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A chant (from French chanter,[1] from Latin
Latin
cantare, "to sing")[2] is the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases, such as Great Responsories and Offertories of Gregorian chant. Chant may be considered speech, music, or a heightened or stylized form of speech. In the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
some religious chant evolved into song (forming one of the roots of later Western music).[3]

Pange Lingua sung in Latin

The Latin
Latin
text of Pange Lingua sung to its traditional melody, mode iii Gregorian chant.

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Contents

1 Chant as a spiritual practice 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Chant as a spiritual practice[edit] Chanting (e.g., mantra, sacred text, the name of God/Spirit, etc.) is a commonly used spiritual practice. Like prayer, chant may be a component of either personal or group practice. Diverse spiritual traditions consider chant a route to spiritual development.

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Monks chanting, Drepung monastery, Tibet, 2013

Some examples include chant in African, Hawaiian, and Native American, Assyrian and Australian Aboriginal cultures, Gregorian chant, Vedic chant, Qur'an reading, Islamic
Islamic
Dhikr, Baha'i chants, various Buddhist chants, various mantras, Jewish cantillation, and the chanting of psalms and prayers especially in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
(see Gregorian chant or Taizé Community), Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
(see Byzantine chant
Byzantine chant
or Znamenny chant, for examples), Lutheran, and Anglican
Anglican
churches (see Anglican
Anglican
Chant). Chant practices vary. Tibetan Buddhist chant
Buddhist chant
involves throat singing, where multiple pitches are produced by each performer. The concept of chanting mantras is of particular significance in many Hindu traditions and other closely related Dharmic Religions. India's bhakti devotional tradition centres on kirtan, which has a following in many countries and traditions such as Ananda Marga. The Hare Krishna movement is based especially on the chanting of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Names of God in the Vaishnava tradition. Japanese Shijin
Shijin
(诗经), or 'chanted poetry', mirrors Zen
Zen
Buddhist principles and is sung from the Dan tien (or lower abdomen) — the locus of power in Eastern traditions. See also[edit]

A lo divino Fight song Sea shanty Skipping-rope rhyme

References[edit]

^ Online Etymology Dictionary ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chant". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 846.  ^ Stolba, K. Marie (1994). The Development of Western Music: A History, 2nd Ed. WCB, Iowa.

External links[edit]

Look up chant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A site about Vedic chants Traditional Buddhist Chants (Texts and Audio) as in the Buddhist Encyclopedia

Articles related to Chant

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Christian liturgical chant

Eastern

Armenian Byzantine Coptic Ethiopian Georgian Obikhod

Bulgarian Greek Kievan

Prostopinije Syrian Znamenny

Western

Ambrosian Anglican Beneventan Celtic Gallican Gelineau Gregorian Mozarabic Old Roman

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Medieval music

Movements and schools

Ars antiqua Ars nova Ars subtilior Burgundian School Contenance angloise Notre Dame school Saint Martial school

Musical instruments

Wind Bagpipes Bladder pipe Bombard Crumhorn Flute Gemshorn Jew's harp Organ Recorder Sackbut Shawm

String Citole Gittern Guitarra latina Guitarra morisca Dulcimer Harp Hurdy-gurdy Lute Cretan lyra Lyre Psaltery Rebec Tromba marina Vielle Viol Zampogna Zither

Percussion Carillon Crotales Nakers Tabor Tambourine Triangle

Musical forms

Antiphon Canso Carol Chanson Chant Conductus Geisslerlied Lai Liturgical drama Madrigal Motet Organum Rondeau Virelai

Composers

François Andrieu Odo of Arezzo Notker Balbulus Hildegard of Bingen Jacopo da Bologna Borlet Antonello da Caserta Philippus de Caserta Donato da Cascia Johannes Ciconia Odo of Cluny Petrus de Cruce John Dunstaple Gherardello da Firenze St. Godric Giovanni da Cascia Lorenzo da Firenze Paolo da Firenze Pope Gregory I Grimace Roy Henry Hucbald Francesco Landini Arnold de Lantins Kir Stefan the Serb Léonin Guillaume de Machaut Lorenzo da Firenze Bartolino da Padova Matteo da Perugia Niccolò da Perugia Pérotin Maestro Piero Leonel Power Jacob Senleches John Koukouzelis Solage Trebor Tuotilo Adam of Saint Victor Philippe de Vitry W. de Wycombe

Traditions

British Isles

England Scotland

Cyprus France Germany Italy Lithuania Netherlands Portugal Spain

Derivatives and fusions

Medieval folk rock Medieval metal Neo-Medieval music

Related articles

Goliards Monophony Music of the Trecento Neume Polyphony Troubadour

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Meditation

Main topics

Brain activity and meditation History of meditation Meditation
Meditation
in popular culture Mind–body interventions Research on meditation

Traditions

Anapanasati
Anapanasati
(Buddhist breathing meditation) Buddhist meditation Christian meditation Daoist meditation Dancemeditation Dhyāna (Buddhist meditation) Dhyāna ( Hindu
Hindu
meditation) Islamic
Islamic
meditation Jain meditation Jewish meditation Muraqaba (Sufi meditation) New Age meditation Naam Japo (Sikism meditation) Neigong Pranayama
Pranayama
(yoga breathing practice) Qigong Shikantaza ( Zen
Zen
Buddhist seated meditation) Silva Method Tantra Transcendental meditation (TM) Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Silent meditation) Yoga Zazen
Zazen
( Zen
Zen
Buddhist seated meditation) Zhan zhuang
Zhan zhuang
( Qigong
Qigong
standing meditation) 5Rhythms

Techniques

Biofeedback Brainwave entrainment Breathing Chanting Concentration Emptiness Guided meditation Higher consciousness Mantra Mindfulness Mudra Music Oneness Poetry Postures Prayer Relaxation Samyama Sexuality Silence Sound Trance Visualization

Category Wikibooks Wikiversity

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Modern musical projects based on Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
and other chants

Aereda After Forever Cantara Dead Can Dance Delerium Divine Works Elbosco Enigma E Nomine Epica Era E.S. Posthumus Gala Globus Gregorian Industrial Monk Lesiëm Libera Magna Canta Mysteria Nostradamus Richard Souther (Vision and Il

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