politics 8.3 Crime

9 Education

9.1 Schools and libraries 9.2 Colleges and universities

10 Media 11 Infrastructure

11.1 Transportation

11.1.1 Expressways 11.1.2 Transit systems 11.1.3 Passenger rail 11.1.4 Bicycle-sharing system 11.1.5 Freight rail 11.1.6 Airports 11.1.7 Port authority

11.2 Utilities 11.3 Health systems

12 Notable people 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes and references

15.1 Notes 15.2 References

16 Bibliography 17 External links

History[edit] Further information: History of Chicago
History of Chicago
and Origin of Chicago's "Windy City" nickname See also: Timeline of Chicago
Chicago
history Beginnings[edit]

Traditional Potawatomi
Potawatomi
regalia on display at the Field Museum
Field Museum
of Natural History

The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the Miami- Illinois
Illinois
word Shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum. The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago
Chicago
as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir.[22] Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called "Chicagoua", grew abundantly in the area.[23] According to his diary of late September 1687:

when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region.[23]

In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples.[24] The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago
Chicago
was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s.[25][26][27] He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago". In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago
Chicago
was turned over to the United States
United States
for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States
United States
Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn
Fort Dearborn
and later rebuilt.[28] The Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
tribes had ceded additional land to the United States
United States
in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago
Treaty of Chicago
in 1833.[29][30][31] Founding and 19th century[edit]

The location and course of the Illinois
Illinois
and Michigan Canal (completed 1848)

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State and Madison Streets, once known as the busiest intersection in the world (1897)

On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago
Chicago
was organized with a population of about 200.[31] Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor
Edmund Dick Taylor
as U.S. Receiver of Public Monies. The City
City
of Chicago
Chicago
was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city.[32] As the site of the Chicago
Chicago
Portage,[33] the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago
Chicago
Union Railroad, and the Illinois
Illinois
and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to connect to the Mississippi River.[34][35][36][37] A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy.[38] The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first-ever standardized "exchange-traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts.[39]

An artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
of 1871

In the 1850s, Chicago
Chicago
gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery.[40] These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago
Chicago
for US President at the 1860 Republican National Convention. He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War. To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. In February 1856, Chicago's Common Council approved Chesbrough's plan to build the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system.[41] The project raised much of central Chicago
Chicago
to a new grade. While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city's health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago
Chicago
River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city's primary freshwater source. The city responded by tunneling two miles (3.2 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat. It reversed the flow of the Chicago River
Chicago River
so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
rather than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago
Chicago
Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois
Illinois
River, which flows into the Mississippi River.[42][43][44] In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
destroyed an area about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, a large section of the city at the time.[45][46][47] Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact,[48] and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone. These set a precedent for worldwide construction.[49][50] During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction.[51][52] The city has grown significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago
South Side of Chicago
and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side.[53] The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents.

Court of Honor at the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
in 1893

Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe
Europe
and migrants from the Eastern United States. Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States
United States
of foreign parentage. Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes and Czechs
Czechs
made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population).[54][55] Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the Haymarket affair
Haymarket affair
on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
Ellen Gates Starr
to found Hull House
Hull House
in 1889.[56] Programs that were developed there became a model for the new field of social work.[57] During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago
Chicago
attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health. City
City
and, later, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever were both passed and enforced. These laws became templates for public health reform in other cities and states.[58] The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. The chief advocate for improving public health in Chicago
Chicago
was Dr. John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866. He created Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park
by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in response to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago
Chicago
Board of Health. Ten years later, he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois
Illinois
State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago.[59] In the 19th century, Chicago
Chicago
became the nation's railroad center, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals.[60][61] In 1883, Chicago's railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardized system of North American time zones.[62] This system for telling time spread throughout the continent. In 1893, Chicago
Chicago
hosted the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history.[63][64] The University of Chicago, formerly at another location, moved to the same South Side location in 1892. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks.[65][66] 20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great Depression
Great Depression
(1931)

1900 to 1939[edit]

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Aerial motion film photography of Chicago
Chicago
in 1914 as filmed by A. Roy Knabenshue

During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African-Americans
African-Americans
from the Southern United States. Between 1910 and 1930, the African-American population of Chicago
Chicago
increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903.[67] This Great Migration had an immense cultural impact, called the Chicago
Chicago
Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music.[68] Continuing racial tensions and violence, such as the Chicago
Chicago
Race Riot of 1919, also occurred.[69] The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition
Prohibition
was repealed. The 1920s saw gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O'Banion, Bugs Moran
Bugs Moran
and Tony Accardo battle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago
Chicago
during the Prohibition
Prohibition
era.[70] Chicago
Chicago
was the location of the infamous St. Valentine's Day Massacre
St. Valentine's Day Massacre
in 1929, when Al Capone
Al Capone
sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran.[71] Chicago
Chicago
was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization called the Society for Human Rights
Society for Human Rights
in 1924. This organization produced the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband.[72] In 1933, Chicago
Chicago
Mayor Anton Cermak
Anton Cermak
was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a failed assassination attempt on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress
Century of Progress
International Exposition Worlds Fair.[73] The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding.[74] 1940 to 1979[edit] On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
conducted the world's first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II
World War II
in 1945.[75] Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the land under O'Hare airport, including a small portion of DuPage County. By the early 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many Northern American cities, a process known as white flight – as African Americans continued to move beyond the Black Belt. While home loan discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, completely changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods.[76] Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and job outsourcing, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
and Albert Raby led the Chicago
Chicago
Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley
Richard J. Daley
and the movement leaders.[77]

Protesters in Grant Park outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention

Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police.[78] Major construction projects, including the Sears
Sears
Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois
Illinois
at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure.[79] In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected. She helped reduce crime in the Cabrini-Green
Cabrini-Green
housing project and led Chicago's school system out of a financial crisis.[80] 1980 to present[edit] In 1983, Harold Washington
Harold Washington
became the first black mayor of the city of Chicago. Washington's first term in office directed attention to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after.[81] Washington was succeeded by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago
Chicago
City
City
Council and served until a special election. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development, as well as closing Meigs Field
Meigs Field
in the middle of the night and destroying the runways. After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley
Richard M. Daley
declined to run for a seventh term.[82][83] In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River
Chicago River
to a tunnel below, which was part of an abandoned freight tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop district. The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons (1,000,000 m3) of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a shutdown of electrical power.[84] The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks; losses were estimated at $1.95 billion.[84] On February 23, 2011, former Illinois
Illinois
Congressman and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel
Rahm Emanuel
won the mayoral election, after defeating challenges that he was not a Chicago
Chicago
resident and beating five rivals with 55 percent of the vote,[85] and was sworn in as Mayor on May 16, 2011.

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Chicago Cityscape[edit]

Chicago
Chicago
skyline on April 18, 2009, from Northerly Island
Northerly Island
looking northwest

The Chicago
Chicago
River, with the Near North Side and Streeterville
Streeterville
on the right, the Chicago
Chicago
Loop, Lakeshore East, and Illinois
Illinois
Center on the left, and Trump Tower at the jog in the river in the center. This view is looking west from Lake Shore Drive's Outer Drive Bridge.

Chicago
Chicago
on July 10, 2012, from John Hancock Center
John Hancock Center
looking south

Chicago
Chicago
skyline at dusk, from North Avenue Beach
North Avenue Beach
looking south

Topography[edit]

Downtown and the North Side with beaches lining the waterfront

Chicago
Chicago
is located in northeastern Illinois
Illinois
on the southwestern shores of Lake Michigan. It is the principal city in the Chicago
Chicago
Metropolitan Area, situated in the Midwestern United States
United States
and the Great Lakes region. Chicago
Chicago
rests on a continental divide at the site of the Chicago
Chicago
Portage, connecting the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the Great Lakes watersheds. The city lies beside huge freshwater Lake Michigan, and two rivers—the Chicago River
Chicago River
in downtown and the Calumet River
Calumet River
in the industrial far South Side—flow entirely or partially through Chicago.[86][87] Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River
Chicago River
historically handled much of the region's waterborne cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake also provides another positive effect: moderating Chicago's climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.[88] When Chicago
Chicago
was founded in 1837, most of the early building was around the mouth of the Chicago
Chicago
River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks.[89] The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. The average land elevation is 579 ft (176.5 m) above sea level. The lowest points are along the lake shore at 578 ft (176.2 m), while the highest point, at 672 ft (205 m), is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city's far south side.[90] The Chicago Loop
Chicago Loop
is the central business district, but Chicago
Chicago
is also a city of neighborhoods. Lake Shore Drive
Lake Shore Drive
runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's lakefront. Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park and Jackson Park. There are twenty-four public beaches across 26 miles (42 km) of the waterfront.[91] Landfill
Landfill
extends into portions of the lake providing space for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and large portions of the McCormick Place
McCormick Place
Convention Center. Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront. An informal name for the entire Chicago metropolitan area
Chicago metropolitan area
is "Chicagoland". There is no precise definition for the term "Chicagoland", but it generally means the entire conurbation. The Chicago
Chicago
Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois
Illinois
counties: Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana: Lake, Porter and LaPorte.[92] The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County
Cook County
without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane and Will counties.[93] The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will counties.[94]

Wicker Park, a neighborhood northwest of downtown, known for its mix of bohemian and upscale styles

Communities[edit] See also: Community areas in Chicago
Community areas in Chicago
and Neighborhoods in Chicago

Community areas of the City
City
of Chicago

Major sections of the city include the central business district, called The Loop, and the North, the South, and West Sides.[95] The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago
Flag of Chicago
by three horizontal white stripes.[96] The North Side is the most densely populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront.[97] The South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the city's land area. The South Side contains the University of Chicago
Chicago
and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago.[98] In the late 1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas, which can further be subdivided into over 200 informally defined neighborhoods.[99][100] Streetscape[edit] Main article: Roads and expressways in Chicago Chicago's streets were laid out in a street grid that grew from the city's original townsite plat, which was bounded by Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south.[101] Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines later became arterial streets in outlying sections. As new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and sixteen in the other direction (about one street per 200 meters in one direction and one street per 100 meters in the other direction). The grid's regularity provided an efficient means of developing new real estate property. A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them originally Native American trails, also cross the city (Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, etc.). Many additional diagonal streets were recommended in the Plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was ever constructed.[102] In 2016, Chicago
Chicago
was ranked the sixth-most walkable large city in the United States.[103] Many of the city's residential streets have a wide patch of grass and/or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself. This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk further away from the street traffic. Chicago's Western Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world.[104] Other famous streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. The City
City
Beautiful movement inspired Chicago's boulevards and parkways. Architecture[edit] Further information: Architecture of Chicago, List of tallest buildings in Chicago, and List of Chicago
Chicago
Landmarks

The Chicago Building
Chicago Building
(1904–05) is a prime example of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago
Chicago
window.

The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation. In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago
Chicago
ushered in the skyscraper era,[52] which would then be followed by many other cities around the world.[105] Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest and most dense.[106] Some of the United States' tallest towers are located in Chicago; Willis Tower
Willis Tower
(formerly Sears
Sears
Tower) is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tallest in the country.[107] The Loop's historic buildings include the Chicago
Chicago
Board of Trade Building, the Fine Arts Building, 35 East Wacker, and the Chicago
Chicago
Building, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive
Lake Shore Drive
Apartments by Mies van der Rohe. Many other architects have left their impression on the Chicago
Chicago
skyline such as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan, Charles B. Atwood, John Root, and Helmut Jahn.[108][109] The Merchandise Mart, once first on the list of largest buildings in the world, currently listed as 44th-largest (as of September 9, 2013), had its own zip code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago
Chicago
River.[110] Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower
Willis Tower
(formerly the Sears
Sears
Tower, also a building with its own zip code), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center. Industrial districts, such as some areas on the South Side, the areas along the Chicago
Chicago
Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Northwest Indiana
Indiana
area are clustered.[111] Chicago
Chicago
gave its name to the Chicago
Chicago
School and was home to the Prairie
Prairie
School, two movements in architecture.[112] Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago. Large swaths of the city's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II. Chicago
Chicago
is also a prominent center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. The Chicago
Chicago
suburb of Oak Park was home to famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who had designed The Robie House located near the University of Chicago.[113][114] Monuments and public art[edit]

Replica of Daniel Chester French's Statue of the Republic
Statue of the Republic
at the site of the World's Columbian Exposition.

Chicago
Chicago
is famous for its outdoor public art with donors establishing funding for such art as far back as Benjamin Ferguson's 1905 trust.[115] A number of Chicago's public art works are by modern figurative artists. Among these are Chagall's Four Seasons; the Chicago
Chicago
Picasso; Miro's Chicago; Calder's Flamingo; Oldenburg's Batcolumn; Moore's Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy; Dubuffet's Monument with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz's Agora; and, Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate
Cloud Gate
which has become an icon of the city. Some events which shaped the city's history have also been memorialized by art works, including the Great Northern Migration (Saar) and the centennial of statehood for Illinois. Finally, two fountains near the Loop also function as monumental works of art: Plensa's Crown Fountain
Crown Fountain
as well as Burnham and Bennett's Buckingham Fountain. More representational and portrait statuary includes a number of works by Lorado Taft
Lorado Taft
(Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument
Heald Square Monument
completed by Crunelle), French's Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys's Lions, Saint-Gaudens's Abraham Lincoln: The Man (a.k.a. Standing Lincoln) and Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State (a.k.a. Seated Lincoln), Brioschi's Christopher Columbus, Meštrović's The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin's Signal of Peace, Fairbanks's The Chicago
Chicago
Lincoln, Boyle's The Alarm, Polasek's memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney's Moose (W-02-03). A number of statues also honor recent local heroes such as Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
(by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center; Harry Caray
Harry Caray
(by Amrany and Cella) outside Wrigley field, Jack Brickhouse
Jack Brickhouse
(by McKenna) next to the WGN studios, and Irv Kupcinet
Irv Kupcinet
at the Wabash Avenue Bridge.[116] There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski's Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
statue of Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
found in Warsaw's Royal Baths along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frédéric Chopin's birth.[117] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Chicago

Chicago River
Chicago River
in winter 2014

The city lies within the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa), and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm to hot and often humid, with a July daily average of 75.8 °F (24.3 °C). In a normal summer, temperatures can exceed 90 °F (32 °C) as many as 21 days. Winters are cold and snowy with few sunny days, and the normal January high is just below freezing. Spring and autumn are mild seasons with low humidity. Dewpoint
Dewpoint
temperatures in the summer range from 55.7 °F (13.2 °C) in June to 61.7 °F (16.5 °C) in July.[118] The city is part of the USDA
USDA
Plant Hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
6a, transitioning to 5b in the suburbs.[119] According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded on July 24, 1934,[120] although Midway Airport reached 109 °F (43 °C) one day prior and recorded a heat index of 125 °F (52 °C) during the 1995 heatwave.[121] The lowest official temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport.[118][121] The city can experience extreme winter cold waves and summer heat waves that may last for several consecutive days. Thunderstorms
Thunderstorms
are common during the spring and summer months which may sometimes produce hail, high winds, and tornadoes.[122] Like other major cities, Chicago
Chicago
also experiences urban heat island, making the city and its suburbs milder than surrounding rural areas, especially at night and in winter. Also, the proximity to Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
keeps lakefront Chicago
Chicago
cooler in early summer and milder in winter than areas to the west.[123]

Climate data for Chicago
Chicago
(Midway Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1928–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 67 (19) 75 (24) 86 (30) 92 (33) 102 (39) 107 (42) 109 (43) 102 (39) 101 (38) 94 (34) 81 (27) 72 (22) 109 (43)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 52.3 (11.3) 57.2 (14) 73.0 (22.8) 82.2 (27.9) 88.2 (31.2) 94.1 (34.5) 96.5 (35.8) 94.1 (34.5) 90.5 (32.5) 82.2 (27.9) 68.7 (20.4) 55.7 (13.2) 97.7 (36.5)

Average high °F (°C) 31.5 (−0.3) 35.8 (2.1) 46.8 (8.2) 59.2 (15.1) 70.2 (21.2) 79.9 (26.6) 84.2 (29) 82.1 (27.8) 75.3 (24.1) 62.8 (17.1) 48.6 (9.2) 35.3 (1.8) 59.4 (15.2)

Daily mean °F (°C) 24.8 (−4) 28.7 (−1.8) 38.8 (3.8) 50.4 (10.2) 60.9 (16.1) 71.0 (21.7) 75.9 (24.4) 74.1 (23.4) 66.4 (19.1) 54.2 (12.3) 41.5 (5.3) 29.0 (−1.7) 51.4 (10.8)

Average low °F (°C) 18.2 (−7.7) 21.7 (−5.7) 30.9 (−0.6) 41.7 (5.4) 51.6 (10.9) 62.1 (16.7) 67.5 (19.7) 66.2 (19) 57.5 (14.2) 45.7 (7.6) 34.5 (1.4) 22.7 (−5.2) 43.5 (6.4)

Mean minimum °F (°C) −3.3 (−19.6) 2.4 (−16.4) 14.3 (−9.8) 27.0 (−2.8) 38.4 (3.6) 48.6 (9.2) 56.8 (13.8) 56.1 (13.4) 43.1 (6.2) 31.1 (−0.5) 19.9 (−6.7) 2.2 (−16.6) −8.7 (−22.6)

Record low °F (°C) −25 (−32) −20 (−29) −7 (−22) 10 (−12) 28 (−2) 35 (2) 46 (8) 43 (6) 34 (1) 20 (−7) −3 (−19) −20 (−29) −25 (−32)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.06 (52.3) 1.94 (49.3) 2.72 (69.1) 3.64 (92.5) 4.13 (104.9) 4.06 (103.1) 4.01 (101.9) 3.99 (101.3) 3.31 (84.1) 3.24 (82.3) 3.42 (86.9) 2.57 (65.3) 39.09 (992.9)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.5 (29.2) 9.1 (23.1) 5.4 (13.7) 1.0 (2.5) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.1 (0.3) 1.3 (3.3) 8.7 (22.1) 37.1 (94.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.7 8.8 11.2 11.1 11.4 10.3 9.9 9.0 8.2 10.2 11.2 11.1 123.1

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 8.1 5.5 3.8 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.8 6.7 26.7

Source: NOAA,[124][118][121] WRCC[125]

Climate data for Chicago
Chicago
(O'Hare Int'l Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 67 (19) 75 (24) 88 (31) 91 (33) 98 (37) 104 (40) 105 (41) 102 (39) 101 (38) 94 (34) 81 (27) 71 (22) 105 (41)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 51.4 (10.8) 56.5 (13.6) 72.4 (22.4) 81.7 (27.6) 87.2 (30.7) 93.6 (34.2) 95.5 (35.3) 93.4 (34.1) 89.7 (32.1) 81.1 (27.3) 67.6 (19.8) 55.0 (12.8) 96.8 (36)

Average high °F (°C) 31.0 (−0.6) 35.3 (1.8) 46.6 (8.1) 59.0 (15) 70.0 (21.1) 79.7 (26.5) 84.1 (28.9) 81.9 (27.7) 74.8 (23.8) 62.3 (16.8) 48.2 (9) 34.8 (1.6) 59.1 (15.1)

Daily mean °F (°C) 23.8 (−4.6) 27.7 (−2.4) 37.9 (3.3) 48.9 (9.4) 59.1 (15.1) 68.9 (20.5) 74.0 (23.3) 72.4 (22.4) 64.6 (18.1) 52.5 (11.4) 40.3 (4.6) 27.7 (−2.4) 49.9 (9.9)

Average low °F (°C) 16.5 (−8.6) 20.1 (−6.6) 29.2 (−1.6) 38.8 (3.8) 48.3 (9.1) 58.1 (14.5) 63.9 (17.7) 62.9 (17.2) 54.3 (12.4) 42.8 (6) 32.4 (0.2) 20.7 (−6.3) 40.8 (4.9)

Mean minimum °F (°C) −5.6 (−20.9) −0.3 (−17.9) 11.9 (−11.2) 23.5 (−4.7) 35.6 (2) 44.3 (6.8) 52.0 (11.1) 52.6 (11.4) 39.2 (4) 28.4 (−2) 16.9 (−8.4) −0.1 (−17.8) −10.9 (−23.8)

Record low °F (°C) −27 (−33) −21 (−29) −12 (−24) 7 (−14) 27 (−3) 35 (2) 45 (7) 42 (6) 29 (−2) 14 (−10) −2 (−19) −25 (−32) −27 (−33)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.73 (43.9) 1.79 (45.5) 2.50 (63.5) 3.38 (85.9) 3.68 (93.5) 3.45 (87.6) 3.70 (94) 4.90 (124.5) 3.21 (81.5) 3.15 (80) 3.15 (80) 2.25 (57.2) 36.89 (937)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 10.8 (27.4) 9.1 (23.1) 5.6 (14.2) 1.2 (3) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (0.5) 1.2 (3) 8.2 (20.8) 36.3 (92.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.5 8.8 11.1 12.0 11.6 10.2 9.8 9.8 8.3 10.2 10.8 11.0 124.1

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 8.2 5.9 4.2 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.7 6.9 28.0

Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 71.6 69.7 64.9 64.1 65.6 68.5 70.7 71.1 68.6 72.5 75.5 69.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.8 136.2 187.0 215.3 281.9 311.4 318.4 283.0 226.6 193.2 113.3 106.3 2,508.4

Percent possible sunshine 46 46 51 54 62 68 69 66 60 56 38 37 56

Source: NOAA
NOAA
(relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[118][128][129]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1840 4,470

1850 29,963

570.3%

1860 112,172

274.4%

1870 298,977

166.5%

1880 503,185

68.3%

1890 1,099,850

118.6%

1900 1,698,575

54.4%

1910 2,185,283

28.7%

1920 2,701,705

23.6%

1930 3,376,438

25.0%

1940 3,396,808

0.6%

1950 3,620,962

6.6%

1960 3,550,404

−1.9%

1970 3,366,957

−5.2%

1980 3,005,072

−10.7%

1990 2,783,726

−7.4%

2000 2,896,016

4.0%

2010 2,695,598

−6.9%

Est. 2016 2,704,958 [5] 0.3%

U.S. Decennial Census [130]

Main article: Demographics of Chicago During its first hundred years, Chicago
Chicago
was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier. By the time of its first census, seven years later, the population had reached over 4,000. In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million. At the end of the 19th century, Chicago
Chicago
was the fifth-largest city in the world,[131] and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century. Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million,[132] and reached its highest ever recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census. From the last two decades of the 19th century, Chicago
Chicago
was the destination of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Poles, Lithuanians, Albanians, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs.[133] To these ethnic groups, the basis of the city's industrial working class, were added an additional influx of African-Americans
African-Americans
from the American South — with Chicago's black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930.[133] In the 1920s and 1930s, the great majority of African Americans moving to Chicago
Chicago
were clustered in a so‑called "Black Belt" on the city's South Side.[133] By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago's African-American population lived in sections of the city which were 90% black in racial composition.[133] Chicago's South Side emerged as America's second-largest urban black concentration, following New York's Harlem.[133] Chicago's population declined sharply in the latter half of the 20th century, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010. In 1984, it was overtaken by Los Angeles
Los Angeles
as America's second largest city.[134] Since 2010, Chicago's population has rebounded adding nearly 25,000 people in the most recent 2015 population estimates.[135] Per U.S. Census estimates as of July 2016, Chicago's largest racial or ethnic group is non-Hispanic White at 32.6% of the population, with the Hispanic population increasing to 29.7% of the population and Blacks declining to 29.3% of the population[136][137][138] from 32.9% in 2010.[139]

Racial composition 2010[140] 1990[139] 1970[139] 1940[139]

White 45.0% 45.4% 65.6% 91.7%

 —Non-Hispanic 31.7% 37.9% 59.0%[141] 91.2%

Black or African American 32.9% 39.1% 32.7% 8.2%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.9% 19.6% 7.4%[141] 0.5%

Asian 5.5% 3.7% 0.9% 0.1%

Map of racial distribution in Chicago, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

As of the 2010 census,[142] there were 2,695,598 people with 1,045,560 households living in Chicago. More than half the population of the state of Illinois
Illinois
lives in the Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area. Chicago
Chicago
is one of the United States' most densely populated major cities, and the largest city in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megalopolis. The racial composition of the city was:

45.0% White (31.7% non-Hispanic whites); 32.9% Black or African American; 28.9% Hispanic or Latino (of any race); 13.4% from some other race; 5.5% Asian (1.6% Chinese, 1.1% Indian, 1.1% Filipino, 0.4% Korean, 0.3% Pakistani, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Japanese, 0.1% Thai); 2.7% from two or more races; 0.5% American Indian.

Chicago
Chicago
has a Hispanic or Latino population of 28.9%. (Its members may belong to any race; 21.4% Mexican, 3.8% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Guatemalan, 0.6% Ecuadorian, 0.3% Cuban, 0.3% Colombian, 0.2% Honduran, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Peruvian)[143] Chicago
Chicago
has the third-largest LGBT
LGBT
population in the United States. In 2015, roughly 4% of the population identified as LGBT.[144][145] Since the 2013 legalization of same-sex marriage in Illinois, over 10,000 same-sex couples have wed in Cook County, a majority in Chicago.[146][147] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey
American Community Survey
data estimates for 2008–2012, the median income for a household in the city was $47,408, and the median income for a family was $54,188. Male full-time workers had a median income of $47,074 versus $42,063 for females. About 18.3% of families and 22.1% of the population lived below the poverty line.[148] According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago
Chicago
were:[149]

Irish: (137,799) Polish: (134,032) German: (120,328) Italian: (77,967) American: (37,118) English: (36,145) African American: (32,727) Russian: (19,771) Arab: (17,598) European: (15,753) Swedish: (15,151) Greek: (15,129) French (except Basque): (11,410) Ukrainian: (11,104) West Indian (except Hispanic groups): (10,349) Assyrian: (7,121)

Persons identifying themselves as "Other groups" were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000.[149] Religion[edit]

St. Mary of the Angels is one of the three "Polish Cathedrals" located in the neighborhood of Bucktown.

71% of Chicagoans identify as Christians, 7% identity with other faiths, and 22% have no religious affiliation.[150][151] Chicago
Chicago
also has many Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, and others. Chicago
Chicago
is the headquarters of several religious denominations, including the Evangelical Covenant Church
Evangelical Covenant Church
and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It is the seat of several dioceses. The Fourth Presbyterian Church is one of the largest Presbyterian
Presbyterian
congregations in the United States based on memberships.[152] The first two Parliament of the World's Religions
Parliament of the World's Religions
in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago.[153] Many international religious leaders have visited Chicago, including Mother Teresa, the Dalai Lama,[154] and Pope John Paul II in 1979.[155] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Chicago See also: List of companies in the Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

The Chicago Board of Trade
Chicago Board of Trade
Building

Chicago
Chicago
has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $658.6 billion according to 2014–2016 estimates.[16] The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification.[156] In 2007, Chicago
Chicago
was named the fourth-most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index.[157] Additionally, the Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States
United States
for calendar year 2014.[158] The Chicago metropolitan area
Chicago metropolitan area
has the third-largest science and engineering work force of any metropolitan area in the nation.[159] In 2009 Chicago
Chicago
placed 9th on the UBS list of the world's richest cities.[160] Chicago
Chicago
was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald
Julius Rosenwald
and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry. Chicago
Chicago
is a major world financial center, with the second-largest central business district in the United States.[citation needed][161] The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The city has major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago
Chicago
Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago
Chicago
Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned, along with the Chicago
Chicago
Board of Trade (CBOT) by Chicago's CME Group. The CME Group, in addition, owns the New York Mercantile Exchange
New York Mercantile Exchange
(NYMEX), the Commodities Exchange Inc. (COMEX) and the Dow Jones Indexes.[162] Perhaps due to the influence of the Chicago
Chicago
school of economics, the city also has markets trading unusual contracts such as emissions (on the Chicago Climate Exchange) and equity style indices (on the U.S. Futures Exchange). Chase Bank has its commercial and retail banking headquarters in Chicago's Chase Tower.[163] The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest labor pool in the United States
United States
with about 4.48 million workers, as of 2014[update]. [164] In addition, the state of Illinois
Illinois
is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago.[165] The city of Chicago
Chicago
also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times
Financial Times
500 companies. The city claims two Dow 30 company: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle
Seattle
to the Chicago Loop
Chicago Loop
in 2001,[166] and Kraft Heinz. According to Site Selection magazine, the Chicago
Chicago
area has seen the most corporate headquarters relocation or expansion projects in the US for each of four consecutive years form 2013 to 2016.[167] Caterpillar Inc.
Caterpillar Inc.
will be moving its global headquarters, with about 300 executives and staff and support personnel, to the Chicago
Chicago
suburb of Deerfield, Illinois, while its high-technology center is in Chicago, by the end of 2018.[168][169] The headquarters of United Continental Holdings, are and its operations center and its United Airlines
United Airlines
subsidiary are in the Willis Tower
Willis Tower
in Chicago. In June 2016, McDonald's
McDonald's
confirmed plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago's West Loop
West Loop
neighborhood by early 2018, Chicago
Chicago
was the company's headquarters between 1955 and 1971.[170]

Racks of meat in cold storage in a meat locker in Chicago
Chicago
as photographed by Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
for Look Magazine in 1949

Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago
Chicago
area, including Baxter International, Boeing, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare division of General Electric. In addition to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago
Chicago
in 2001, and United Airlines
United Airlines
in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
North America, and agriculture giant Archer Daniels Midland.[13] Moreover, the construction of the Illinois
Illinois
and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago
Chicago
became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago
Chicago
many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Though the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy, Chicago
Chicago
continues to be a major transportation and distribution center. Lured by a combination of large business customers, federal research dollars, and a large hiring pool fed by the area's universities, Chicago
Chicago
is also the site of a growing number of web startup companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, 37signals, Groupon, Feedburner, and NowSecure.[171] Chicago
Chicago
has been a hub of the Retail
Retail
sector since its early development, with Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Marshall Field's. Today the Chicago metropolitan area
Chicago metropolitan area
is the headquarters of several retailers, including Walgreens, Sears, Ace Hardware, Claire's, ULTA Beauty and Crate & Barrel. Late in the 19th century, Chicago
Chicago
was part of the bicycle craze, with the Western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs,[172] while early in the 20th century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the Brass Era car
Brass Era car
builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907.[173] Chicago
Chicago
was also the site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company. Chicago
Chicago
is a major world convention destination. The city's main convention center is McCormick Place. With its four interconnected buildings, it is the largest convention center in the nation and third-largest in the world.[174] Chicago
Chicago
also ranks third in the U.S. (behind Las Vegas
Las Vegas
and Orlando) in number of conventions hosted annually.[175] Chicago's minimum wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the nation and will incrementally reach $13 per hour by 2019.[176] Culture and contemporary life[edit]

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Further information: Culture of Chicago, List of people from Chicago, and List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago

A Chicago
Chicago
jazz club

The National Hellenic Museum
National Hellenic Museum
in Greektown is one of several ethnic museums comprising the Chicago
Chicago
Cultural Alliance.

The city's waterfront location and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over a third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the south.[177] The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These districts include the Mexican American
Mexican American
neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua
Paseo Boricua
in the Humboldt Park neighborhood; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown;[178] Little Italy, along Taylor Street; Chinatown in Armour Square; Polish Patches
Polish Patches
in West Town; Little Seoul
Seoul
in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue; Little Vietnam
Vietnam
near Broadway in Uptown; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge.[179] Downtown is the center of Chicago's financial, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the site of Grant Park and many of the city's skyscrapers. Many of the city's financial institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called "The Loop", which is an eight-block by five-block area of city streets that is encircled by elevated rail tracks. The term "The Loop" is largely used by locals to refer to the entire downtown area as well. The central area includes the Near North Side, the Near South Side, and the Near West Side, as well as the Loop. These areas contribute famous skyscrapers, abundant restaurants, shopping, museums, a stadium for the Chicago
Chicago
Bears, convention facilities, parkland, and beaches. Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park
contains the Lincoln Park Zoo
Lincoln Park Zoo
and the Lincoln Park Conservatory. The River North
River North
Gallery District features the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of New York City. Lakeview is home to Boystown (pronounced boys town), which, along with Andersonville, are some of the best-known LGBT
LGBT
neighborhoods in the nation. Each year in June, Boystown hosts the Chicago
Chicago
Pride Parade, one of the world's largest with over 1,000,000 people in attendance.

Greetings from Chicago
Chicago
Mural in Logan Square

The South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park is the home of former US President Barack Obama. It also contains the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
(U of C), ranked one of the world's top ten universities;[180] and the Museum of Science and Industry. The 6-mile (9.7 km) long Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Two of the city's largest parks are also located on this side of the city: Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, and is the site of the aforementioned museum; and slightly west sits Washington Park. The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of parkland called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago. The South Side hosts one of the city's largest parades, the annual African American
African American
Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, which travels through Bronzeville to Washington Park. Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
has an automobile assembly plant on the South Side in Hegewisch, and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago
Chicago
are also on the South Side. The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city. Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park's Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People's Parade, as well as the National Museum of Mexican Art
National Museum of Mexican Art
and St. Adalbert's Church in Pilsen. The Near West Side holds the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Chicago
Chicago
and was once home to Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Studios. The city's distinctive accent, made famous by its use in classic films like The Blues Brothers
The Blues Brothers
and television programs like the Saturday Night Live skit "Bill Swerski's Superfans", is an advanced form of Inland Northern American English. This dialect can also be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short 'a' sound as in "cat", which can sound more like "kyet" to outsiders. The accent remains well associated with the city.[181] Entertainment and the arts [edit] See also: Theater in Chicago, Visual arts of Chicago, and Music of Chicago

The Chicago
Chicago
Theatre

Jay Pritzker Pavilion
Jay Pritzker Pavilion
by night

The spire of the Gateway Theatre is modeled on the Royal Castle in Warsaw

Renowned Chicago
Chicago
theater companies include the Goodman Theatre
Goodman Theatre
in the Loop; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company
Steppenwolf Theatre Company
and Victory Gardens Theater
Victory Gardens Theater
in Lincoln Park; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater
Chicago Shakespeare Theater
at Navy Pier. Broadway In Chicago
Broadway In Chicago
offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters: the Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre, Bank of America Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place. Polish language
Polish language
productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago
Chicago
area. Chicago's theater community spawned modern improvisational theater, and includes the prominent groups The Second City
City
and I.O. (formerly ImprovOlympic). The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Chicago Symphony Orchestra
(CSO) performs at Symphony Center, and is recognized as one of the best orchestras in the world.[182] Also performing regularly at Symphony Center
Symphony Center
is the Chicago
Chicago
Sinfonietta, a more diverse and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Ravinia Festival, located 25 miles (40 km) north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. The Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by Lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956,[183] and presents operas in Lithuanian. The Joffrey Ballet
Joffrey Ballet
and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago
Chicago
has several other contemporary and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago
Chicago
and Chicago
Chicago
Dance Crash. Other live-music genre which are part of the city's cultural heritage include Chicago
Chicago
blues, Chicago
Chicago
soul, jazz, and gospel. The city is the birthplace of house music, a very popular form of Electronic Dance Music, and industrial music and is the site of an influential hip-hop scene. In the 1980s and 90s, the city was the global center for house and industrial music, two forms of music created in Chicago, as well as being popular for alternative rock, punk, and new wave. The city has been an epicenter for rave culture, since the 1980s. A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago
Chicago
indie. Annual festivals feature various acts, such as Lollapalooza
Lollapalooza
and the Pitchfork Music Festival. A 2007 report on the Chicago
Chicago
music industry by the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago
Chicago
third among metropolitan U.S. areas in "size of music industry" and fourth among all U.S. cities in "number of concerts and performances".[184] Chicago
Chicago
has a distinctive fine art tradition. For much of the twentieth century, it nurtured a strong style of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright
Ivan Albright
and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago
Chicago
Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Henry Darger
Henry Darger
is one of the most celebrated figures of outsider art. Chicago
Chicago
contains a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago
Chicago
Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast
Monument with Standing Beast
by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn
Batcolumn
by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate
Cloud Gate
by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain
Crown Fountain
by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. Chicago
Chicago
also has a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually. The McDonald's
McDonald's
Thanksgiving Parade is seen across the nation on WGN-TV
WGN-TV
and WGN America, featuring a variety of diverse acts from the community, marching bands from across the country, and is the only parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every year.[185] Festivals[edit] There are a lot of festivals that hold in Chicago, the following festivals are more popular than others.

Chicago
Chicago
Blues Festival Chicago
Chicago
Gospel Music Festival Taste of Chicago Chicago
Chicago
Jazz
Jazz
Festival Chicago
Chicago
Kids and Kites Festival Chicago
Chicago
Summerdance Lollapalooza
Lollapalooza
Music Festival World Music Festival Chicago
Chicago
and etc.[186]

Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Chicago

Ferries offer sightseeing tours and water-taxi transportation along the Chicago River
Chicago River
and Lake Michigan.

The Magnificent Mile
Magnificent Mile
hosts numerous upscale stores, as well as landmarks like the Chicago
Chicago
Water Tower

Aerial View of Navy Pier
Navy Pier
at Night

In 2014[update], Chicago
Chicago
attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million overseas visitors.[187] These visitors contributed more than US$13.7 billion to Chicago's economy.[187] Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile
Magnificent Mile
and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination. A 2011 study by Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Chicago
Chicago
the fourth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.[188] Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just south of Soldier Field. The historic Chicago Cultural Center
Chicago Cultural Center
(1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries and exhibit halls. The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (12 m) Tiffany glass
Tiffany glass
dome. Grant Park holds Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain
Buckingham Fountain
(1927), and the Art
Art
Institute of Chicago. The park also hosts the annual Taste of Chicago
Taste of Chicago
festival. In Millennium Park, there is the reflective Cloud Gate
Cloud Gate
sculpture. Cloud Gate, a public sculpture by Indian-born British artist Anish Kapoor, is the centerpiece of the AT&T Plaza in Millennium Park. Also, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter season. Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, along with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry's detailed, stainless steel band shell, the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival
Grant Park Music Festival
concert series. Behind the pavilion's stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque. Navy Pier, located just east of Streeterville, is 3,000 ft (910 m) long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed their DW60 Ferris wheel. Dutch Wheels, a world renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel.[189] It features 42 navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two kids. It also has entertainment systems inside the gondolas as well as a climate controlled environment. The DW60 stands at approximately 196 ft (60 m), which is 46 ft taller than the previous wheel. The new DW60 is the first in the United States
United States
and will be the sixth tallest in the U.S.[190] Chicago was the first city in the world to ever erect a ferris wheel. On June 4, 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4.0 ha) lakefront park, surrounding three of the city's main museums, each of which is of national importance: the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum
Field Museum
of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus
Museum Campus
joins the southern section of Grant Park, which includes the renowned Art
Art
Institute of Chicago. Buckingham Fountain
Buckingham Fountain
anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. The University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Oriental Institute has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. Other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago
Chicago
History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of African American
African American
History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago
Chicago
Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry. With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.[191] The Willis Tower
Willis Tower
(formerly named Sears
Sears
Tower) is a popular destination for tourists. The Willis Tower
Willis Tower
has an observation deck open to tourists year round with high up views overlooking Chicago
Chicago
and Lake Michigan. The observation deck includes an enclosed glass balcony that extends 10 feet out on the side of the building. Tourists are able to look straight down. In 2013, Chicago
Chicago
was chosen as one of the "Top Ten Cities in the United States" to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler.[192][193] Cuisine[edit] See also: Culture of Chicago
Culture of Chicago
§ Food and drink, and Chicago farmers' markets

Chicago-style pizza

A Polish market in Chicago

Chicago
Chicago
lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno.[194] The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city.[195] Most famous for its pizza in Chicago include favorites, such as, Lou Malnati's and Giordano's. The Chicago-style hot dog, typically an all-beef hot dog, is loaded with an array of toppings that often includes pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun.[196] Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style dog frown upon the use of ketchup as a garnish, but may prefer to add giardiniera.[197][198][199] There are several distinctly Chicago
Chicago
sandwiches, among them the Italian beef
Italian beef
sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef simmered in au jus and served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera. A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef
Italian beef
sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage. Another is the Maxwell Street Polish, a grilled or deep-fried kielbasa — on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard, and hot sport peppers.[200] Ethnically originated creations also include chicken Vesuvio, with roasted bone-in chicken cooked in oil and garlic next to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a sprinkling of green peas. Another is the Puerto Rican-influenced jibarito, a sandwich made with flattened, fried green plantains instead of bread. There is also the mother-in-law, a tamale topped with chili and served on a hot dog bun.[201] The tradition of serving the Greek dish, saganaki while aflame, has its origins in Chicago's Greek community.[202] The appetizer, which consists of a square of fried cheese, is doused with Metaxa
Metaxa
and flambéed table-side.[203] Two of the world's most decorated restaurants and also receiving the Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
3 Star Award, Alinea and Grace are both located in Chicago. In addition, a number of well-known chefs have had restaurants in Chicago, including Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. In 2003, Robb Report
Robb Report
named Chicago
Chicago
the country's "most exceptional dining destination".[204]

Carl Sandburg's most famous description of the city is as "Hog Butcher for the World/Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat/ Player with Railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler,/ Stormy, Husky, Brawling, City
City
of the Big Shoulders."

Literature[edit] Further information: Chicago
Chicago
literature Chicago literature
Chicago literature
finds its roots in the city's tradition of lucid, direct journalism, lending to a strong tradition of social realism. In the Encyclopedia of Chicago, Northwestern University
Northwestern University
Professor Bill Savage describes Chicago
Chicago
fiction as prose which tries to "capture the essence of the city, its spaces and its people". The challenge for early writers was that Chicago
Chicago
was a frontier outpost that transformed into a global metropolis in the span of two generations. Narrative fiction of that time, much of it in the style of "high-flown romance" and "genteel realism", needed a new approach to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago.[205] Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary tradition that would stand the test of time,[206] and create a "city of feeling" out of concrete, steel, vast lake, and open prairie.[207] Much notable Chicago
Chicago
fiction focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in check. At least, three short periods in the history of Chicago
Chicago
have had a lasting influence on American Literature.[208] These include from the time of the Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago
Chicago
Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the period of the Great Depression
Great Depression
through the 1940s. What would become the influential Poetry magazine was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who was working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. The magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, and John Ashbery.[209] T. S. Eliot's first professionally published poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", was first published by Poetry. Contributors have included Ezra Pound, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, and Carl Sandburg, among others. The magazine was instrumental in launching the Imagist and Objectivist poetic movements. Sports[edit]

Top: Soldier Field; Middle: Wrigley Field; Bottom: Toyota Park

Main article: Sports in Chicago Sporting News named Chicago
Chicago
the "Best Sports City" in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010.[210] Along with Boston, Chicago
Chicago
is the only city to continuously host major professional sports since 1871, having only taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago
Chicago
Fire. Additionally, Chicago
Chicago
is one of the six cities in the United States
United States
to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with New York and Los Angeles, is one of three cities to have won soccer championships as well. Several major franchises have won championships within recent years – the Bears (1985), the Bulls (91, '92, '93, '96, '97, and '98), the White Sox (2005), the Cubs (2016), the Blackhawks (2010, 2013, 2015), and the Fire (1998). The city has two Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(MLB) teams: the Chicago
Chicago
Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field
Wrigley Field
on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox
of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. Chicago
Chicago
is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 (New York hosted only one between 1958 and early 1962). The Cubs are the oldest Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
team to have never changed their city;[211] they have played in Chicago
Chicago
since 1871, and continuously so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago
Chicago
Fire. They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876.[212] They have won three World Series
World Series
titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the dubious honor of having the two longest droughts in American professional sports: They had not won their sport's title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series
World Series
since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians in the 2016 World Series. The White Sox have played on the South Side continuously since 1901, with all three of their home fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another. They have won three World Series
World Series
titles (1906, 1917, 2005) and six American League pennants, including the first in 1901. The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants. The Chicago
Chicago
Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League
National Football League
(NFL), have won nine NFL Championships, including the 1985 Super Bowl XX. The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago
Chicago
Cardinals, also started out in the city, but is now known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team,[213] and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field. Soldier Field
Soldier Field
re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation.

Top: United Center; Bottom: Guaranteed Rate Field

Chicago Half Marathon
Chicago Half Marathon
on Lake Shore Drive
Lake Shore Drive
on the South Side.

The Chicago Bulls
Chicago Bulls
of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA) is one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world.[214] During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons.[215][216] They also boast the youngest player to win the NBA
NBA
Most Valuable Player Award, Derrick Rose, who won it for the 2010–11 season.[217] The Chicago Blackhawks
Chicago Blackhawks
of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) began play in 1926, and are one of the "Original Six" teams of the NHL. The Blackhawks have won six Stanley Cups, including in 2010, 2013, and 2015. Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play at the United Center.

Major league professional teams in Chicago
Chicago
(ranked by attendance)

Club League Sport Venue Attendance Founded Championships

Chicago
Chicago
Bears NFL Football Soldier Field 61,142 1919 9 Championships (1 Super Bowl)

Chicago
Chicago
Cubs MLB Baseball Wrigley Field 39,500 1870 3 World Series

Chicago
Chicago
Blackhawks NHL Ice hockey United Center 21,751 1926 6 Stanley Cups

Chicago
Chicago
Bulls NBA Basketball United Center 21,680 1966 6 NBA
NBA
Championships

Chicago
Chicago
White Sox MLB Baseball Guaranteed Rate Field 20,626 1900 3 World Series

Chicago
Chicago
Fire MLS Soccer Toyota Park 17,383 1997 1 MLS Cup, 1 Supporters Shield

Chicago
Chicago
Red Stars NWSL Soccer Toyota Park 3,198 2006 1 National Women's Cup

The Chicago Fire Soccer Club
Chicago Fire Soccer Club
is a member of Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
(MLS) and plays at Toyota Park
Toyota Park
in suburban Bridgeview, after playing its first eight seasons at Soldier Field. The Fire have won one league title and four U.S. Open Cups, since their founding in 1997. In 1994, the United States
United States
hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field. The Chicago Sky
Chicago Sky
is a professional basketball team based in Rosemont, Illinois, playing in the Women's National Basketball
Basketball
Association (WNBA). They play home games at the Allstate Arena. The team was founded before the 2006 W NBA
NBA
season began. The Chicago Marathon
Chicago Marathon
has been held each year since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place. The Chicago
Chicago
Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors.[218] Five area colleges play in Division I conferences: two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons
DePaul Blue Demons
(Big East Conference) and the Northwestern Wildcats (Big Ten Conference)—and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars
Chicago State Cougars
(Western Athletic Conference); the Loyola Ramblers
Loyola Ramblers
(Missouri Valley Conference); and the UIC Flames (Horizon League).[219] Parks and greenspace[edit] Main articles: Parks in Chicago, Chicago
Chicago
Boulevard
Boulevard
System, and Cook County Forest Preserves

Portage Park on the Northwest Side and Washington Square Park on the Near North Side.

When Chicago
Chicago
was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin
Latin
phrase which means " City
City
in a Garden". Today, the Chicago Park District
Chicago Park District
consists of more than 570 parks with over 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of municipal parkland. There are 31 sand beaches, a plethora of museums, two world-class conservatories, and 50 nature areas.[220] Lincoln Park, the largest of the city's parks, covers 1,200 acres (490 ha) and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks
National Mall and Memorial Parks
in Washington, D.C.[221] There is a historic boulevard system,[222] a network of wide, tree-lined boulevards which connect a number of Chicago
Chicago
parks.[223] The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869.[224] A number of Chicago
Chicago
neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the 19th century.[223] The building of the boulevard system continued intermittently until 1942. It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of interconnected streets.[225] Part of the system in the Logan Square Boulevards Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.[226] With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago
Chicago
Park District operates the nation's largest municipal harbor system.[227] In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park
Ping Tom Memorial Park
in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern corner of one of Chicago's oldest parks, Grant Park in the Chicago
Chicago
Loop. The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County
Cook County
Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's outskirts,[228] including both the Chicago Botanic Garden
Chicago Botanic Garden
in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo
Brookfield Zoo
in Brookfield.[229] Washington Park is also one of the city's biggest parks; covering nearly 400 acres (160 ha). The park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago. Law and government[edit] Government[edit] Main article: Government of Chicago

Daley Plaza
Daley Plaza
with Picasso statue and City
City
Hall in background. State law courts are in the Daley Plaza
Daley Plaza
Building at right

The government of the City
City
of Chicago
Chicago
is divided into executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Chicago
Mayor of Chicago
is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. The current mayor is Rahm Emanuel. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. As well as the mayor, Chicago's clerk and treasurer are also elected citywide. The City
City
Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city.[230] The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget.[231] The Chicago Police Department
Chicago Police Department
provides law enforcement and the Chicago Fire Department provides fire suppression and emergency medical services for the city and its residents. Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County
Cook County
Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court system, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal system. In the state court, the public prosecutor is the Illinois State's Attorney; in the Federal court it is the United States Attorney. Politics[edit] Main article: Political history of Chicago During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago
Chicago
had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations.[232] For much of the 20th century, Chicago
Chicago
has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States; with Chicago's Democratic vote the state of Illinois has been "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. Even before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, only to lose statewide due to large Democratic margins in Chicago. The citizens of Chicago
Chicago
have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois
Illinois
state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding. Chicago
Chicago
contains less than 25% of the state's population, but it is split between eight of Illinois' 19 districts in the United States House of Representatives. All eight of the city's representatives are Democrats; a Republican has only represented a significant portion of the city twice since 1973, for one term each– Robert P. Hanrahan
Robert P. Hanrahan
from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997. Machine politics
Machine politics
persisted in Chicago
Chicago
after the decline of similar machines in other large U.S. cities.[233] During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington
Harold Washington
(in office 1983–1987). From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago
Chicago
was under the leadership of its longest serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. On May 16, 2011, Rahm Emanuel was sworn in as the 55th mayor of Chicago. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois
Illinois
State seats. The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed. Formerly a state legislator representing Chicago
Chicago
and later a US Senator, the city is home of former United States
United States
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama. The Obamas' residence is located near the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in Kenwood on the city's south side.[234] Crime[edit] Main articles: Crime in Chicago
Crime in Chicago
and Timeline of organized crime in Chicago

Chicago Police Department
Chicago Police Department
SUV, 2011

Chicago
Chicago
had a murder rate of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among cities with 100,000 people or more.[235] This was higher than in New York City
City
and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower murder rates and lower total homicides. However, it was less than in many smaller American cities, including New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit, which had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago
Chicago
in 2015 compared with 416 the year before, a 12.5% increase, as well as 2,900 shootings—13% more than the year prior, and up 29% since 2013. Chicago
Chicago
had more homicides than any other city in 2015 in total but not on per capita basis, according to the Chicago
Chicago
Tribune.[236] In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department
Chicago Police Department
reported that the city experienced a dramatic rise in gun violence, with 4,331 shooting victims. The department also reported 762 murders in Chicago
Chicago
for the year 2016, a total that marked a 62.79% increase in homicides from 2015.[237] In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department
Chicago Police Department
and the Federal ATF announced a new task force, similar to past task forces, to address the flow of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns.[238] According to reports in 2013, "most of Chicago's violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain control of drug-selling territories",[239] and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which by 2006 had decided to seek to control illicit drug distribution, against local street gangs.[240] Violent crime rates vary significantly by area of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but other sections have much higher rates of crime.[239] In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people;[241] the murder rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, low crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000.[242] The number of murders in Chicago
Chicago
peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city's population was over 3 million people (a murder rate of about 29 per 100,000), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, (a murder rate of 34 per 100,000).[243] However, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest total since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago's homicide tally remained low during 2005 (449), 2006 (452), and 2007 (435) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003.[244][245] In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 (10% down).[246] and in 2010 Chicago's murder rate fell to 435 (16.14 per 100,000), a 5% decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965.[247] In 2011, Chicago's murders fell another 1.2% to 431 (a rate of 15.94 per 100,000).[248] but shot up to 506 in 2012.[249][250] In 2012, Chicago
Chicago
ranked 21st in the United States
United States
in numbers of homicides per person, but in the first half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of violent crime, including homicide (down 26%).[251] Chicago
Chicago
ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest number of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percent.[252] (In 1965, there were 397 murders.[253]) In 2013 Chicago
Chicago
was falsely named the "Murder Capitol" even through the murder rate was only slightly higher than the national average. It was also nicknamed Chiraq by Chicago
Chicago
drill rappers.[254] According to police, the nickname was first heard in 2010. At that time, the murder rate was historically low for Chicago.[255] According to FBI St. Louis, New Orleans, Detroit
Detroit
and Baltimore
Baltimore
had the highest murder rate.[256] Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago
Chicago
$2.5 billion in 2012.[257] Education[edit]

Since its completion in 1991, the Harold Washington
Harold Washington
Library has appeared in Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
as the largest public library building in the world

Main article: Chicago
Chicago
Public Schools Schools and libraries[edit] Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools
(CPS) is the governing body of the school district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selective-admission magnet schools. There are eleven selective enrollment high schools in the Chicago
Chicago
Public Schools,[258] designed to meet the needs of Chicago's most academically advanced students. These schools offer a rigorous curriculum with mainly honors and Advanced Placement
Advanced Placement
(AP) courses.[259] Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago
Chicago
and the state of Illinois.[260] Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked second, Jones College Prep is third, and the oldest magnet school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is ranked fourth.[261] The magnet school with the largest enrollment is Lane Technical College Prep High School.[citation needed] Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago
Chicago
and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education.[262] Chicago
Chicago
high school rankings are determined by the average test scores on state achievement tests.[263] The district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,545 students (2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment), is the third-largest in the U.S.[264] On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago
Chicago
Teachers Union went on strike for the first time since 1987 over pay, resources and other issues.[265] According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago's "choice system", where students who test or apply and may attend one of a number of public high schools (there are about 130), sorts students of different achievement levels into different schools (high performing, middle performing, and low performing schools).[266] Chicago
Chicago
has a network of Lutheran schools,[267] and several private schools are run by other denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridge. Several private schools are completely secular, such as the Latin
Latin
School of Chicago
Chicago
in the Near North Side neighborhood, the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the British School of Chicago
British School of Chicago
and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago
Lycée Français de Chicago
in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North
River North
and the Morgan Park Academy. There are also the private Chicago
Chicago
Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago
Chicago
High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories (visual arts, theatre, musical theatre, dance, and music) of the arts.[citation needed][268] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago
operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. Rita of Cascia High School, De La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. Ignatius College Preparatory School, Mount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School. The Chicago Public Library
Chicago Public Library
system operates 79 public libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city. Colleges and universities[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of colleges and universities in Chicago.

The University of Chicago, as seen from the Midway Plaisance

Since the 1850s, Chicago
Chicago
has been a world center of higher education and research with several universities that are in the city proper or in the immediate environs. These institutions consistently rank among the top "National Universities" in the United States, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. Top universities in Chicago
Chicago
are: the University of Chicago; Illinois
Illinois
Institute of Technology; Northwestern University; Loyola University Chicago; DePaul University; Columbia College Chicago
Chicago
and University of Illinois
Illinois
at Chicago. Other notable schools include: Chicago
Chicago
State University; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Illinois
Illinois
Institute of Art – Chicago; East–West University; National Louis University; North Park University; Northeastern Illinois
Illinois
University; Robert Morris University Illinois; Roosevelt University; Saint Xavier University; Rush University; and Shimer College.[269] William Rainey Harper, the first president of the University of Chicago, was instrumental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College
Joliet Junior College
as the first in the nation in 1901.[270] His legacy continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago
Chicago
proper, including the seven City
City
Colleges of Chicago: Richard J. Daley
Richard J. Daley
College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College. Chicago
Chicago
also has a high concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, graduate schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Divinity School. Media[edit] Further information: Media in Chicago, List of fiction set in Chicago, and Chicago
Chicago
International Film Festival

WGN began in the early days of radio and developed into a multi-platform broadcaster, including a cable television super-station.

The Chicago metropolitan area
Chicago metropolitan area
is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York City
City
and Los Angeles.[271] Each of the big four U.S. television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC
NBC
and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television station in Chicago (WBBM 2, WLS 7, WMAQ 5 and WFLD
WFLD
32, respectively). Former CW affiliate WGN-TV
WGN-TV
9, which is owned by the Tribune Media, is carried with some programming differences, as "WGN America" on cable and satellite TV nationwide and in parts of the Caribbean. The city has also been the base of several talk shows, including, formerly, The Oprah Winfrey Show. Chicago Public Radio
Chicago Public Radio
produces programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me!
Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me!
The city also has two PBS
PBS
member stations: WTTW
WTTW
11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop's Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group, just to name a few, and WYCC
WYCC
20 (permanently off-the-air as of November, 2017). Two major daily newspapers are published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times, with the Tribune having the larger circulation. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik Związkowy (Polish Daily News), Draugas
Draugas
(the Lithuanian daily newspaper), the Chicago
Chicago
Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago
Chicago
Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity,[272][273] StreetWise
StreetWise
and the Windy City
City
Times. The entertainment and cultural magazine Time Out Chicago
Time Out Chicago
and GRAB magazine are also published in the city, as well as local music magazine Chicago
Chicago
Innerview. In addition, Chicago
Chicago
is the recent home of satirical national news outlet, The Onion, as well as its sister pop-culture publication, The A.V. Club.[274] Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed and/or set in the city such as The Blues Brothers, Brewster's Millions, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman
Batman
Begins, The Dark Knight, Dhoom 3, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, Transformers: The Last Knight, Divergent, Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sinister 2, Suicide Squad, and Batman: Gotham by Gaslight. Chicago
Chicago
has also been the setting for many popular television shows, including the situation comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married... with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up. The city served as the venue for the medical dramas ER and Chicago Hope, as well as the fantasy drama series Early Edition
Early Edition
and the 2005–2009 drama Prison Break. Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
films two shows in Chicago: Cook County
Cook County
Jail and the Chicago
Chicago
version of Cash Cab. Chicago is currently the setting for CBS's The Good Wife and Mike and Molly, Showtime's Shameless, and NBC's Chicago
Chicago
Fire, Chicago
Chicago
P.D. and Chicago Med.[275] Chicago
Chicago
has five 50,000 watt AM radio stations: the CBS
CBS
Radio-owned WBBM and WSCR; the Tribune Broadcasting-owned WGN; the Cumulus Media-owned WLS; and the ESPN Radio-owned WMVP. Chicago
Chicago
is also home to a number of national radio shows, including Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont on Sunday evenings. Chicago
Chicago
is also featured in a few video games, including Watch Dogs and Midtown Madness, a real-life, car-driving simulation game. In 2005, indie rock artist Sufjan Stevens
Sufjan Stevens
created a concept album about Illinois
Illinois
titled Illinois; many of its songs were about Chicago
Chicago
and its history. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Further information: Transportation in Chicago

Aerial photo of the Jane Byrne
Jane Byrne
Interchange, opened in the 1960s

Chicago
Chicago
is a major transportation hub in the United States. It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third-largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Singapore.[276] Expressways[edit] Further information: Roads and expressways in Chicago Seven mainline and four auxiliary interstate highways (55, 57, 65 (only in Indiana), 80 (also in Indiana), 88, 90 (also in Indiana), 94 (also in Indiana), 190, 290, 294, and 355) run through Chicago
Chicago
and its suburbs. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents (Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan) and one named after two-time Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson. The Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state maintained routes in the entire state of Illinois.[277] Transit systems[edit]

Chicago
Chicago
Union Station, opened in 1925, is the third-busiest passenger rail terminal in the United States

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace.

The Chicago Transit Authority
Chicago Transit Authority
(CTA) handles public transportation in the City
City
of Chicago
Chicago
and a few adjacent suburbs outside of the Chicago city limits. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midway and O'Hare Airports. The CTA's rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24‑hour service which makes Chicago
Chicago
one of a handful of cities around the world (and one of two in the United States, the other being New York City) to offer rail service 24 hours a day, every day of the year, within the city's limits. Metra, the nation's second-most used passenger regional rail network, operates an 11-line commuter rail service in Chicago
Chicago
and throughout the Chicago
Chicago
suburbs. The Metra
Metra
Electric Line shares its trackage with Northern Indiana
Indiana
Commuter Transportation District's South Shore Line, which provides commuter service between South Bend and Chicago. Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit.[278]

Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
provides inter-city bus service to and from the city, and Chicago
Chicago
is also the hub for the Midwest network of Megabus (North America). Passenger rail[edit]

Amtrak
Amtrak
train on the Empire Builder
Empire Builder
route departs Chicago
Chicago
from Union Station

Amtrak
Amtrak
long distance and commuter rail services originate from Union Station. Chicago
Chicago
is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation. The services terminate in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago
Chicago
with New York City
City
via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was never completed. Bicycle-sharing system[edit] Chicago's Department of Transportation oversees operation of Divvy, North America's largest bicycle-sharing system (by geography), allowing residents and visitors the ability to check out public bikes from any of hundreds of automated stations located over a large area of the city, take them for short rides, and return them to any station of their choosing.[279] Divvy
Divvy
was initially launched in 2013 with 750 bikes and 75 docking stations[280] and has since expanded to 5,800 bikes and 580 stations as of December 2016.[281] Freight rail[edit] Chicago
Chicago
is the largest hub in the railroad industry.[282] Six of the seven Class I railroads meet in Chicago, with the exception being the Kansas City
City
Southern Railway.[283] As of 2002, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days).[284] According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via rail to, from, or through Chicago
Chicago
is forecast to increase nearly 150 percent between 2010 and 2040.[285] CREATE, the Chicago
Chicago
Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to significantly improve the speed of freight movements in the Chicago area.[286] Airports[edit] Further information: Transportation in Chicago
Transportation in Chicago
§ Airports

O'Hare International Airport

Chicago
Chicago
is served by O'Hare International Airport, the world's second-busiest airport measured by airline operations,[287] on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side. In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic.[288] Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City
City
of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport
Gary/Chicago International Airport
and Chicago
Chicago
Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana
Indiana
and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternate Chicago
Chicago
area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O'Hare and Midway. In recent years the state of Illinois
Illinois
has been leaning towards building an entirely new airport in the Illinois
Illinois
suburbs of Chicago.[289] The City
City
of Chicago
Chicago
is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline. Port authority[edit] Main article: Port of Chicago The Port of Chicago
Port of Chicago
consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago
Chicago
operated by the Illinois
Illinois
International Port District (formerly known as the Chicago
Chicago
Regional Port District). The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.[290]

Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes 100 acres (0.40 km2) of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
with over 780,000 square meters (8,400,000 square feet) of storage. Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River
Calumet River
6 miles (9.7 km) inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over 29,000 square meters (310,000 square feet) adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing. Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet. The Illinois
Illinois
International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends 60 miles (97 km) from Chicago's city limits.

Utilities[edit] Electricity for most of northern Illinois
Illinois
is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana
Indiana
border to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago
Chicago
receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Recently, the city began installing wind turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy.[291][292][293] Natural gas is provided by Peoples Gas, a subsidiary of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago. Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet area. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert recyclable refuse from landfills.[294] Because of low participation in the blue bag programs, the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling like other cities. This proved successful and blue bins were rolled out across the city.[295]

Prentice Women's Hospital on the Northwestern Memorial Hospital Downtown Campus

Health systems[edit] The Illinois
Illinois
Medical District is on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University
Rush University
Medical Center, ranked as the second best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area
Chicago metropolitan area
by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–15, the University of Illinois
Illinois
Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest trauma centers in the nation.[296] Two of the country's premier academic medical centers reside in Chicago, including Northwestern Memorial Hospital
Northwestern Memorial Hospital
and the University of Chicago
Chicago
Medical Center. The Chicago
Chicago
campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2010–11;[297] the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report;[298] the new Prentice Women's Hospital; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. The University of Illinois
Illinois
College of Medicine at UIC is the second largest medical school in the United States
United States
(2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign).[299] In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine
Stritch School of Medicine
are located in the suburbs of North Chicago
Chicago
and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago
Chicago
College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association
Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association
are all based in Chicago. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Chicago Sister cities[edit] See also: List of diplomatic missions and trade organizations in Chicago Chicago
Chicago
has 28 sister cities around the world.[300] Like Chicago, many of them are or were the second-most populous city or second-most influential city of their country, or they are the main city of a country that has had large amounts of immigrants settle in Chicago. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties.[301] To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago
Chicago
hosts a yearly festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities.[300] In addition, the Chicago
Chicago
Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegation and formal exchanges.[300] In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine
Feinberg School of Medicine
of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine
Ukraine
(originally of the Soviet Union), that was originally established as part of the Chicago- Kiev
Kiev
sister cities program.[302] Sister cities[300]

Warsaw
Warsaw
(Poland) 1960 Milan
Milan
(Italy) 1973 Osaka
Osaka
(Japan) 1973 Casablanca
Casablanca
(Morocco) 1982 Shanghai
Shanghai
(China) 1985 Shenyang
Shenyang
(China) 1985 Gothenburg
Gothenburg
(Sweden) 1987 Accra
Accra
(Ghana) 1989 Prague
Prague
(Czech Republic) 1990[303] Kiev
Kiev
(Ukraine) 1991 Mexico
Mexico
City
City
(Mexico) 1991 Toronto
Toronto
(Canada) 1991 Birmingham
Birmingham
(United Kingdom) 1993 Vilnius
Vilnius
(Lithuania) 1993 Hamburg
Hamburg
(Germany) 1994 Petah Tikva
Petah Tikva
(Israel) 1994 Paris
Paris
(France) 1996 (friendship and cooperation agreement only)[304] Athens
Athens
(Greece) 1997[c] Durban
Durban
(South Africa) 1997 Galway
Galway
(Ireland) 1997 Moscow
Moscow
(Russia) 1997 Lucerne
Lucerne
(Switzerland) 1998[305] Delhi
Delhi
(India) 2001 Amman
Amman
(Jordan) 2004 Belgrade
Belgrade
(Serbia) 2005 São Paulo
São Paulo
(Brazil) 2007[306] Lahore
Lahore
(Pakistan) 2007 Busan
Busan
(South Korea) 2007 Bogotá
Bogotá
(Colombia) 2009

See also[edit]

Illinois
Illinois
portal Chicago
Chicago
portal

Chicago
Chicago
Wilderness Gentrification of Chicago List of cities with the most skyscrapers List of fiction set in Chicago National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Central Chicago National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in North Side Chicago National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in South Side Chicago National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in West Side Chicago

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Chicago
Chicago
were kept at various locations in downtown from January 1871 to 31 December 1925, University of Chicago from 1 January 1926 to 30 June 1942, Midway Airport from 1 July 1942 to 16 January 1980, and at O'Hare Airport since 17 January 1980.[126][127] ^ Not according official list of Greek government(PDF)

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and the Making of America, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-80194-9, OCLC 493430274  Montejano, David (1999), Montejano, David, ed., Chicano Politics and Society in the Late Twentieth Century, Austin: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-75215-6, OCLC 38879251  Norcliffe, Glen (2001), The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869–1900, Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press, ISBN 0-8020-4398-4, OCLC 46625313  Pacyga, Dominic A. (2009), Chicago: A Biography, Chicago: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, ISBN 0-226-64431-6, OCLC 298670853  Pridmore, Jay (2003), The Merchandise Mart, Pomegranate Communications, ISBN 0-7649-2497-4, LCCN 2003051164  Pogorzelski, Daniel; Maloof, John (2008), Portage Park, Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 9780738552293  Sampson, Robert J. (2012), Great American City: Chicago
Chicago
and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect, Chicago: University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press, ISBN 978-0-226-73456-9  Sawyer, R. Keith (2002), Improvised dialogue: emergence and creativity in conversation, Westport, Conn.: Ablex Pub., ISBN 1-56750-677-1, OCLC 59373382  Schneirov, Richard (1998), Labor and urban politics: class conflict and the origins of modern liberalism in Chicago, 1864–97, Urbana: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, ISBN 0-252-06676-6, OCLC 37246254  Slaton, Deborah, ed. (1997), Wild Onions: A Brief Guide to Landmarks and Lesser-Known Structures in Chicago's Loop (2nd ed.), Champaign, Ill: Association for Preservation Technology International, OCLC 42362348  Smith, Carl S. (2006), The Plan of Chicago: Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
and the Remaking of the American City, Chicago
Chicago
visions + revisions, Chicago: University of Chicago
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Press, ISBN 0-226-76471-0, OCLC 261199152  Spears, Timothy B. (2005), Chicago
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dreaming: Midwesterners and the city, 1871–1919, Chicago: University of Chicago
University of Chicago
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(Firm), Chicago: Cantigny First Division Foundation, ISBN 1-890093-03-3, OCLC 36066057  Zurawski, Joseph W. (2007), Polish Chicago: Our History-Our Recipes, G. Bradley Pub, Inc., ISBN 978-0-9774512-2-7 

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v t e

City
City
of Chicago

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Cook County Metropolitan area Illinois United States

Links to related articles

v t e

Community areas in Chicago

Far North

Rogers Park West Ridge Uptown Lincoln Square Edison Park Norwood Park Jefferson Park Forest Glen North Park Albany Park O'Hare Edgewater

Northwest

Portage Park Irving Park Dunning Montclare Belmont Cragin Hermosa

North

North Center Lake View Lincoln Park Avondale Logan Square

Central

Near North Side The Loop Near South Side

West

Humboldt Park West Town Austin West Garfield Park East Garfield Park Near West Side North Lawndale South Lawndale Lower West Side

South

Armour Square Douglas Oakland Fuller Park Grand Boulevard Kenwood Washington Park Hyde Park Woodlawn South Shore Bridgeport Greater Grand Crossing

Southwest

Garfield Ridge Archer Heights Brighton Park McKinley Park New City West Elsdon Gage Park Clearing West Lawn Chicago
Chicago
Lawn West Englewood Englewood

Far Southwest

Ashburn Auburn Gresham Beverly Washington Heights Mount Greenwood Morgan Park

Far Southeast

Chatham Avalon Park South Chicago Burnside Calumet Heights Roseland Pullman South Deering East Side West Pullman Riverdale Hegewisch

v t e

Neighborhoods in Chicago

Recognized by the City
City
of Chicago

Albany Park Andersonville Archer Heights Ashburn Auburn Gresham Avalon Park Avondale Back of the Yards Belmont Cragin Beverly Bridgeport Brighton Park Bronzeville Bucktown Burnside Calumet Heights Chatham Chinatown Clearing Dunning East Side Edgewater Edison Park Englewood Forest Glen Gage Park Galewood Garfield Ridge Gold Coast Greater Grand Crossing Greektown Hegewisch Hermosa Homan Square Humboldt Park Hyde Park Irving Park Jefferson Park Kenwood Lake View Lincoln Park Lincoln Square Little Italy Little Village Logan Square The Loop Magnificent Mile McKinley Park Montclare Morgan Park Mount Greenwood Near North Side Near West Side New City North Park Oakland O'Hare Old Town Pilsen Printer's Row Pullman River North Riverdale Robert Taylor Homes Rogers Park Sauganash South Chicago South Deering South Shore Streeterville Ukrainian Village Uptown Washington Heights Washington Park West Elsdon West Ridge West Town Wicker Park Woodlawn Wrigleyville

Other districts and areas recognized by the community

Altgeld Gardens Armour Square Big Oaks Bowmanville Boystown Budlong Woods Buena Park Canaryville Central Station Chicago
Chicago
Lawn Chrysler Village East Garfield Park Edgebrook Fernwood Fuller Park Fulton River District Gladstone Park Goose Island Grand Boulevard Groveland Park Heart of Chicago Hollywood Park Illinois
Illinois
Medical District Indian Village The Island Jeffery Manor Jackowo Kilbourn Park K-Town Kosciuszko Park Lilydale Lower West Side Margate Park Marquette Park Marshall Square Mayfair Museum Campus New Chinatown Noble Square North Austin North Center North Halsted North Lawndale North Mayfair Old Edgebrook Old Irving Park Old Norwood Park Old Town Triangle Oriole Park Palmer Square Peterson Park Pill Hill Portage Park Prairie
Prairie
District Polish Village Prairie
Prairie
Shores Princeton Park Pulaski Park Ravenswood Ravenswood Manor River West Roseland Rosemoor Roscoe Village Saint Ben's Scottsdale Sheridan Park Smith Park South Lawndale South Edgebrook Tri-Taylor Union Ridge The Villa Waclawowo West Beverly West Englewood West Garfield Park West Lakeview West Lawn West Loop
West Loop
Gate West Pullman West Rogers Park Wildwood

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Cook County, Illinois, United States

County seat: Chicago

Cities

Berwyn Blue Island Brookfield Burbank Calumet City Chicago‡ Chicago
Chicago
Heights Country Club Hills Countryside Des Plaines Elgin‡ Elmhurst‡ Evanston Harvey Hickory Hills Hometown Markham Northlake Oak Forest Palos Heights Palos Hills Park Ridge Prospect Heights Rolling Meadows

Town

Cicero

Villages

Alsip Arlington Heights Barrington‡ Barrington Hills‡ Bartlett‡ Bedford Park Bellwood Bensenville‡ Berkeley Bridgeview Broadview Buffalo Grove‡ Burnham Burr Ridge‡ Calumet Park Chicago
Chicago
Ridge Crestwood Deer Park‡ Deerfield‡ Dixmoor Dolton East Dundee‡ East Hazel Crest Elk Grove Village‡ Elmwood Park Evergreen Park Flossmoor Ford Heights Forest Park Forest View Frankfort‡ Franklin Park Glencoe Glenview Glenwood Golf Hanover Park‡ Harwood Heights Hazel Crest Hillside Hinsdale‡ Hodgkins Hoffman Estates‡ Homewood Indian Head Park Inverness Justice Kenilworth La Grange La Grange Park Lansing Lemont‡ Lincolnwood Lynwood Lyons Matteson‡ Maywood McCook Melrose Park Merrionette Park Midlothian Morton Grove Mount Prospect Niles Norridge North Riverside Northbrook Northfield Oak Brook‡ Oak Lawn Oak Park Olympia Fields Orland Hills Orland Park‡ Palatine Palos Park Park Forest‡ Phoenix Posen Richton Park River Forest River Grove Riverdale Riverside Robbins Roselle‡ Rosemont Sauk Village‡ Schaumburg‡ Schiller Park Skokie South Barrington South Chicago
Chicago
Heights South Holland Steger‡ Stickney Stone Park Streamwood Summit Thornton Tinley Park‡ University Park‡ Westchester Western Springs Wheeling Willow Springs‡ Wilmette Winnetka Woodridge‡ Worth

Townships

Barrington Berwyn Bloom Bremen Calumet Cicero Elk Grove Hanover Lemont Leyden Lyons Maine New Trier Niles Northfield Norwood Park Oak Park Orland Palatine Palos Proviso Rich River Forest Riverside Schaumburg Stickney Thornton Wheeling Worth

Unincorporated communities

Central Stickney Hines Indian Hill La Grange Highlands Nottingham Park Sag Bridge Sutton

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of DuPage County, Illinois, United States

County seat: Wheaton

Cities

Aurora‡ Batavia‡ Chicago‡ Darien Elmhurst‡ Naperville‡ Oakbrook Terrace St. Charles‡ Warrenville West Chicago‡ Wheaton Wood Dale

Villages

Addison Bartlett‡ Bensenville‡ Bloomingdale Bolingbrook‡ Burr Ridge‡ Carol Stream Clarendon Hills Downers Grove Elk Grove Village‡ Glen Ellyn Glendale Heights Hanover Park‡ Hinsdale‡ Itasca Lemont‡ Lisle Lombard Oak Brook‡ Roselle‡ Schaumburg‡ Villa Park Wayne‡ Westmont Willow Springs‡ Willowbrook Winfield Woodridge‡

Townships

Addison Bloomingdale Downers Grove Lisle Milton Naperville Wayne Winfield York

Unincorporated communities

Belmont Cloverdale Eola Flowerfield Fullersburg Keeneyville Lakewood Mammoth Springs Medinah Munger North Glen Ellyn Palisades South Elmhurst Swift York Center

Ghost towns/Neighborhoods

Gostyn Ontarioville Tedens Weston

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area

Major city

Chicago

Cities (over 30,000 in 2010)

Aurora Berwyn Calumet City Chicago
Chicago
Heights Crystal Lake DeKalb Des Plaines Elgin Elmhurst Evanston Gary Hammond Joliet Kenosha Naperville North Chicago Park Ridge Portage St. Charles Valparaiso Waukegan Wheaton

Towns and villages (over 30,000 in 2010)

Addison Algonquin Arlington Heights Bartlett Bolingbrook Buffalo Grove Carol Stream Carpentersville Cicero Downers Grove Elk Grove Village Glendale Heights Glenview Gurnee Hanover Park Hoffman Estates Lombard Merrillville Mount Prospect Mundelein Northbrook Oak Lawn Oak Park Orland Park Oswego Palatine Plainfield Romeoville Schaumburg Skokie Streamwood Tinley Park Wheeling Woodridge

Counties

Cook DeKalb DuPage Grundy Jasper Kane Kendall Kenosha Lake, IL Lake, IN McHenry Newton Porter Will

Regions

Great Lakes Northern Illinois Northern Indiana

Sub-regions

Chicago
Chicago
Southland Eastern Ridges and Lowlands Fox Valley (Illinois) Golden Corridor Illinois
Illinois
Technology and Research Corridor North Shore (Chicago) Northwest Indiana

Illinois, United States

v t e

Landmarks in Chicago

Apartments

860-880 Lake Shore Drive
Lake Shore Drive
Apartments Belle Shore Apartment Hotel Brewster Apartments Bryn Mawr Apartment Hotel Fisher Studio Houses Hotel St. Benedict Flats Keck-Gottschalk-Keck Apartments Kenna Apartments Powhatan Apartments Three Arts Club Waller Apartments Yale Apartments

Culture

Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum Auditorium Building Biograph Theater Bush Temple of Music Chess Records
Chess Records
Office and Studio Chicago
Chicago
Cultural Center Chicago
Chicago
Theatre Civic Opera Building Congress Theater Essanay Studios Field Museum
Field Museum
of Natural History Fine Arts Building Former Chicago
Chicago
Historical Society Building Harris and Selwyn Theaters Krause Music Store Lorado Taft
Lorado Taft
Midway Studios Medinah Temple Museum of Science and Industry Navy Pier
Navy Pier
Headhouse and Auditorium New Regal Theater Orchestra Hall Portage Theater Pui Tak Center Shedd Aquarium South Shore Cultural Center South Side Community Art
Art
Center Sunset Cafe Thalia Hall Three Arts Club of Chicago Tree Studio Building and Annexes Unity Hall Uptown Theatre Whistle Stop Inn Woman's Athletic Club Yondorf Block and Hall

Education

American School of Correspondence Assumption School DuSable High School George Herbert Jones Laboratory Immaculata High School IIT Main Building & Machinery Hall Lindblom Math & Science Academy Schurz High School Sexton School St. Ignatius College Prep Ward Public School Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Historic districts

Alta Vista Terrace Arlington & Roslyn Place Arlington-Deming Armitage-Halsted Astor Street Beverly/Morgan Railroad Bissell Street Black Metropolis-Bronzeville Burling Row House Calumet/Giles Prairie Cermak Road Bridge Dover Street East Lake Shore Drive East Village Five Houses on Avers Fremont Row House Greenwood Row House Hawthorne Place Hyde Park-Kenwood Historic District IIT Campus Jackson Boulevard Jackson Park Highlands Jewelers Row Kenwood Logan Square Boulevards Longwood Drive Loop Retail
Retail
Historic District McCormick Row House Michigan Boulevard Michigan-Wacker Mid-North Milwaukee-Diversey-Kimball Motor Row Newport Avenue North Kenwood Oakdale Avenue Oakland Old Chicago
Chicago
Water Tower Old Edgebrook Old Town Triangle Prairie
Prairie
Avenue Printing House Row Pullman Schoenhofen Brewery Seven Houses on Lake Shore Drive Surf-Pine Grove Terra Cotta Row Ukrainian Village Villa Walter Burley Griffin Place Washington Park Court Wicker Park

Houses

Abott Miller American System Clarke Dewes Elam Eliel Bach Compton Dewes Bachman Beeson Cable Colvin Williams DuPont-Whitehouse Schock Schock Lillie Gerber Gauler Groesbeck Hazelton-Mikota House Heller Peters Hitchcock Hull Wells-Barnett Iglehart Walser Jackson-Thomas Charnley Du Sable Homesite Glessner King-Nash Lathrop Lion House Madlener Schock McCormick Double McGill Nickerson Noble-Seymour-Crippen Northwestern University
Northwestern University
Settlement House De Priest Palliser's Cottage Home No. 35 Pate-Comiskey House Raber Race Rath Millikan Abbott Robie Roloson Foster Schlect Sandburg Jones Soldiers' Home Kent Theurer-Wrigley Turzak Wheeler-Kohn Adams Wingert

Memorials and monuments

Abraham Lincoln: The Man Buckingham Fountain Getty Tomb Chicago
Chicago
Pile-1

Nuclear Energy

Douglas Tomb Fort Dearborn
Fort Dearborn
Site Origin of the Chicago
Chicago
Fire of 1871 Haymarket Heald Square Monument Origins of the I&M Canal Illinois- Indiana
Indiana
State Line Boundary Marker Republic Rosehill Cemetery Entrance Site of the John and Mary Jones House Union Stock Yard
Union Stock Yard
Gate Victory Monument Wigwam (Site of the Sauganash Hotel)

Municipal

63rd Street Bathing Pavilion Calumet Park
Calumet Park
Fieldhouse Chicago
Chicago
City
City
Hall Columbus Park Courthouse Place Drake Fountain Humboldt Park Boathouse Pavilion Indian Boundary Park
Indian Boundary Park
Fieldhouse Shedd Park Fieldhouse Washington Square Park

Places of worship

All Saints Episcopal Church Canaan Baptist Church of Christ Building Church of the Epiphany Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church Eighth Church of Christ, Scientist Episcopal Church of the Atonement and Parish House Epworth United Methodist Church First Baptist Congregational Church First Church of Deliverance First Congregational Church of Austin Fourth Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral and Rectory Kenwood Evangelical Church KAM Isaiah Israel Madonna Della Strada Chapel Metropolitan Apostolic Community Church Building Metropolitan Missionary Baptist Church Old St. Patrick's Church Pilgrim Baptist Church Quinn Chapel Roberts Temple Church of God in Christ Building Rockefeller Memorial Chapel St. Gelasius Church Building Second Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Third Unitarian Church
Third Unitarian Church
Building Truevine Missionary Baptist Church Building

Skyscrapers

330 North Wabash 333 North Michigan 35 East Wacker 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Allerton Hotel Auditorium Blackstone Hotel Brooks Bryn Mawr Apartment Hotel Carbide & Carbon Carson, Pirie, Scott Chicago
Chicago
Board of Trade Chicago
Chicago
Building Civic Opera House Fisher Building Gage Group Buildings Heyworth Building Inland Steel Building London Guarantee Building Manhattan Building Marquette Building Marshall Field
Marshall Field
and Company Building Mather Tower Monadnock Building Mundelein College Skyscraper New York Life Insurance Old Colony Old Dearborn Bank One North LaSalle Palmer House Palmolive Pittsfield Powhatan Apartments Reliance Daley Roanoke Rookery Tribune Tower Washington Block

Transportation

Chicago
Chicago
& Alton Railway Bridge Chicago
Chicago
& Illinois
Illinois
Western Railway Bridge Chicago
Chicago
& Northwestern Railway Bridge Chicago
Chicago
& North Western Railway Power House Chicago
Chicago
& Western Indiana
Indiana
Railroad Bridge Chicago Harbor
Chicago Harbor
Lighthouse Chicago, Milwaukee
Milwaukee
& St. Paul Railway Bridge No. Z-2 Cortland Street Drawbridge Dearborn Station Garfield Boulevard
Boulevard
"L" Station and Overpass Illinois
Illinois
Central Railroad Swing Bridge 1 Illinois
Illinois
Central Railroad Swing Bridge 2 Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Bridges LaSalle Street Cable Car Powerhouse Michigan Avenue Bridge
Michigan Avenue Bridge
and Esplanade Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge Pennsylvania Railroad "Eight Track" Bridge St. Charles Air Line Bridge Union Station

v t e

 State of Illinois

Springfield (capital)

Topics

Index Buildings and structures Census areas Communications Culture Delegations Earthquakes Economy Education Energy Environment Geography Government Health History Languages Law Music People Politics Portal Protected areas Society Sports Tourism Transportation Windmills

Seal of Illinois

Regions

American Bottom Central Illinois Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area Collar counties Corn Belt Driftless Area Forgottonia Fox Valley Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky tri-state area Metro East Metro Lakeland Mississippi Alluvial Plain North Shore Northern Illinois Northwestern Illinois Peoria metropolitan area Quad Cities River Bend Rockford metropolitan area Southern Illinois Streatorland Wabash Valley

Cities, towns and villages

Alton/Granite City/Edwardsville Arlington Heights/Palatine Aurora/Naperville/Oswego/Plainfield Bartlett/Hanover Park/Streamwood Belleville/East St. Louis/Collinsville/O'Fallon Berwyn/Cicero Bloomington/Normal Bolingbrook/Romeoville Buffalo Grove/Wheeling Calumet City Canton Carbondale Carol Stream/Glendale Heights Centralia Champaign/Urbana Charleston/Mattoon Chicago Chicago
Chicago
Heights Crystal Lake/Algonquin Danville Decatur DeKalb/Sycamore Des Plaines/Mount Prospect/Park Ridge Dixon Downers Grove/Woodridge Effingham Elgin/Carpentersville Elmhurst/Lombard/Addison Evanston/Skokie Freeport Galesburg Glenview/Northbrook Harrisburg Jacksonville Joliet Kankakee/Bradley/Bourbonnais Lincoln Macomb Marion/Herrin Moline/East Moline/Rock Island Mount Vernon Mundelein Oak Lawn Oak Park Orland Park/Tinley Park Ottawa/Streator/LaSalle/Peru Peoria/Pekin/East Peoria/Morton/Washington Pontiac Quincy Rochelle Rockford/Belvidere/Machesney Park/Loves Park St. Charles Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates/Elk Grove Village Springfield Sterling/Rock Falls Taylorville Waukegan/North Chicago/Gurnee Wheaton

Counties

Adams Alexander Bond Boone Brown Bureau Calhoun Carroll Cass Champaign Christian Clark Clay Clinton Coles Cook Crawford Cumberland DeKalb DeWitt Douglas DuPage Edgar Edwards Effingham Fayette Ford Franklin Fulton Gallatin Greene Grundy Hamilton Hancock Hardin Henderson Henry Iroquois Jackson Jasper Jefferson Jersey Jo Daviess Johnson Kane Kankakee Kendall Knox LaSalle Lake Lawrence Lee Livingston Logan Macon Macoupin Madison Marion Marshall Mason Massac McDonough McHenry McLean Menard Mercer Monroe Montgomery Morgan Moultrie Ogle Peoria Perry Piatt Pike Pope Pulaski Putnam Randolph Richland Rock Island Saline Sangamon Schuyler Scott Shelby St. Clair Stark Stephenson Tazewell Union Vermilion Wabash Warren Washington Wayne White Whiteside Will Williamson Winnebago Woodford

v t e

Pan American Games
Pan American Games
host cities

Summer

1951: Buenos Aires 1955: Mexico
Mexico
City 1959: Chicago 1963: São Paulo 1967: Winnipeg 1971: Santiago
Santiago
de Cali 1975: Mexico
Mexico
City 1979: San Juan 1983: Caracas 1987: Indianapolis 1991: Havana 1995: Mar del Plata 1999: Winnipeg 2003: Santo Domingo 2007: Rio de Janeiro 2011: Guadalajara 2015: Toronto 2019: Lima 2023: Santiago

Winter

1990: Las Leñas

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Illinois

Rahm Emanuel (Chicago) Richard Irvin (Aurora) Tom McNamara (Rockford) Bob O'Dekirk (Joliet) Steve Chirico (Naperville) Jim Langfelder (Springfield) Jim Ardis (Peoria) Dave Kaptain (Elgin)

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City
City
(Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126028111 GND: 4009921-0 BNF: cb11942716g (d

.