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The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are spoken in parts of the Sahel. They include 150 languages spoken across northern Nigeria, southern Niger, southern Chad, Central African Republic and northern Cameroon. The most widely spoken Chadic language is Hausa, a lingua franca of much of inland Eastern West Africa.

Hausa-speaking areas in Nigeria and Niger.

Several modern genetic studies of Chadic speaking groups in the northern Cameroon region have observed high frequencies of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b in these populations (exclusively, of R1b's R1b-V88-Y7771[4] variant). This paternal marker is common in parts of West Eurasia, but otherwise rare in Africa. Cruciani et al. (2010) thus propose that the Proto-Chadic speakers during the mid-Holocene (~7,000 years ago) migrated from the Levant to the Central Sahara, and from there settled in the Lake Chad Basin.[5] However, a 2018 study by Daniel Shriner agrues that the haplogroup R1 is associated with (Baggarization) and found no evidence of ancient Eurasian gene flow. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30259956/)

Loanwords

Chadic languages contain many Nilo-Saharan loanwords from either the Songhay or Maban branches, pointing to early contact between Chadic and Nilo-Saharan speakers as Chadic was migrating west.[6]

Although [2] Kujargé has been added from Blench (2008), who suggests Kujargé may have split off before the breakup of Proto-Chadic and then subsequently became influenced by East Chadic.[3] Subsequent work by Lovestrand argues strongly that Kujarge is a valid member of East Chadic. The placing of Luri as a primary split of West Chadic is erroneous. Caron (2004) shows that this language is South Bauchi and part of the Polci cluster.

(A) the Hausa, Ron, Bole, and Angas languages; and
(B) the Bade, Warji, and Zaar languages.
(A) the Bura, Kamwe, and Bata languages, among other groups;
(B) the Buduma and Musgu languages; and
(C) Gidar
(A) the Tumak, Nancere, and Kera languages; and
(B) the Dangal

Several modern genetic studies of Chadic speaking groups in the northern Cameroon region have observed high frequencies of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b in these populations (exclusively, of R1b's R1b-V88-Y7771[4] variant). This paternal marker is common in parts of West Eurasia, but otherwise rare in Africa. Cruciani et al. (2010) thus propose that the Proto-Chadic speakers during the mid-Holocene (~7,000 years ago) migrated from the Levant to the Central Sahara, and from there settled in the Lake Chad Basin.[5] However, a 2018 study by Daniel Shriner agrues that the haplogroup R1 is associated with (Baggarization) and found no evidence of ancient Eurasian gene flow. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30259956/)

Loanwords

Chadic languages contain many Nilo-Saharan loanwords from either the Songhay or Maban branches, pointing to early contact between Chadic and Nilo-Saharan speakers as Chadic was migrating west.[6]

Although Adamawa languages are spoken adjacently to Chadic languages, interaction between Chadic and Adamawa is limited.[7]

Pronouns

Pronouns in Proto-Chadic, as compared to pronouns in Proto-Afroasiatic (Vossen & Dimmendaal 2020:351):[8]

Pronoun Proto-Chadic Proto-Afroasiatic
1 *ní *i ~ *yi
2M *ka *ku, *ka
2F *ki(m) *kim
3M *nì *si, *isi
3F *ta
1PL *mun (incl.), *na (excl.) (*-na ~ *-nu ~ *-ni) ?
2PL *kun *kuuna
3PL *sun *su ~ *usu

Comparative vocabulary

Sample basic vocabulary in different Chadic branches listed in order from west to east, with Proto-Cushitic also given for comparison:

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Chadic[9] *ydn *km/*ɬm *ntn *s₃n; *ƙ-d *ls₃- *bk *br *ƙs₃ *ymn *hrɗ (hard); *twy (soft) *s₃m
Hausa[10] ido kunne hanci haƙori harshe baki jini ƙashi itaci; bishiya ruwa ci suna
Proto-Ron[11] *kumu **atin *haŋgor *liʃ *fo ɟɑ̄lɑ̄, tɾɔ̃̄ *kaʃ *sum
Polci[12] yiir kəəm cin shen haƙori bii buran; bəran gooloo pət maa ci suŋ
Proto-Central Chadic[13] *hadaj; *tsɨʸ *ɬɨmɨɗʸ *hʷɨtsɨnʸ *ɬɨɗɨnʸ *ɗɨrɨnɨhʸ; *ɣanaɗʸ; *naɬɨj *maj *ɗiɬ; *kɨrakaɬʸ *hʷɨp *ɗɨjɨm *zɨm *ɬɨmɨɗʸ
Proto-MasaChadic languages contain many Nilo-Saharan loanwords from either the Songhay or Maban branches, pointing to early contact between Chadic and Nilo-Saharan speakers as Chadic was migrating west.[6]

Although Adamawa languages are spoken adjacently to Chadic languages, interaction between Chadic and Adamawa is limited.[7]

Adamawa languages are spoken adjacently to Chadic languages, interaction between Chadic and Adamawa is limited.[7]

Pronouns in Proto-Chadic, as compared to pronouns in Proto-Afroasiatic (Vossen & Dimmendaal 2020:351):[8]

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Sample basic vocabulary in different Chadic branches listed in order from west to east, with Proto-Cushitic also given for comparison:

Pronoun Proto-Chadic Proto-Afroasiatic
1 *ní *i ~ *yi
2M *ka *ku, *ka
Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Chadic[9] *ydn *km/*ɬm *ntn *s₃n; *ƙ-d *ls₃- *bk *br *ƙs₃ *ymn *hrɗ (hard); *twy (soft) *s₃m
Hausa[10] ido kunne hanci haƙori harshe baki jini ƙashi itaci; bishiya ruwa ci suna
Proto-Ron
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