The Info List - Chemnitz

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0371 037200 (Wittgensdorf) 037209 (Einsiedel) 03722 (Röhrsdorf) 03726 (Euba)

Vehicle registration C

Website chemnitz.de

(German pronunciation: [ˈkɛmnɪt͡s] ( listen)), known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz
is an independent city which is not part of any county and seat of the Landesdirektion Sachsen. Located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. The city's economy is based on the service sector and manufacturing industry. Chemnitz University of Technology has around 10,000 students.


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 East Germany 2.2 After reunification

3 Culture and sights 4 Urban renewal 5 Economy 6 Demography

6.1 Languages

7 Transport

7.1 Roads 7.2 Public transport 7.3 Airports

8 Sports 9 Famous residents 10 Honorary citizens 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – sister cities

12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Chemnitz
is named after the river Chemnitz, a small tributary of the Zwickau
Mulde. The word "Chemnitz" is from the Sorbian language (Upper Sorbian: Kamjenica), and means "stony [brook]". The word is composed of the Slavic word kamen meaning "stone" and the feminine suffix -ica. It is known in Czech as Saská Kamenice and in Polish as Kamienica Saska. There are many other towns named Kamenica or Kamenice in areas with past or present Slavic settlement. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Chemnitz

in 1850

An early Slavic tribe's settlement was located at Kamienica, and the first documented use of the name Chemnitz
was the 1143 site of a Benedictine
monastery around which a settlement grew. Circa 1170 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
granted it the rights of an imperial city. In 1307, the town became subordinate to the Margraviate of Meissen (the predecessor of the Saxon state). In medieval times, Chemnitz
became a centre of textile production and trade. More than one third of the population worked in textile production. By the early 19th century, Chemnitz
had become an industrial centre (sometimes called "the Saxon Manchester"). In 1913, Chemnitz
had a population of 320,000 and, like Leipzig
and Dresden, was larger at that time than today. After losing inhabitants due to the First World War Chemnitz
grew rapidly again and reached its all-time peak of 360,250 inhabitants in 1930. Before the world economic crises, it was supposed[by whom?] that the city would keep on growing and would become a "Millionenstadt" (engl. Megacity, literally: city with at least one million inhabitants) by incorporating also fast growing smaller towns and municipalities around it. Allied bombing destroyed 41% of the built up area of Chemnitz
during the Second World War.[2] Chemnitz
contained factories that produced military hardware and a Flossenbürg forced labor subcamp (500 female inmates) for Astra-Werke AG.[3] The oil refinery was a target for bombers during the Oil Campaign of World War II, and Operation Thunderclap attacks included the following raids:

14/15 February 1945: The first major raid on Chemnitz
used 717 RAF bombers, but due to cloud cover most bombs fell over open countryside. 2/3–5 March: USAAF bombers attacked the marshalling yards.[4] 5 March: 760 RAF bombers attacked.

The headquarters of the auto manufacturer Auto Union
Auto Union
were also based in Chemnitz
since 1932 and its buildings were also badly damaged. At the end of the war, the company's executives fled and relocated the company in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, where it evolved into Audi, now a brand within the Volkswagen
group. The World War II
World War II
bombings left most of the city in ruins,[citation needed] and post-war, the East German reconstruction included large low rise (and later high-rise plattenbau) housing. Some tourist sites were reconstructed during the East German era and after German reunification. It was occupied by Soviet troops on 8 May 1945. East Germany[edit] After dissolution of the states in the GDR in 1952, Chemnitz
became seat of a district (bezirk). On 10 May 1953, the city was renamed by decision of the East German government to Karl-Marx-Stadt after Karl Marx, in recognition of its industrial heritage and the Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Year marking the 70th anniversary of his death.[5] GDR Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl said:

"The people who live here do not look back, but look forward to a new and better future. They look at socialism. They look with love and devotion to the founder of the socialist doctrine, the greatest son of the German people, to Karl Marx. I hereby fulfill the government's decision. I carry out the solemn act of renaming the city and declare: From now on, this city bears the proud and mandatory name Karl-Marx-Stadt".[6]

After the city center was destroyed in World War II, the East German authorities strove to rebuild it to symbolize the conceptions of urban development of a socialist city. The then layout of the city center was rejected in favor of a new road network. However, the original plans were not completed. In addition, the rapid development of housing took priority over preservation of old buildings. So in the 1960s and 1970s, both in the center as well as in peripheral areas, large areas were built in Plattenbau
apartment-block style, for example Yorckstraße. The old buildings of the period, which still existed in Kassberg, Chemnitz-Sonnenberg (de) and Chemnitz-Schloßchemnitz (de) especially, were neglected and fell increasingly derelict. After reunification[edit]

at night, 2015

The restored market of Chemnitz.

On April 23, 1990, a referendum on the future name of the city was held: 76% of the voters voted for the old name "Chemnitz". On 1 June 1990, the city was officially renamed. After the reunification of Germany
on 3 October 1990, the city of Chemnitz
faced several difficult tasks. Many inhabitants migrated to the former West Germany
and unemployment in the region increased sharply; in addition Chemnitz
did not have adequate shopping facilities, but this was increasingly demanded,[7]. Large shopping centers were constructed on the city periphery to the early 1990s. Chemnitz
is the only major German city whose center was re-planned after 1990, similar to the reconstruction of several other German cities in the immediate post-war years. Plans for the recovery of a compressed city center around the historic town hall in 1991 led to an urban design competition. This was announced internationally by the city and carried out with the help of the partner city of Düsseldorf. The mooted project on an essentially unused area of the former city would be comparable in circumference with the Potsdamer Platz
Potsdamer Platz
in Berlin.[7] Numerous internationally renowned architects such as Hans Kollhoff, Helmut Jahn
Helmut Jahn
and Christoph Ingenhoven provided designs for a new city center. The mid-1990s began the development of the inner city brownfields around the town hall to a new town. In Chemnitz
city more than 66,000 square meters of retail space have emerged. With the construction of office and commercial building on the construction site "B3" at the Düsseldorf
court, the last gap in 2010 was closed in city center image. The intensive development included demolition of partially historically valuable monuments from the period and was controversial.[8][9] Between 1990 and 2007 more than 250 monuments were leveled. Culture and sights[edit]

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Theater Chemnitz
Theater Chemnitz
offers a variety of theatre: opera, plays, ballet and Figuren (puppets), and runs concerts by the orchestra Robert-Schumann-Philharmonie. Tourist sights include the Kassberg neighborhood with 18th and 19th century buildings and the Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Monument by Lev Kerbel, nicknamed "Nischel" (a Saxon dialect word for head) by the locals. Landmarks include the Old Town Hall with its Renaissance portal (15th century), the castle on the site of the former monastery, and the area around the opera house and the old university. The most conspicuous landmark is the red tower built in the late 12th or early 13th century as part of the city wall. The Chemnitz petrified forest
Chemnitz petrified forest
is located in the courtyard of Kulturkaufhaus Tietz. It is one of the very few in existence, and dates back several million years. Also within the city limits, in the district of Rabenstein, is the smallest castle in Saxony, Rabenstein Castle. The city has changed considerably since German reunification. Most of its industry is now gone and the core of the city has been rebuilt with many shops as well as huge shopping centres. Many of these shops are international brands, including Zara, H & M, Esprit, Galeria Kaufhof, Leiser Shoes, and Peek & Cloppenburg. The large "Galerie Roter Turm" (Red Tower) shopping centre is very popular with young people. The Chemnitz
Industrial Museum is an Anchor Point of ERIH, the European Route of Industrial Heritage. The State Museum of Archaeology Chemnitz
(smac)[10] opened in 2014 and is located in the former Kaufhaus Schocken. The Museum Gunzenhauser, formerly a bank, opened on 1 December 2007. Dr Alfred Gunzenhauser, who lived in Munich, had a collection of some 2,500 pieces of modern art, including many paintings and drawings by Otto Dix, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
and others. The Botanischer Garten Chemnitz
is a municipal botanical garden, and the Arktisch-Alpiner Garten der Walter-Meusel-Stiftung is a non-profit garden specializing in arctic and alpine plants.

Old and new city hall

Opera at Opernplatz

St. Petri church

Luther church

Castle church over the Castle Lake

The Mercure Hotel, tallest building in Chemnitz

The Transparent department store

View over Falkeplatz during night time

Burg Rabenstein

Bust of Karl Marx, the city's erstwhile namesake

University of Technology

View over the city halls and the inner city


Watercastle Klaffenbach


Guest houses at Castle park

Chemnitz petrified forest
Chemnitz petrified forest
inside the Kulturkaufhaus Tietz

Gunzenhauser Museum

State Museum of Archaeology Chemnitz

Urban renewal[edit]

Downtown Chemnitz
in 2014

Heavy destruction in World War II
World War II
as well as post-war demolition to erect a truly socialist city centre left the city with a vast open space around its town hall where once a vibrant city heart had been. Because of massive investment in out-of-town shopping right after reunification, it was not until 1999 that major building activity was started in the centre. Comparable to Potsdamer Platz
Potsdamer Platz
in Berlin, a whole new quarter of the city was constructed in recent years. New buildings include the Kaufhof Department store
Department store
by Helmut Jahn, Galerie Roter Turm with a façade by Hans Kollhoff
Hans Kollhoff
and Peek & Cloppenburg clothing store by Ingenhofen and Partner. Economy[edit] Chemnitz
is the largest city of the Chemnitz- Zwickau
urban area and is one of the most important economic areas of Germany's new federal states. Chemnitz
had a GDP of about €6.3 billion in 2004. Since about 2000, the city's economy has recorded high annual GDP growth rates; Chemnitz
is among the top ten German cities in terms of growth rate. The local and regional economic structure is characterized by medium-sized companies, with the heavy industrial sectors of mechanical engineering, metal processing, and vehicle manufacturing as the most significant industries. About 100,000 people are employed, of whom about 46,000 commute from other municipalities.[11] 16.3% of employees in Chemnitz
have a university or college degree, twice the average rate in Germany.

is the largest employer in the Chemnitz-Zwickau Agglomeration

Deutsche Bundesbank
Deutsche Bundesbank

The Klinikum Chemnitz
gGmbH is the largest hospital in the former East German states and the second biggest employer in Chemnitz

is the centerpiece of tourism in the Ore Mountains


Chemnitz's population since 1790

After German reunification Saxony
faced a significant population decrease. Since 1990 Chemnitz
has lost more than 20 percent of its inhabitants. In 2006 the BBC
reported the city of Chemnitz
had the lowest birth rate in the world.[12] Number of minorities in Chemnitz
by nationality as of 2017[update]:

Rank Nationality Population (2018)

1  Syria 2,277

2  India 1,046

3  Russia 1,008

4  China 956

5  Ukraine 954

6  Afghanistan 944

7  Iraq 715

8  Hungary 698

9  Vietnam 672

10  Romania 619

11  Czech Republic 574

12  Poland 527


Standard German Chemnitz
dialect, which is a variety of Upper Saxon German[13]


Map of tram and Stadtbahn network

Roads[edit] Chemnitz
is crossed by the two motorways (Autobahn) A4 Erfurt
and A72 Hof – Leipzig. The motorway junction Kreuz Chemnitz is situated in the northwestern area of the city. The motorway A72 between Borna and Leipzig
is still under construction. Within the administrative area of Chemnitz
there are eight motorway exits (Ausfahrt). Public transport[edit] Public transport within Chemnitz
is provided with tram and bus, as well as by the Stadtbahn. Nowadays, the city and its surroundings are served by one Stadtbahn line, five lines of the Chemnitz
tramway network, 27 city bus lines, as well as several regional bus lines. At night, the city is served by two bus lines, two tram lines, and the Stadtbahn line. The length of the tram, Stadtbahn and bus networks is 28.73 km (17.85 mi), 16.3 km (10.13 mi) and 326.08 km (202.62 mi) respectively. In August 2012, electro-diesel trams were ordered from Vossloh, to support an expansion of the light rail network to 226 km (140 mi), with new routes serving Burgstädt, Mittweida
and Hainichen.[14] Airports[edit] Near Chemnitz
there are three airports, including the two international airports of Saxony
in Dresden
and Leipzig. Both Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
and Dresden
Airport are situated about 70 km (43 mi) from Chemnitz
and offer numerous continental as well as intercontinental flights. Chemnitz
also has a small commercial airport (Verkehrslandeplatz Chemnitz
Jahnsdorf) about 13.5 km (8.4 mi) south of the city. When its current upgrade is completed it will have an asphalt runway 1,400 m (4,600 ft) long and 20 m (66 ft) wide.

Hauptbahnhof, the main train station of Chemnitz

Tram station at Main Stadion at night

A tram in Chemnitz

The small commercial airport Flugplatz Chemnitz-Jahnsdorf


Stadion an der Gellertstraße

Chemnitzer FC
Chemnitzer FC
(football) BV Chemnitz 99
BV Chemnitz 99
(basketball, men) Chemcats Chemnitz
(basketball, women) VfB Fortuna Chemnitz
(football) Post SV Chemnitz
(swimming) Schwimmclub Chemnitz
v. 1892 e.V. (swimming) TSV Einheit Süd Chemnitz
(swimming, gymnastics, volleyball, skittles) ERC Chemnitz
e.V. (ice hockey, skater hockey) CTC-Küchwald (tennis) Floor Fighters Chemnitz
(floorball) ESV LOK Chemnitz
(luge) Chemnitzer EC (figure skating, ice dancing, curling) Chemnitz
Crusaders (American football) Tower Rugby Chemnitz
(Rugby) SV Eiche Reichenbrand (football) [15] USG Chemnitz
e.V. abt Cricket
Club (Cricket)

Famous residents[edit]

Paul Oswald Ahnert (1897–1989), astronomer Brigitte Ahrens (born 1945), pop singer Mark Arndt (born 1941), Russian Orthodox Archbishop Michael Ballack
Michael Ballack
(born 1976), German footballer, former captain of Bayern Munich
Bayern Munich
and Germany Veronika Bellmann
Veronika Bellmann
(born 1960), politician Fritz Bennewitz
Fritz Bennewitz
(1926–1995), theater director Gerd Böckmann (1944), television actor and director Werner Bräunig (1934–1976), writer Peter-Klaus Budig (de) (1928–2012), former minister in government of East Germany Carlfriedrich Claus (1930-1998), artist Hans Carl von Carlowitz
Hans Carl von Carlowitz
(1645–1714), forest scientist Max Eckert-Greifendorff (1868–1938), cartographer and professor Gerson Goldhaber
Gerson Goldhaber
(1924–2010), American nuclear and astrophysicist Friedrich Goldmann (1941–2009), composer and conductor Johannes Hähle (1906–1944), military photographer Peter Härtling
Peter Härtling
(born 1933), writer Stephan Hermlin
Stephan Hermlin
(1915–1997), writer Stefan Heym
Stefan Heym
(1913–2001), writer and member of the Bundestag of the PDS John Kluge
John Kluge
(1921–2010), German-American billionaire and media mogul Helga Lindner
Helga Lindner
(born 1951), swimmer; Olympic silver medalist Max Littmann
Max Littmann
(1862–1931), architect Frank Maibier (born 1959), artist and performer Anja Mittag
Anja Mittag
(born 1985), footballer, World Champion 2007 Frederick and William Nevoigt, founders of the Diamant bicycle brand Carsten Nicolai
Carsten Nicolai
(born 1965), contemporary artist Alva Noto
Alva Noto
(born 1965), sound artist Frei Otto
Frei Otto
(1925–2015), architect, architectural theorist and professor of architecture, builder of the Munich
Olympic Park


Sylke Otto (born 1969), luger Siegfried Rapp (1915–1982), one-armed German pianist Frank Rost
Frank Rost
(born 1973), retired football goalkeeper Helmut Schelsky (1912–1984), sociologist and university lecturer Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
(1884–1976), painter and graphic artist of expressionism Matthias Schweighöfer (born 1981), actor and film director Jörg Schüttauf
Jörg Schüttauf
(born 1961), actor Matthias Steiner, (born 1982), German-Austrian weightlifter, Olympic Gold Medalist 2008 Ingo Steuer
Ingo Steuer
(born 1966), figure skater Mandy Wötzel
Mandy Wötzel
(born 1973), figure skater Katarina Witt
Katarina Witt
(born 1965), figure skater Klaus Wunderlich
Klaus Wunderlich
(1931–1997), organist Aliona Savchenko
Aliona Savchenko
and Robin Szolkowy, ice figure skaters: World Champion 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014; Olympic Bronze Medalist 2010, 2014

Honorary citizens[edit]

Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
(1884–1976), German expressionist painter Marianne Brandt, (1893–1983), artist, designer Stefan Heym
Stefan Heym
(1913–2001), German-Jewish writer Valery Bykovsky
Valery Bykovsky
(born 1934), astronaut Sigmund Jähn
Sigmund Jähn
(born 1937), German astronaut

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Chemnitz
is twinned with:

Tampere, Finland
(October 1961) Ljubljana, Slovenia
(17 October 1966)[16] Arras, Pas-de-Calais, Hauts-de-France, France
(1967) Timbuktu, Mali
(6 October 1968) Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(17 July 1970) Łódź, Poland

Mulhouse, Haut Rhin, Grand Est, France
(7 October 1981) Manchester, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(18 March 1983) Volgograd, Russia
(6 May 1988) Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
(13 April 1988)[18] Akron, Ohio, USA (20 April 1997) Taiyuan, China
(17 May 1999)


^ "Aktuelle Einwohnerzahlen nach Gemeinden 2016] (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen (in German). July 2016.  ^ Archives, The National. "The National Archives - World War II
World War II
- Western Europe 1939-1945: Hamburg
- Why did the RAF bomb cities?". www.nationalarchives.gov.uk.  ^ Victor, Edward. "Chemnitz, Germany". Retrieved 23 March 2009.  ^ COMBAT CHRONOLOGY OF THE US ARMY AIR FORCES ^ Travel Guide, German Democratic Republic. Zeit im Bild Publishing House. 1983. p. 89.  ^ Chemnitzer Tourismus-Broschüre, Herausgeber: City-Management und Tourismus Chemnitz
GmbH, 4. Jahrgang • Ausgabe 12 • Sommer 2010 Archived 26 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.; O-Ton-Nachweis im Chemnitzer Stadtarchiv[dead link] ^ a b Kurzfassung zur Promotion des Dipl.-Pol. Alexander Bergmann zur Thematik „Deutschlands jüngste Innenstadt – Rekonstruktion in Chemnitz
verstehen“ ^ Dankwart Guratzsch: Einer Stadt die Zähne herausgebrochen, Die Welt, 12. Mai 2006. ^ Gudrun Müller: Der Abrissrausch ist tödlich für Chemnitz, Freie Presse, 7. Dezember 2006. ^ https://www.smac.sachsen.de/en/index.html smac ^ "Detlef Müller". 28 September 2007.  ^ "German births decline to new low". BBC
NEWS. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2010.  ^ Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon ( Chemnitz
dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145  ^ " Chemnitz
orders electro-diesel tram-trains – Railway Gazette". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 19 August 2012.  ^ " Chemnitz
Club". USG Chemnitz
e.V. abt Cricket
Club. Retrieved 27 June 2015.  ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana ( Ljubljana
City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie – Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com]". City of Łódź
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 


See also: Bibliography of the history of Chemnitz

External links[edit]


Media related to Chemnitz
at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of chemnitz at Wiktionary Chemnitz
travel guide from Wikivoyage (in German) Official site of Chemnitz

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Saxony
in Germany

Urban districts

Chemnitz Dresden Leipzig

Rural districts

Bautzen Erzgebirgskreis Görlitz Leipzig Meißen Mittelsachsen Nordsachsen Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Vogtlandkreis Zwickau

Former urban districts

Görlitz Hoyerswerda Plauen Zwickau

Former rural districts

Annaberg Aue-Schwarzenberg Chemnitzer Land Delitzsch Döbeln Freiberg Kamenz Leipziger Land Löbau-Zittau Mittlerer Erzgebirgskreis Mittweida Muldentalkreis Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis Riesa-Großenhain Sächsische Schweiz Stollberg Torgau-Oschatz Weißeritzkreis Zwickauer Land

v t e

Cities in Germany
by population


Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich


Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart


Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal


Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Capitals of the former East German Bezirke

East Berlin Cottbus Dresden Erfurt Frankfurt
(Oder) Gera Halle Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz) Leipzig Magdeburg Neubrandenburg Potsdam Rostock Schwerin Suhl

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141372857 LCCN: n80132192 GND: 4029702-0 SUDOC: 032392907 BNF: