Major-General CHAIM HERZOG (Hebrew : חיים הרצוג; 17
Belfast – 17 April 1997, Tel Aviv) was an Israeli
politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth
President of Israel
President of Israel between 1983 and 1993. Born in
Belfast and raised
Dublin , the son of Ireland's
Chief Rabbi Yitzhak
HaLevi Herzog , he emigrated to
Mandatory Palestine in 1935 and served
Haganah Jewish paramilitary group during the 1936–39 Arab
revolt . In the
British Army during World War II, latterly as an
officer, he received the nickname "Vivian" because the British could
not pronounce "Chaim". He returned to Palestine after the war and,
following the end of the British Mandate and Israel's Declaration of
Independence in 1948, operated in the battles for Latrun during the
1948 Arab–Israeli War . He retired from the
Israel Defence Forces in
1962 with the rank of Major-General.
After leaving the military, Herzog practised law. In 1972 he was a
co-founder of Herzog, Fox "> Plaque on the
Belfast house in which
Herzog was born, 2011
Herzog was born on 17 September 1918 in Cliftonpark Avenue in Belfast
, Ireland, the son of
Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog , who was Chief
Rabbi of Ireland from 1919 to 1937 (and, later, of Mandatory Palestine
and the State of Israel), and his wife Sara (née Hillman). His
father was born in
Łomża , Poland, and his mother in Latvia; his
maternal grandfather was the Orthodox Jewish Talmudic scholar Shmuel
Yitzchak Hillman . The family home from 1919 was at 33 Bloomfield
Avenue, Portobello ,
Herzog's father, a fluent speaker of the
Irish language , was known
as "the Sinn Féin Rabbi" for his support of the
First Dáil and the
Irish Republican cause during the
Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence . Herzog
studied at Wesley College,
Dublin and was involved with the Federation
of Zionist Youth and
Habonim Dror , the Labour-Zionist movement,
during his teenage years.
Chaim Herzog in the IDF, 1954
The family emigrated to
Mandatory Palestine in 1935; Herzog
subsequently served in the Jewish paramilitary group
the 1936–39 Arab revolt . He went on to earn a degree in law at
University College London
University College London , and then qualified as a barrister at
Lincoln\'s Inn .
Herzog joined the
British Army during World War II, operating
primarily in Germany as a tank commander in the Armoured Corps.
There, he was given his lifelong nickname of "Vivian" because the
British could not pronounce the name, "Chaim". A Jewish soldier had
volunteered that "Vivian " was the English equivalent of "Chaim". He
was commissioned into the Intelligence Corps in 1943 and participated
in the liberation of several
Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps as well as
identifying a captured German soldier as
Heinrich Himmler . He left
the army in 1947 with the rank of Major.
MILITARY, LEGAL AND POLITICAL CAREER
Immediately following the war, he returned to Palestine. After the
establishment of the State of Israel, he fought in the 1948
Arab–Israeli War , serving as an officer in the battles for Latrun .
His intelligence experience during
World War II
World War II was seen as a valuable
asset, and he subsequently became head of the IDF Military
Intelligence Branch , a position in which he served from 1948 to 1950
and again from 1959 to 1962. From 1950 to 1954, he served as defence
attaché at the Israeli Embassy in the United States. He retired from
the IDF in 1962 with the rank of
After leaving the army, Herzog opened a private law practice. He
returned to public life in 1967, when the
Six-Day War broke out, as a
military commentator for Kol
Israel radio news. Following the capture
West Bank , he was appointed Military Governor of East
Jerusalem, and Judea and Samaria.
In 1972, he went into partnership with Michael Fox and Yaakov Neeman
, and established the law firm of Herzog, Fox "> Chaim Herzog
visiting Beit Yitzhak in 1985.
In 1975, Herzog was appointed Israel's Ambassador to the United
Nations, in which capacity he served until 1978. During his term the
UN adopted the "Zionism is Racism" resolution (General Assembly
Resolution 3379 ), which Herzog condemned and symbolically tore up (as
his father had done to one of the British white papers regarding the
British Mandate in Palestine), saying: "For us, the Jewish people,
this resolution based on hatred, falsehood and arrogance, is devoid of
any moral or legal value. For us, the Jewish people, this is no more
than a piece of paper and we shall treat it as such." In recent years
British historians headed by
Simon Sebag-Montefiore have included this
speech in a book on speeches that changed the world, which includes
Martin Luther King, Jr ,
Nelson Mandela , Winston Churchill
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy .
In the 1981 elections , Herzog entered politics for the first time,
winning a seat in the
Knesset as a member of the Alignment , the
predecessor to the Labour Party .
On 22 March 1983, Herzog was elected by the
Knesset to serve as the
sixth President of Israel, by a vote of 61 to 57, against Menachem
Elon , the candidate of the right and the government coalition. He
assumed office on 5 May 1983 and served two five-year terms (then the
maximum permitted by Israeli basic law ), retiring from political life
in 1993. As president of Israel, Herzog made a number of visits
abroad, being the first Israeli president to make an official visit to
Germany, as well as visiting several far-east countries, Australia,
and New Zealand. He was also noted for pardoning the
Shin Bet agent
involved in the
Kav 300 affair .
In 1985 during his state visit to Ireland, Herzog visited Wesley
Dublin , opened the Irish Jewish Museum in Dublin, and
unveiled a modern polished steel Israeli sculpture, in honour of his
Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh , former Chief Justice and
later, the fifth President of Ireland, in
Sneem Culture Park, County
Herzog was a hardened opponent of
Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq
during his presidency of Israel, he referred to Iraq as a nest "of
world terror". He said the world largely dismissed Israel's warnings
that Baghdad was becoming a capital of world terrorism, adding that
some Western countries helped Hussein develop into a military power.
Herzog controversially reduced the sentences of three imprisoned
Jews, Menachem Livni, Uzi Sharbaf and Shaul Nir, members of the Jewish
Underground , who were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1985 for the
1984 murder of four Palestinians in the
West Bank town of
Herzog had reduced the sentences, first to 24 years, then to 15 years,
and in 1989, he reduced the sentence to 10 years, which enabled the
men to be released two years later on good behavior.
In 1998, the Ulster History Circle unveiled a commemorative blue
plaque to Herzog at his birthplace on Cliftonpark Avenue,
The plaque was removed by the Circle from the building in August 2014,
at the request of the Cliftonville Community Regeneration Forum, who
are based there. The plaque had become the subject of unwelcome
attention, and in the interests of health and safety it was taken away
for safe keeping, until such time as it can be reinstated, with the
consent of the owners and occupiers of the premises.
Herzog's grave on Mt. Herzl
Herzog died on 17 April 1997. He is buried on
Mount Herzl , Jerusalem
Herzog was the brother-in-law of
Abba Eban ; the men's wives were
sisters. He had three children, including
Isaac Herzog , a politician
who is the chairman of the Israeli Labour Party.
WORKS AND PUBLICATIONS
Chaim Herzog memorial stone in Auschwitz
* Herzog, Chaim (1978). Who Stands Accused?:
Israel Answers Its
Critics. Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-50132-1 .
OCLC 3865344 .
* Herzog, Chaim; Gazit, Shlomo (12 December 1983). The Arab-Israeli
Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East from the 1948 War of
Independence to the Present. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-7963-6 . OCLC
* Herzog, Chaim (September 1989). Heroes of Israel: Profiles of
Jewish Courage. Little Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-35901-6 .
OCLC 19510435 .
* Herzog, Chaim (12 November 1996). Living History: A Memoir.
Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-297-81941-7 .
OCLC 36792752 .
* Herzog, Chaim; Gichon, Mordechai (March 1997). Battles of the
Bible: A Military History of Ancient Israel. Pantheon. ISBN
OCLC 71323946 .
* Herzog, Chaim (March 1998). The War of Atonement: The Inside Story
of the Yom Kippur War. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-935149-13-2 . OCLC
* ^ A B Pace, Eric (18 April 1997). "Chaim Herzog, Former Israeli
President, Dies at 78".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved 6 June 2016.
* ^ A B "Herzog, Chaim (1918–1997)".
Israel and Zionism. The
Department for Jewish Zionist Education. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
* ^ "Sara Herzog Dead at 82". JTA. 16 January 1979. Retrieved 20
* ^ Benson, Asher (2007). Jewish Dublin. Dublin: A&A Farmer Ltd. p.
22. ISBN 978-1-906353-00-1 .
* ^ Herzog, Living History, p. 47.
* ^ Noam Sharvit (26 June 2006). "BDI:
Herzog, Fox & Neeman remains
top Israeli law firm". Globes. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
* ^ "Herzog speech on Zionism makes history". Ynetnews. 26 June
2007. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
* ^ Colonel Tim Collins; York Membery (9 February 2011). "Ten of
the greatest: Inspirational speeches". Daily Mail. Retrieved 9
* ^ Steve Padilla; Ronald L. Soble (19 November 1990). "Herzog
Calls Iraq a Nest of Terrorism". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9
* ^ "3 Israeli Terrorists Are Released In 4th Reduction of Their
Terms". The New York Times. Associated Press. 27 December 1990.
Retrieved 29 March 2015.
* ^ Alan Cowell (7 June 1989). "Documents given to Arabs in Gaza".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved 29 March 2015.
* ^ "
Chaim Herzog son saddened that
Belfast plaque removed". BBC
News. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
* Chaim Herzog