The Chengdu J-20 (simplified Chinese: 歼-20; traditional Chinese: 殲-20) is a single-seat, twinjet, all-weather, stealth fifth-generation fighter aircraft developed by China's Chengdu Aerospace Corporation for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).[11] The J-20 made its maiden flight on 11 January 2011, but the plane was officially revealed on China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in 2016. In March 2017, Chinese media reported that the aircraft has entered initial operational capability phase with limited service within Air Force.[3][12]

The J-20 descends from the J-XX program in the 1990s, J-20 is designed to become an air superiority fighter with precision strike capability.[13] In September 2017, the J-20 officially entered military service with PLAAF, becoming the third operational fifth-generation stealth fighter aircraft in the world, and the first in Asia.[14]


The two Chengdu J-20s making their first public appearance at Airshow China 2016

The J-XX program was started in the late 1990s. A proposal from Chengdu Aerospace Corporation, designated Project 718, won the PLAAF endorsement following a 2008 competition against a Shenyang proposal that was larger than the J-20.[13]

In 2009, a senior PLAAF official revealed that the first flight was expected in 2010–11, with a service entry date by 2019.[15] On 22 December 2010, the first J-20 prototype underwent high speed taxiing tests outside the Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute.[6][16] Three months later, the first J-20 prototype made its maiden flight in Chengdu.[11]

Several changes were made to J-20 prototypes, including new low-observable intake and stealth coating, as well as redesigned vertical stabilizers in 2014. Analysts noted new equipment and devices for multi-role operations such as integrated targeting pods for precision-guide munition, and six additional passive infrared sensors can also be spotted around the aircraft.[17] In December 2015, the Low rate initial production (LRIP) version of J-20 had been spotted by a military observer.[18]

Chinese state media reported in October 2017 that the designs of J-20 had been finalized, and is ready for mass production as well as combat-ready.[19]



The J-20 has a long and wide fuselage, with a chiseled nose section and a frameless canopy. Immediately behind the cockpit are low observable intakes. All-moving canard surfaces with pronounced dihedral are placed behind the intakes, followed by leading edge extensions merging into the delta wing with forward-swept trailing edges. The aft section has twin outward canted all-moving fins, short but deep ventral strakes, and conventional round engine exhausts.[20][21]

One important design criterion for the J-20 is high instability.[22][23] This requires sustained pitch authority at a high angle of attack, in which a conventional tail-plane would lose effectiveness due to stalling. On the other hand, a canard can deflect opposite to the angle of attack, avoiding stall and thereby maintaining control.[24] A canard design is also known to provide good supersonic performance, excellent supersonic and transonic turn performance, and improved short-field landing performance compared to the conventional delta wing design.[25][26]

Leading edge extensions and body lift are incorporated to enhance performance in a canard layout. This combination is said by the designer to generate 1.2 times the lift of an ordinary canard delta, and 1.8 times more lift than an equivalent sized pure delta configuration. The designer claims such a combination allows the use of a smaller wing, reducing supersonic drag without compromising transonic lift-to-drag characteristics that are crucial to the aircraft's turn performance.[22][23][27]

Avionics and cockpit

The J-20 has an electro-optical targeting system under its nose while six units of Distributed Aperture System (DAS) sensors are mounted around fuselage.[28]

A PLAAF Tupolev Tu-204 testbed aircraft featured a J-20 nose cone. It is believed to house the Type 1475 (KLJ-5) active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar with 1856 transmit/receive modules.[29]

Prototypes after application "2011" and production models feature revised nose section with electro-optical/infra-red targeting system and an advanced communications suite on top of the aircraft enables it to datalink with other friendly platforms in service, such as airborne early warning drones. Six electro-optic sensors called Distributed Aperture System[a] similar to EODAS can provide 360 degree coverage for pilot with sensor fusion system combing radar signal with IR image in order to provide better situational awareness.[28][30] The combination of an integrated targeting pod with spherically situated passive-optical tracking system is reported similar to the design concept of Lockheed Martin F-35's avionic suite.[31] Beijing A Star Science and Technology has developed the EOTS-86 electro-optical targeting system and Electro-Optical Distributed Aperture System for the J-20 and potentially other PLAAF fighters to detect and intercept stealth aircraft.[32]

The aircraft features a glass cockpit, with two main large color liquid crystal displays (LCD) touchscreen situated side-by-side, three smaller auxiliary displays, and a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD).[33][34][35] A Helmet-mounted display system also presented at Zhuhai Airshow. The helmet is able to provide aiming assistance and help pilot to utilize battle management information more efficiently from other part of the airborne system.[36]


The main weapon bay is capable of housing both short and long-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) (PL-9, PL-12C/D &PL15 – PL-21) while the two smaller lateral weapon bays behind the air inlets are intended for short-range AAMs (PL-10). These bays allow closure of the bay doors prior to firing the missile, thus enhancing stealth.[37][38]


Three types of engines will be used to test the capacity of J-20 in the development stage. The prototype is believed to be initially powered by WS-10 and / or the AL-31F engines.[2][39] China is currently working on an advanced domestic turbofan engine similar in performance to the Pratt & Whitney F119 coded WS-15,[40] but there are also speculations that 117S engine may be used for the initial batch of the J-20.[41][42][43] At the 2012 Zhuhai Air Show, Russia approached China in an unsuccessful bid to sell the Su-35, which included the 117S engines.[44] According to the latest news, China and Russia signed a contract for 24 Su-35 in November, 2015.[45] However, Chinese source stated that the design of J-20 is mature and it will not directly use 117S engine.[46]

The LRIP model is equipped with two WS-10B engines, an improved model based of the engine equipped on J-10, with plans in future to use WS-15 engine.[47][48][49] The future production version of the J-20 is believed to be powered by the WS-15,[40] a turbofan engine currently under development.[41][50][51] According to Global Security, the engine core, composed of high pressure compressors, the combustion chamber, and high pressure turbines were successfully tested in 2005.[52] An image of the core appeared in the 2006 Zhuhai Air Show.[39][41][51][53][54][55]


Analysts noted that the J-20's nose and canopy use a similar stealth shaping design as the F-22, yielding similar signature performance in a mature design at the front, while the aircraft's side and axi-symmetric engine nozzles may expose the aircraft to radar.[2][20][56] One prototype has been powered by WS-10G engines equipped with different jagged-edge nozzles and tiles for greater stealth.[57]

Others have raised doubts about the use of canards on a low-observable design, stating that canards would guarantee radar detection and a compromise of stealth.[58][59] However, canards and low-observability are not mutually exclusive designs. Northrop Grumman's proposal for the U.S. Navy's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) incorporated canards on a stealthy airframe.[60][61] Lockheed Martin employed canards on a stealth airframe for the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) program during early development before dropping them due to complications with aircraft carrier recovery.[62][63] McDonnell Douglas and NASA's X-36 featured canards and was considered to be extremely stealthy.[64] Radar cross-section can be further reduced by controlling canard deflection through flight control software, as is done on the Eurofighter.[65][66]

The diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) enables an aircraft to reach Mach 2.0 with a simpler intake than traditionally required, and improves stealth performance by eliminating radar reflections between the diverter and the aircraft's skin. Analysts have noted that the J-20 DSI reduces the need for application of radar absorbent materials.[67][68]

Operational history

Flight testing

On 11 January 2011, the J-20 made its first flight, lasting about 15 minutes, with a Chengdu J-10B serving as the chase aircraft.[69][70] After the successful flight, a ceremony was held, attended by the pilot, Li Gang, Chief Designer Yang Wei and General Li Andong, Deputy-Director of General Armaments.[71] On 17 April 2011, a second test flight of an hour and 20 minutes took place.[72] On 5 May 2011, a 55-minute test flight was held that included retraction of the landing gear.[73]

On 26 February 2012, a J-20 performed various low-altitude maneuvers.[74] On 10 May 2012, a second prototype underwent high speed taxiing tests, and flight testing that began later that month.[75][76] On 20 October 2012, photographs of a new prototype emerged, featuring a different radome, which was speculated to house an AESA radar. On March 2013, images of the side weapon bays appeared, including a missile launch rail.[77][78][79]

On 16 January 2014, a J-20 prototype was revealed, showing a new intake and stealth coating, as well as redesigned vertical stabilizers, and an Electro-Optical Targeting System.[57][80][81] This particular aircraft, numbered '2011', performed its maiden flight on 1 March 2014 and is said to represent the initial pre-serial standard. By the end of 2014, three more pre-serial prototypes were flown: number '2012' on 26 July 2014, number '2013' on 29 November 2014 and finally number '2015' on 19 December 2014.

On 13 September 2015, a new prototype, marked '2016', began testing. It had noticeable improvements, such as apparently changed DSI bumps on the intakes, which save weight, complexity and radar signature. The DSI changes suggested the possibility of more powerful engines being used than on its predecessors, likely to be an advanced 14-ton thrust derivative of the Russian AL-31 or Chinese Shenyang WS-10 turbofan engines, though, by 2020 the J-20 is planned to use the 18–19 ton WS-15 engine, enabling the jet to super-cruise without using afterburners. The trapezoidal flight booms around the engines were enlarged, possibly to accommodate rearwards facing radars or electronic jamming equipment. The fuselage extends almost entirely up to the engine's exhaust nozzles. Compared to its "2014" and "2015" predecessors, the J-20's fuselage contains more of engine's surface area inside the stealthy fuselage, providing greater rear-facing stealth against enemy radar.[82]

In November 2015, a new J-20 prototype, numbered '2017', took to the sky. The most significant change in the new prototype is the reshaped cockpit canopy, which provides the pilot with greater visibility. The lack of other design changes suggest that "2017" is very close to the final J-20 production configuration. Since '2017' is likely the last J-20 prototype, low rate initial production of the J-20 is likely to begin in 2016.[83] It has been reported that the design of J-20 is already mature and will not directly use the 117S engine.[46]

As of March 2017 there were still a series of technical problems that needed to be tackled, including the reliability of its WS-15 engines, [the aircraft's flight] control system, stealth coatings and hull materials, and infrared sensor.[5]


In late December 2015, a new J-20 numbered 2101 was spotted; it is believed to be the LRIP version of the aircraft.[18]

In October 2017, Chinese media report that Chengdu Aerospace Corporation (CAC) initiates series production for J-20 and is on a path towards achieving full operational capability with the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).[84][85]


At least six J-20s are in active service, with tail numbers 78271-78276 identified. Another six were believed ready to be delivered by end of Dec 2016.[86] On 9 March 2017, Chinese officials confirmed that the J-20 had entered service in the Chinese air force.

In September 2017, the J-20 officially entered military service with PLAAF, making China the second country in the world after United States wielding fifth-generation stealth aircraft, and the first in Asia.[87][87][88][49]

In January 2018, Chinese media reported that the J-20 is in full operation-ready deployment.[89]


The pilot training for J-20 aircraft started as early as March 2017, after the fighter entered initial operational capability phase by limited service. In January 2018, PLAAF started to create live fire drills for J-20 squadrons, with J-20 also used as competition as well as work with other fourth-generation fighters in China's air force arsenal such as Chengdu J-10C, Shenyang J-11D and J-16, as well as logistics aircraft such as Y-20.[90][91] Most training takes place at several undisclosed airbases; Chinese official claimed the exercise scenario is realistic. Indian media claimed that the training is in the Tibet region and in fact is to prepare for the future conflict involving China and India, that China needs proper training for J-20 fighter to ensure its air domination over India on Tibet Plateau.[92][93] However, Western analysts clarified that the training took part in Inner Mongolia instead of Tibet.[94]

The training on J-20 have emphasis on beyond-visual-range combat utilizing J-20's outstanding capabilities such as stealth and advanced avionics. An aviation industry observer named Wu Peixin, analyses the main focus for the combat drills is to enable pilots of J-20s to get familiar with the aircraft as well test the tactics of fifth-generation fighters as soon as possible. The training can also help aviators piloting less advanced, old-generation aircraft to hone their skills on confronting the cutting-edge fifth-generation jets in combat.[95][96]

Strategic implications


The first test flight coincided with a visit by United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates to China, and was initially interpreted by the Pentagon as a possible signal to the visiting U.S. delegation. Speaking to reporters in Beijing, secretary Gates said "I asked President Hu about it directly, and he said that the test had absolutely nothing to do with my visit and there had been a pre-planned test."[97][98] Hu seemed surprised by Gates' inquiry, prompting speculations that the test might have been a signal sent unilaterally by the Chinese military.[99][100][101] Abraham M. Denmark of the Center for New American Security in Washington, along with Michael Swaine, an expert on the PLA and United States–China military relations, explained that senior officials are not involved in day-to-day management of aircraft development and were unaware of the test.[98]

According to Asia Times, China is rumored to taking consideration of technology sharing with allies such as Pakistan, and Pakistan shares strong interest in acquire hardware and software assistance from China regarding the technologies involving fifth-generation fighters. Though unconfirmed, Several Chinese media published this news in the form of embrave Pak-China Friendship.[102]


Robert Gates downplayed the significance of the aircraft by questioning how stealthy the J-20 may be, but stated the J-20 would "put some of our capabilities at risk, and we have to pay attention to them, we have to respond appropriately with our own programs."[103] The U.S. Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper testified that the United States knew about the program for a long time and that the test flight was not a surprise.[104]

Loren B. Thompson felt that J-20's combination of forward stealth and long range puts America's surface assets at risk, and that a long-range maritime strike capability may cause the United States more concern than a short range air-superiority fighter like the F-22.[39][105] In its 2011 Annual Report to Congress, the Pentagon described the J-20 as "a platform capable of long range, penetrating strikes into complex air defense environments."[106] A 2012 report by the U.S.‐China Economic and Security Review Commission suggests that the United States may have underestimated the speed of development of the J-20 and several other Chinese military development projects.[107]

Observers were not able to reach a consensus on J-20's primary role.[108][109][110] Based on initial photographs with focus on the aircraft's size, early speculations referred to the J-20 as an F-111 equivalent with little to no air-to-air ability. Others saw the J-20 as a potential air superiority fighter once appropriate engines become available.[20][97][111] More recent speculations refer to the J-20 as an air-to-air fighter with an emphasis on forward stealth, high-speed aerodynamics, range, and adequate agility. The J-20 could threaten vulnerable tankers and ISR/C2 platforms, depriving Washington of radar coverage and strike range.[38] However one of these targets, the Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, is reported to be optimized for spotting fighter sized stealth aircraft such as the J-20.[112]

A 2015 RAND Corporation report noted the J-20’s combination of forward stealth and long range could hold U.S. Navy surface assets at risk, and that a long-range maritime strike capability may be a cause for greater concern than a short-range air-superiority fighter like the F-22.[113] After the deployment announcement, several analysts noted that future experiences the PLAAF is going to have with the J-20 will let China leverage a significant edge over India, Japan and South Korea, which struggle to design and produce their own fifth-generation fighters program by schedule.[114]

Cyber security

In April 2009, a Wall Street Journal report indicated that, according to the Pentagon, information from the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II had been compromised by unknown attackers that appeared to originate from China. There is some speculation that the compromise of the F-35 program may have helped in the development of the J-20.[2][97][111][115]


Data from Aviation Week & Space Technology[116]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one (pilot)
  • Length: 20.4 m (66.8 ft)
  • Wingspan: 13.5 m (44.2 ft)
  • Height: 4.45 m (14 ft 7 in)
  • Wing area: 78 m2 (840 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 19,391 kg (42,750 lb)
  • Gross weight: 32,092 kg (70,750 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 36,288 kg (80,001 lb) upper estimate[2]
  • Fuel capacity: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb) internally, or 19,340 kg (42,600 lb) with 4×2,400L external fuel tanks[117]
  • Powerplant: 2 × Shenyang WS-10G (prototype) afterburning turbofans, 87 kN (19,500 lbf) thrust each dry, 140 kN (32,000 lbf) with afterburner
  • Maximum speed: 2,100 km/h (1,305 mph; 1,134 kn)
  • Wing loading: 410 kg/m2 (84 lb/sq ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.06 (prototype with interim engines)



  • Type 1475 (KLJ-5) active electronically scanned array
  • EOTS-86 electro-optical targeting system[32]
  • EORD-31 infrared search and track[32]
  • Distributed aperture system[28]

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists


  1. ^ Chinese: 光电分布式孔径系统; pinyin: guāngdiàn fēnbùshì kǒngjìng xìtǒng; literally: "photoelectrically distributed aperture system"


  1. ^ "Chinese Stealth Fighter Makes First Flight". Fox News. 11 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Sweetman, William (3 January 2011). "China's J-20 Stealth Fighter In Taxi Tests". Aviation Week. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Chan, Minnie (11 March 2017). "China's J-20 stealth fighter joins the People's Liberation Army air force". South China Morning Post. 
  4. ^ "China's J-20 stealth fighter joins the People's Liberation Army air force". 2017-03-10. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  5. ^ a b http://www.janes.com/article/68755/chengdu-j-20-has-entered-service-claims-chinese-media
  6. ^ a b "Chinese Stealth Fighter Unveiled?". Australian Aviation. 30 December 2010. 
  7. ^ "6th J-20 Stealth Fighter Rolls Out". Popular science. 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2014-12-24. 
  8. ^ "歼20战机或已冻结设计 不会直接用俄117S发动机" (in Chinese). CN: Sina. 2015-11-25. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  9. ^ "中国已启动第三条歼20战机生产线 总产量已超20架". Sina Military. 
  10. ^ Axe, David. "At What Cost Stealth?" The Diplomat, 31 January 2011.
  11. ^ a b "Chengdu J-20 – China's 5th Generation Fighter". Defense Update. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  12. ^ "China's first stealth fighter enters service: media". Retrieved 17 March 2018. 
  13. ^ a b "中国空军选定下一代战机由611所方案胜出". War China (in Chinese). 2010-11-05. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "With the J20 stealth fighter in fully operation service, China leaps ahead in Asian arms race". Australian News. 20 October 2017. 
  15. ^ "Chinese Fifth Generation Fighter Unveiled". SP's Aviation. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ "Video: Chinese Stealth Fighter." Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  17. ^ "J-20 sensors and mission avionics". PLA Realtalk. 30 December 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "J-20 first LRIP airframe maiden flight (serial number 2101)". 27 January 2016. 
  19. ^ "Chinese J-20 Fighter, Y-20 Transport Aircraft Designs Finalized, Ready for Mass Production: Expert". Defense World. 12 November 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c Kopp, Carlo; Goon, Peter (1 January 2011). "Chengdu J-XX Stealth Fighter Prototype". Air Power Australia. 
  21. ^ "Worldview Report Vol. 14" Archived 4 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. digitalglobe.com 2 January 2013
  22. ^ a b "一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究 A High Lift Low-Aspect Ratio Aerodynamic Configuration" sina.com Retrieved 20 March 2013
  23. ^ a b "Translation of article 一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究" http://www.defence.pk[permanent dead link] Retrieved 20 March 2013
  24. ^ "Super Agile aircraft and method of flying it in supernormal flight." Google Patents. Retrieved 20 March 2013
  25. ^ Probert, B. "Aspects of Wing Design for Transonic and Supersonic Combat." Archived 17 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. NATO. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  26. ^ Neblett, Evan et al. "Canards." Archived 27 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. AOE 4124: Configuration Aerodynamics, Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, 17 March 2003. Retrieved: 28 November 2009.
  27. ^ "一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究 A High Lift Low-Aspect Ratio Aerodynamic Configuration" baidu.com Retrieved 20 March 2013
  28. ^ a b c "Does China's J-20 rival other stealth fighters?". CSIS. 15 February 2017. 
  29. ^ "Stealth Radar Tests on Passenger Jet". Popular Science. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  30. ^ Cenciotti, David (21 February 2014). "Upgraded, third prototype of China's stealth jet ready for maiden flight". The Aviationist. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "3D model of China's first stealth fighter reveals its greatest strengths and weaknesses". Business Insider. 
  32. ^ a b c Trimble, Stephen (26 August 2015). "MAKS: Chinese firm unveils new sensors for J-20, J-31". Flight Global. 
  33. ^ "Not so hidden dragon – China’s J-20 assessed." Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Aeronautical Society. Retrieved 20 December 2012.[dead link]
  34. ^ "Photo: China’s J-20 Stealth Fighter Head-On." defensetech.org. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  35. ^ "Is China Stealing America’s Top Stealth Fighter Jet Secrets?" GIZMODO Australia. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  37. ^ "China claims innovation in J-20 weapons bay design" AINonline, Retrieved March 2, 2014
  38. ^ a b Sweetman, Bill. "J-20 Stealth Fighter Design Balances Speed And Agility" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 November 2014. Accessed: 5 November 2014. Archived on 5 November 2014
  39. ^ a b c Majumdar, Dave (13 February 2011). "J-20 a 'wake-up call,' former intel chief says". AirForce Times. 
  40. ^ a b http://www.defensenews.com/article/20121119/DEFFEAT05/311190005/Deterring-China-8217-s-Fighter-Buildup?odyssey=nav%7Chead
  41. ^ a b c Kopp, Carlo (6 May 2011). "An Initial Assessment of China's J-20 Stealth Fighter". The Jamestown Foundation. 
  42. ^ Johnson, Reuben F. (25 August 2011). "China's development of fighter jets relies on Russian systems". Washington Times. 
  43. ^ "China Buys Su-35s – Business Insider". Business Insider. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  44. ^ "俄军企称希望向中国出口117S大推力发动机" sina.com 5 December 2012
  45. ^ "China buys 24 advanced Russian Su-35 warplanes in estimated $2bn landmark deal". Retrieved 17 March 2018. 
  46. ^ a b "Mil", News, Sina, 25 November 2015 
  47. ^ "Why China's first stealth fighter was rushed into service with inferior engines". South China Morning Post. 
  48. ^ "China's stealth fighter may be getting a new engine". Popular Science. 
  49. ^ a b "China's J-20 Fighter Likely to Replace Russian AL-31F With Homegrown Taihang Engines". www.defenseworld.net. 
  50. ^ "China Aerospace Propulsion Technology Summit." Archived 8 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. International Aircraft Engine Association, 19 June 2012.
  51. ^ a b Fisher, Richard, Jr. "October Surprises in Chinese Aerospace." Archived 13 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine. International Assessment and Strategy Center, 9 January 2013
  52. ^ "WS-15" Global Security, 11 July 2011
  53. ^ "The 'Long Pole in the Tent': China's Military Jet Engines". The Diplomat. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  54. ^ "China makes progress in developing alloy for airplane engines". Focustaiwan.tw. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  55. ^ "China Has Made Great Breakthrough in High-temperature Alloy to Biggest Military Jet Engine." news.chinatungsten.com
  56. ^ Axe, David. "Chengdu J-20: China’s First Stealth Fighter." Archived 1 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. warisboring.com, 29 December 2010.
  57. ^ a b Axe, David. "China's Latest Stealth Fighter Prototype Has, Well, Actual Stealth Features". medium.com. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  58. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Long March: China’s fifth-generation fighter is years away." Flight International. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  59. ^ Hodge, Nathan. "China’s J-20 Fighter: Stealthy or Just Stealthy-Looking?" The Wall Street Journal, 19 January 2011.
  60. ^ "F-23A & NATF-23" yf-23.net, 15 January 2013
  61. ^ "NATF-23 diagram in hi-rez." Aerospace Project Review 15 January 2013.
  62. ^ Sweetman, Bill. "From JAST To J-20". Aviation Week, 14 January 2011.
  63. ^ Sweetman 2005, p. 122–124.
  64. ^ "Agility+Stealth = X-36: formula for an advanced fighter " Design News. 14 January 2013
  65. ^ "Faq Eurofighter (translation)". Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  66. ^ Rosenkranz, Martin. "Austrian Eurofighter committee of inquiry." pp. 76–77. (English translation). Google. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  67. ^ Hehs, Eric. "JSF Diverterless Supersonic Inlet." LockMart, 15 July 2000.
  68. ^ "J-20's Stealth Signature Poses Interesting Unknowns." Aviation Week. Retrieved 13 January 2013
  69. ^ "Chinese Stealth Fighter Makes First Test Flight". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  70. ^ Wall, Robert. "J-20 Completes First Flight". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  71. ^ "Chinese J-20 Fighter First Flight Ceremony." AirForceWorld.com. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  72. ^ "China stealth fighter "appears" to have made second flight". Reuters. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  73. ^ "Chinese J-20 stealth fighter makes third flight; landing gears folded." Archived 9 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. China Defence Mashup, 5 May 2011.
  74. ^ "Video: J-20 Combat Maneuver Tests". YouTube. Google. 26 February 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  75. ^ "Video: J-20 Prototype 2002 Ground Tests." YouTube. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  76. ^ Axe, David (16 May 2012). "China Flies New Stealth Fighter as Problems Plague U.S. Jets". Wired. 
  77. ^ "This might be China's third J-20 stealth fighter". Foreign Policy. 23 October 2012. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  78. ^ Cenciotti, David (26 March 2013). "China's new stealth fighter's missile launch rails prove Beijing can improve U.S. technology". The Aviationist. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  79. ^ "J-20." Baidu. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  80. ^ "Upgraded, third prototype." The Aviationist, 21 February 2014
  81. ^ "J-20 Prototype 2011 Taxi Test." Youtube. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  82. ^ "Stealthier stealth: seventh upgraded Chinese stealth fighter prototype aims to take flight", Popular sciende .
  83. ^ "China Is Building The World's Second Stealth Air Force". Retrieved 17 March 2018. 
  84. ^ "China's J-20 fifth-gen fighter moves into series production". Jane's 360. 26 October 2017. 
  85. ^ "China's First 5th Generation Fighter Moves Into Serial Production". The Diplomat. 31 October 2017. 
  86. ^ "编号78272:第二架五位数编号歼-20曝光 部署沧州". news.ifeng.com. 2016-12-12. 
  87. ^ a b "China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Operational". Popular Mechanics. 29 September 2017. 
  88. ^ "Meet the J-20: China Commissions First Non-US Stealth Aircraft (VIDEO)". sputniknews.com. 
  89. ^ "China air force stages real combat training". Asia Times. 
  90. ^ "China air force stages real combat training". Xinhua News. 
  91. ^ "Chinese air force's combat training begins". ABP Live. 
  92. ^ "China J-20 stealth jets on training ops in Tibet". The Asian Age. 
  93. ^ "PLA training hard for potential conflict". Global Times. 
  94. ^ "China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Now Training for War". National Interest. 19 January 2018. 
  95. ^ "China's 5th generation fighter jet J-20 takes part in first combat exercises". Straits Times. 
  96. ^ "J-20 fighter takes part in first combat exercises". CCTV English. 
  97. ^ a b c Erickson, Andrew; Collins, Gabe (17 January 2011), China’s New J-20 Fighter: Development Outlook and Strategic Implications, Andrew Erickson, retrieved 23 January 2011, China plans to have at least 500 to 700 J-20 fighter jet before 2035 to challenge USA's F-35 .
  98. ^ a b Wines, Michael and Elisabeth Bumiller. "Test Unrelated to Gates Visit, China Says." The New York Times, 12 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  99. ^ Barnes, Julian E. (12 January 2011). "Gates, China Discuss Nuclear Strategy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  100. ^ Stewart, Phil (11 January 2011). "Gates: China confirms stealth jet test-flight". Reuters. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  101. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth and Michael Wines. "Test of Stealth Fighter Clouds Gates Visit to China." The New York Times, 11 January 2011.
  102. ^ "Beijing rumored to woo allies with fighter technology". The Asia Times. 20 November 2017. 
  103. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth. "U.S. Will Counter Chinese Arms Buildup." The New York Times, 8 January 2011.
  104. ^ Clapper, James R. "World Wide Threats Hearing" Archived 3 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Director of National Intelligence, 10 February 2011.
  105. ^ Thompson, Loren B. "Chinese Fighter Test Embarrasses Gates, Casts Doubt On Goals." Lexington Institute, 13 January 2011.
  106. ^ "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China, 2011." Archived 28 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Office of the Secretary of Defense, 6 May 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  107. ^ "Indigenous Weapons Development in China’s Military Modernization." Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Report, 2012.
  108. ^ Gresham, John D. (1 February 2011). "J-20 Assessment: Not So Fast!". Defense Media Network. Faircount Media Group. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  109. ^ Cole, J. Michael (6 August 2012). "China Developing a 2nd Stealth Fighter? The rumored J-21 "Snowy Owl" would be China's second stealth aircraft project, along with the J-20". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  110. ^ Majumdar, Dave (10 September 2015). "America's F-22 Raptor vs. China's Stealth J-20: Who Wins?". The National Interest. Center for The National Interest. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  111. ^ a b Kopp, Carlo (9 January 2011). "The Strategic Impact of China's J-XX Stealth Fighter". Air Power Australia. 
  112. ^ Majumdar, Dave (9 June 2014). "The U.S. Navy's Secret Counter-Stealth Weapon Could Be Hiding in Plain Sight". news.usni.org. U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  113. ^ "Understanding China's Strategy". 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018. 
  114. ^ "3-D Simulation of China's New J-20 Stealth Fighter Shows Design Capabilities". sputnik news. 
  115. ^ Groman, Siobhan, August Cole and Yochi Dreazen. "Computer Spies Breach Fighter-Jet Project." Wall Street Journal, 21 April 2009. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  116. ^ Sweetman, Bill (2014-11-03). "J-20 Stealth Fighter Design Balances Speed And Agility". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 2014-11-08. 
  117. ^ "中国歼20战机副油箱分析:单个容量或有2400L". slide.mil.news.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 17 March 2018. 
  118. ^ Hsu, Brian. "China Claims Innovation in J-20 Weapons Bay Design Aviation International News". Ainonline.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 


External links