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Charminar
Charminar
Image 3182

Charminar

Basic information

Location Hyderabad, Telangana, India 17°21′42″N 78°28′29″E / 17.36163°N 78.47467°E / 17.36163; 78.47467Coordinates: 17°21′42″N 78°28′29″E / 17.36163°N 78.47467°E / 17.36163; 78.47467

Affiliation Islam

State Telangana

Country India

Administration Quli Qutub Shah

Architectural style Islamic architecture

Specifications

Minaret(s) 4

Minaret
Minaret
height 48.7 metres (160 ft)

Charminar
Charminar
during repair works - August 2016

Mosque
Mosque
on Second Floor

The Charminar
Charminar
("Four Minarets"), constructed in 1591, is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad, listed among the most recognized structures of India. Charminar
Charminar
has been a historical place with mosque on the top floor for over 400 years and also famous for its surrounding markets. It is one of the tourist attractions in Hyderabad. It is where Many local festivals are celebrated in Charminar
Charminar
area like Ramzaan.[1] The Charminar
Charminar
is situated on the east bank of Musi river.[2] To the west lies the Laad Bazaar, and to the southwest lies the richly ornamented granite Makkah Masjid.[3] It is listed as an archaeological and architectural treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India.[4] The English name is a translation and combination of the Urdu
Urdu
words Chār and Minar or meenar, translating to "Four Pillars"; the eponymous towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches.[3] The Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI), the current caretaker of the structure, mentions in its records, "There are various theories regarding the purpose for which Charminar
Charminar
was constructed. However, it is widely accepted that Charminar
Charminar
was built at the center of the city, to commemorate the eradication of Cholera", a deadly disease which was wide spread at that time.[5] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
had prayed for the end of the plague that was ravaging his city and vowed to build a Mosque
Mosque
at the very place where he prayed.[6] According to Jean de Thévenot, a French traveller of the 17th century whose narration was complemented with the available Persian texts, the Charminar
Charminar
was constructed in the year 1591 CE, to commemorate the beginning of the second Islamic millennium year (1000 AH). The event was celebrated far and wide in the Islamic world, thus Qutb Shah founded the city of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
to celebrate the event and commemorate it with the construction of this building.[7][8]:17–19Due to its architecture it is also called as arc de triomphe of the east.[9] Historian Masud Hussain Khan says that the construction of Charminar was completed in the year 1592, and that it is the city of Hyderabad which was actually founded in the year 1591.[10]:4 According to the book "Days of the Beloved", Qutb shah constructed the Charminar
Charminar
in the year 1589, on the very spot where he first glimpsed his future queen Bhagmati, and after her conversion to Islam, Qutb Shah renamed the city as "Hyderabad". Though the story was rejected by the historians and scholars, it became popular folklore among the locals.[11]:3,12 Qutb Shah was also among the early poets of Dakhani
Dakhani
Urdu. While laying the foundation of Charminar, he performed the prayers in Dakhini couplets, which are recorded as follows:[10]:4[12]

Dakhini Urdu میرا شہر لوگوں سے مامور کر راكهيو جوتو دريا میں مچھلی جيسے‬

Translation into Telugu

నదిలో చేపలని ఎలా నింపావో ఈ నగరాన్ని కూడా అలా నింపు దేవుడా[10]:4[12]

Translation into English

Fill this city of mine with people as, You filled the river with fishes O Lord.[10]:4[12]

During the Mughal governorship between Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi rule, the southwestern minaret "fell to pieces" after being struck by lightning and was repaired at a cost of Rs. 60,000.[13] In 1824, the monument was replastered at a cost of Rs. One lakh.[13]

Contents

1 History 2 Structure 3 Influences 4 Pedestrianization Project 5 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site-Tentative List 6 Temple Structure 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] The fifth ruler of the Qutub Shahi dynasty, Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, built the Charminar
Charminar
in 1591, after shifting his capital from Golkonda
Golkonda
to Hyderabad. Charminar
Charminar
has become a local and national landmark as well as a global icon of Hyderabad.

Clock of the Charminar

The Charminar
Charminar
was constructed at the intersection of the historical trade route that connects the markets of Golkonda
Golkonda
with the port city of Machilipatnam.[14]:195 The Old City of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
was designed with Charminar
Charminar
as its centerpiece.[15] The city was spread around the Charminar
Charminar
in four different quadrants and chambers, segregated according to the established settlements. Towards the north of Charminar
Charminar
is the Char Kaman, or four gateways, constructed in the cardinal direction.[7][14][16][17]:170 Additional eminent architects from Persia
Persia
were also invited to develop the city plan. The structure itself was intended to serve as a Mosque
Mosque
and Madraasa. It is of Indo- Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
style, incorporating Persian architectural elements. Structure[edit]

A minaret of the Charminar

Charminar

Night View Of Charminar

The Charminar
Charminar
masjid is a square structure with each side 20 meters (approximately 66 feet) long, with four grand arches each facing a fundamental point that open into four streets. At each corner stands an exquisitely shaped minaret, 56 meters (approximately 184 feet) high, with a double balcony. Each minaret is crowned by a bulbous dome with dainty petal-like designs at the base. Unlike the minarets of Taj Mahal, Charminar's four fluted minarets are built into the main structure. There are 149 winding steps to reach the upper floor. The structure is also known for its profusion of stucco decorations and the arrangement of its balustrades and balconies.[18] The structure is made of granite, limestone, mortar and pulverized marble and it weighs approximately 14000 tones.[19] Initially the monument with its four arches was so proportionately planned that when the fort was opened one could catch a glimpse of the bustling Hyderabad
Hyderabad
city, as these Charminar
Charminar
arches were facing the most active royal ancestral streets. There is also a legend of an underground tunnel connecting the Golconda fort to Charminar, possibly intended as an escape route for the Qutb Shahi rulers in case of a siege, though the location of the tunnel is unknown.[20] A mosque is located at the western end of the open roof; remaining part of the roof served as a court during the Qutb Shahi times. The actual mosque occupies the top floor of the four-storey structure. A vault which appears from inside like a dome supports two galleries within the Charminar, one over another, and above those a terrace that serves as a roof, bordered with a stone balcony. The main gallery has 45 covered prayer spaces with a large open space in front to accommodate more people for Friday prayers. The clock on the four cardinal directions was added in 1889. There is a vazu (water cistern) in the middle, with a small fountain for ablution before offering prayer in the Charminar
Charminar
mosque.[21]

A night view of Charminar
Charminar
and its surroundings during Ramadan

The area surrounding Charminar
Charminar
is also known by the same name. The market in the areas is famous for jewellery and garments. The monument overlooks another grand mosque called the Makkah Masjid. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the 5th ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, commissioned bricks to be made from the soil brought from Mecca, the holiest site of Islam, and used them in the construction of the central arch of the mosque, hence its name. A thriving market exists around Charminar: Laad Baazar is known for its jewellery, especially exquisite bangles, and the Pather Gatti which is famous for its pearls. In its heyday, the Charminar
Charminar
market had some 14,000 shops. Influences[edit]

A replica of the Charminar
Charminar
built in the Bahadurabad
Bahadurabad
locality of Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
in 2007

In 2007, Hyderabadi Muslims
Hyderabadi Muslims
living in Pakistan
Pakistan
constructed a small-scaled quasi replica of the Charminar
Charminar
at the main crossing of the Bahadurabad
Bahadurabad
neighborhood in Karachi.[22] Lindt chocolatier Adelbert Boucher created a scaled model of the Charminar
Charminar
out of 50 kilograms of chocolate. The model, which required three days' labour, was on display at The Westin, Hyderabad, India
India
on 25 and 26 September 2010.[23] Pedestrianization Project[edit] The " Charminar
Charminar
Pedestrianization Project" was instituted by the then combined Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of Andhra Pradesh
in partnership with the Greater Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation.[24] The project was initiated in 2006 with an investment of Rs 35 crore. Out of Rs.35 crore, the share of Central government funds stood at Rs 12.28 crore while the State government gave Rs 5.26 crore.[25][26] However, the project did not see the light of day due various factors such as Telangana
Telangana
movement, illegal encroachments by hawkers, vehicular traffic, and illegal street vendors.[27] Later during January 2017, the new Government of Telangana
Telangana
introduced a 14-member French Delegation to takeover the project to assess the feasibility in developing the monument as an eco-friendly tourism and heritage destination.[28][29] The team has inspected surrounding areas such as the Gulzar house, Macca Masjid, Lad Bazar, and Sardar Mahal. Subsequently, the project took over on a brisk pace and is expected to be completed by May 2018.[25][26][28][29] UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site-Tentative List[edit] Charminar, along with the Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad: the Golconda Fort, and the Qutb Shahi Tombs, were included in the "tentative list" of UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The Monument was submitted by the Permanent Delegation of India
India
to UNESCO
UNESCO
on September 10, 2010.[30][31] Temple Structure[edit] There is a temple named Bhagyalakshmi Temple located at the base of Charminar. It is the center of controversy concerning its age. In 2012, The Hindu
The Hindu
newspaper published an old photograph showing that the temple structure never existed.[32][33] The Hindu
The Hindu
also released a note asserting the authenticity of the photographs, and clearly stated that there was no temple structure in photos taken in 1957 and 1962. Additionally, it showed photos that provide evidence that the temple is a recent structure - a temple structure can be seen in photos taken in 1990 and 1994. Also, a temple is seen in a photograph taken in 1986 which is kept in the Aga Khan Visual Archive, MIT Libraries’ collections, United States, but not in the earlier ones.[32] See also[edit]

Qutb Shahi dynasty History of Hyderabad Tourist attractions in Hyderabad Hyderabad
Hyderabad
state Telangana
Telangana
State

References[edit]

^ "Richard Goslan travels to India
India
- Herald Scotland".  ^ Charminar
Charminar
(building, Hyderabad, India), Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ a b Charminar: Hyderabad, Britannica Compton's Encyclopedia ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Andhra Pradesh". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014.  ^ "Ticketed monuments-Telangana". Archaeological Survey of India. 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  ^ "India: Charminar
Charminar
is in fact a madrasa and masjid". IRIB World Service. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.  ^ a b "The Qutb Shahi monuments of Hyderabad-Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Bilgrami, Syed Ali Asgar (1992) [1924]. Landmarks of the Deccan. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120605438.  ^ "Charminar, The Most Famous Landmark Of Hyderabad!".  ^ a b c d Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah, volume 216. Sahitya Akademi. 1996. ISBN 8126002336. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Lynton, Harriet Ronken (1974). Days of the beloved. Orient Longman. ISBN 0863112692. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  ^ a b c "Final abode of Mohd. Quli Qutb Shah and six others". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.  ^ a b Ifthekhar, J.S. (31 August 2010). " Charminar
Charminar
minaret suffers damage due to rain". The Hindu. N. Ram. Retrieved 5 December 2015.  ^ a b Gayer, Lauren; Lynton, Christophe Jaffrelot (2011). Muslims in Indian cities: trajectories of marginalisation. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231800853. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ " Mecca
Mecca
Mosque". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "Qutb Shahi style (mainly in and around Hyderabad
Hyderabad
city)". Government of Telangana. 2002. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Sardar, Marika (2007). Golkonda
Golkonda
through time: A mirror of the evolving Deccan (Thesis). New York University. UMI Number:3269810. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Dawn Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Papri, Paull (9 October 2016). "Is it Charminar's 425th birthday today?". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 October 2016.  ^ "Take a walk through history". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 February 2010.  ^ " Charminar
Charminar
Mosque". asi.nic.in/asi_monu_tktd_ap_charminar.asp. Retrieved 24 November 2012.  ^ M. Rafique Zakaria, Charminar
Charminar
in Karachi, Dawn, 22 April 2007 ^ http://www.hindu.com/mp/2010/09/25/stories/2010092553140000.htm A Charminar
Charminar
to drool and eat ^ http://cs.chitkara.edu.in/pdf/4_CS_M_Bari.pdf ^ a b Nanisetti, Serish (2 April 2016). " Charminar
Charminar
Pedestrianisation Project yet to see light of the day" – via www.thehindu.com.  ^ a b " Charminar
Charminar
Pedestrianisation Project gathers pace". 13 November 2017.  ^ Nanisetti, Serish (2 November 2017). " Charminar
Charminar
Pedestrianisation Project getting closer to reality now" – via www.thehindu.com.  ^ a b Lieres, Bettina von; Piper, L. (8 October 2014). "Mediated Citizenship: The Informal Politics of Speaking for Citizens in the Global South". Springer – via Google Books.  ^ a b "French Delegation Visits Charminar
Charminar
Pedestrian Project - The Siasat Daily". archive.siasat.com.  ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "The Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar
Charminar
- UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org.  ^ http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Layout/Includes/EDU/ArtWin.asp?From=Archive&Source=Page&Skin=EDU&BaseHref=TOIM%2F2012%2F06%2F24&ViewMode=HTML&PageLabel=22&EntityId=Ar02201&AppName=1 ^ a b "A note on the Charminar
Charminar
photograph". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 November 2012.  ^ Srivathsan, A. (20 November 2012). "As protests roil Charminar, Hyderabad's heritage slowly vanishes". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charminar.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hyderabad.

Photos of Charminar
Charminar
on HyderabadPlanet.com Mushroom Minarette: An article published by Out Look India. complete history A panoramic image of Charminar
Charminar
along with Old City of Hyderabad, The image is published in Earth Platinum Atlacharmin

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