EtymologyOn many old European maps, the river is named the ''Menam'' or ''Mae Nam'' (Thai: แม่น้ำ), which is simply the Thai word for "river". James McCarthy, F.R.G.S., who served as Director-General of the Siamese Government Surveys prior to establishment of the Royal Survey Department, wrote in his account, "''Mae Nam'' is a generic term, ''mae'' signifying "mother" and ''Nam'' "water," and the epithet Chao P'ia signifies that it is the chief river in the kingdom of Siam." Herbert Warington Smyth, H. Warington Smyth, who served as Director of the Department of Mines in Siam from 1891 to 1896, refers to it in his book first published in 1898 as "the Mae Nam Chao Phraya". In the English-language media in Thailand, the name Chao Phraya River is often translated as ''river of kings''.
GeographyThe Chao Phraya begins at the confluence of the Ping River, Ping and Nan River, Nan rivers at Nakhon Sawan (also called Pak Nam Pho) in Nakhon Sawan Province. After this it flows south for from the Central Thailand, central plains to and the Gulf of Thailand. In Chai Nat province, Chai Nat, the river then splits into the main course and the Tha Chin River, which then flows parallel to the main river and exits in the Gulf of Thailand about west of Bangkok in Samut Sakhon. In the low alluvial plain which begins below the Chainat Dam, there are many small canals (''khlong'') which split off from the main river. The ''khlongs'' are used for the irrigation of the region's rice paddies. The rough coordinates of the river are 13 N, 100 E. This area has a wet monsoon climate, with over of rainfall per year. Temperatures range from in Bangkok.
River engineeringThe lower Chao Phraya underwent several man-made modifications during the Ayutthaya Kingdom, Ayutthaya period. Several shortcut canals were constructed to bypass large loops in the river, shortening the trip from the capital city to the sea. The course of the river has since changed to follow many of these canals. * In 1538, Thailand's first river engineering of a long canal was dug at the order of Chairacha, King Chairachathirat. It was called "Khlong Lat", and today forms a part of Khlong Bangkok Noi. It shortened the route by 13–14 km for ships from the Gulf of Siam to the then-capital city, Ayutthaya (city), Ayutthaya.Steve Van Beek: ''The Chao Phya'', p.39 * In 1542, a two kilometer-long canal, "Khlong Lat Bangkok", was completed. The Chao Phraya then diverted along the new canal, its old course becoming part of Khlong Bangkok Noi and Khlong Bangkok Yai. It is said to have shortened the river route by . * In 1608, a seven kilometer-long "Khlong Bang Phrao" canal was completed and has shortened the Chao Phraya's original route by . * In 1636, the "Khlong Lat Mueang Nonthaburi" was completed. * In 1722, the two kilometre long "Khlong Lat Kret Noi" shortened the Chao Phraya by . This route formed the island of Ko Kret.
River settlementsCities along the Chao Phraya include, from north to south, Nakhon Sawan Province, Uthai Thani Province, Chai Nat Province, Sing Buri Province, Ang Thong Province, Ayutthaya Province, Pathum Thani Province, Nonthaburi Province, , and Samut Prakan Province. These cities are among the most historically significant and densely populated settlements of Thailand due to their access to the waterway.
TransportationMajor bridges cross the Chao Phraya in Bangkok: the Rama VI Bridge, Rama VI railroad bridge; Phra Pin-klao Bridge, Phra Pin-klao near the Grand Palace, Bangkok, Grand Palace; Rama VIII Bridge, Rama VIII, a single tower asymmetrical cable-stayed bridge; Rama IX Bridge, Rama IX, a semi-symmetric cable-stayed bridge; and Mega Bridge, on the Industrial Ring Road. In Bangkok, the Chao Phraya is a major transportation artery for a network of river buses, cross-river ferries, and water taxis ("longtails"). More than 15 boat lines operate on the rivers and canals of the city, including commuter, commuter lines.
TributariesThe principal tributaries of the Chao Phraya River are the Pa Sak River, the Sakae Krang River, the Nan River (along with its principal confluent the Yom River), the Ping River (with its principal confluent, the Wang River), and the Tha Chin River. Each of these tributaries (and the Chao Phraya itself) is augmented by minor tributaries referred to as ''khwae''. All of the tributaries, including the lesser khwae, form an extensive tree-like pattern, with branches flowing through nearly every province in central and northern Thailand. None of the tributaries of the Chao Phraya extend beyond the nation's borders.Google Earth The Nan and the Yom River flow nearly parallel from Phitsanulok to Chumsaeng in the north of Nakhon Sawan Province. The Wang River enters the Ping River near Sam Ngao district in Tak Province.
LengthWhen measured from the most commonly accepted source which the confluence of the Ping and Nan River in Nakhon Sawan, it measures . However, when measured from the longest source which is the origin point of the Nan River in the Luang Prabang Range, it measures .
Chao Phraya watershedThe expanse of the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries, i.e., the Chao Phraya river system, together with the land upon which falling rain drains into these bodies of water, form the Chao Phraya drainage basin, watershed.River and Watershed Facts on the Chao Phraya
DeltaThe Tha Chin River is the major distributary of the Chao Phraya River. The expanse of the Chao Phraya and Tha Chin River, Tha Chin Rivers and their distributaries, starting at the point at which the distributaries diverge, together with the land amid the triangle formed by the outermost and innermost distributary, form the Chao Phraya River delta, delta. The many distributaries of the Chao Phraya delta are interconnected by canals that serve both for irrigation and for transportation.
EcologyImage:Templo Wat Arun, Bangkok, Tailandia, 2013-08-22, DD 02.jpg, left, Wat Arun, viewed from Chao Phraya River The lowland areas of the Chao Phraya watershed in central Thailand have been designated as the Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests, a tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregion, an area about north to south and wide. The original swamp forests have almost entirely been removed as the plain has been converted to rice paddies, other agriculture, and urban areas like Bangkok. Much of the wildlife that once inhabited these plains has disappeared, including a large number of fish in the river systems, birds such as vultures, the Oriental darter (''Anhinga melanogaster''), white-eyed river martin (''Pseudochelidon sirintarae''), the sarus crane (''Grus antigone'') and animals such as tigers, Asian elephants, Javan rhinoceroses, and the much-hunted Schomburgk's deer. Today we can only guess at the original habitat and wildlife by comparing it with neighbouring countries. It is believed that the area would have consisted of freshwater swamps inland and salty mangroves on the coast and the river estuaries. The swamp would have been covered in ''Phragmites'' marsh grasses. Today there is a small area of this remaining in Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park, a relic of the original landscape. As so much has been cleared or altered the potential for creating large protected areas to preserve original habitat no longer exists. However much wildlife does remain in the rice fields and steps may be taken to preserve these as urban and industrial development on the plains is ongoing and the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand has very little control or planning over this. Particular threats come from the conversion of rice paddies to large-scale production of prawns by pumping in seawater, and the use of pesticides to eliminate the introduced snail,''Pomacea canaliculata'', which damages rice plants. There are populations of threatened birds, including colonies of breeding water birds such as the world's largest populations of the near-threatened Asian openbill (''Anastomus oscitans''), and other birds such as the wintering black kite (''Milvus migrans''). Endemic mammals that remain are the limestone rat (''Niviventer hinpoon''), Neill's long-tailed giant rat (''Leopoldamys neilli''), and the near-endemic Thailand roundleaf bat (''Hipposideros halophyllus''). The Chao Phraya basin is home to about half a dozen endemic dragonflies and damselflies. The conservation status of most of these in unclear (they are rated as data deficient by the IUCN), but ''Cryptophaea saukra'' is critically endangered and ''Caliphaea angka'' is Endangered species, endangered.Allen, D.J.; Smith, K.G. & Darwall, W.R.T. (editors)(2008).
FishThe Chao Phraya Drainage basin, basin is home to around 280 species of fish, including about 30 Endemism, endemics.Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2013).
PollutionThe Thai Pollution Control Department (PCD) reports that the water quality of major rivers flowing into the upper Gulf of Thailand has seriously deteriorated in the past decade. The department found the lower Chao Phraya contains bacteria and nutrient pollution from phosphates, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Nutrient pollution causes algae to grow faster than ecosystems can handle, harming water quality, food resources for aquatic animals, and marine habitats. It also decreases the oxygen that fish need to survive. PCD rated water quality at the mouth of Chao Phraya at Bangkok's Bang Khun Thian District as "very poor", worse than in 2014. PCD findings indicated large amounts of wastewater were discharged into the river from households, industry, and agriculture.
See also* River Systems of Thailand
Further reading* ''Bangkok Waterways'', William Warren and R. Ian Lloyd, Asia Books, .