The Info List - Chad Basin

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The Chad
Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad. It has no outlet to the sea and contains large areas of desert or semi-arid savanna. The drainage basin is roughly coterminous with the sedimentary basin of the same name, but extends further to the northeast and east. The basin spans seven countries, including most of Chad
and a large part of Niger. The region has an ethnically diverse population of about 30 million people as of 2011, growing rapidly. A combination of dams, increased irrigation, climate change, and reduced rainfall are causing water shortages, contributing to terrorism and the rise of Boko Haram
Boko Haram
in the region.[1] Lake Chad continues to shrink.


1 Geology 2 Drainage basin extent 3 Climate and ecology 4 Water resources

4.1 Rivers 4.2 Aquifers 4.3 Management

5 People

5.1 History 5.2 Population 5.3 Economy

6 References


Benue trough. The northwest and east extensions lie below the Chad Basin. ("Tibesti- Cameroon
Trough" is not shown.)

The geological basin, which is smaller than the drainage basin, is a Phanerozoic
sedimentary basin formed during the plate divergence that opened the South Atlantic Ocean. The basin lies between the West African Craton
and Congo Craton, and formed around the same time as the Benue Trough. It covers an area of about 2,335,000 square kilometres (902,000 sq mi).[2] It merges into the Iullemmeden Basin
Iullemmeden Basin
to the west at the Damergou gap between the Aïr and Zinder
massifs.[3] The floor of the basin is made of Precambrian bedrock covered by more than 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) of sedimentary deposits.[2] The basin may have resulted from the intersection of an "Aïr-Chad Trough" running NW-SE and a "Tibesti- Cameroon
Trough" running NE-SW.[2] That is, the two deepest parts are an extension of the Benue Trough that runs northeast to the margin of the basin, and another extension running from below the present lake to below the Ténéré rift structure to the east of the Aïr massif. The southern part of the basin is underlain by another elongated depression.[3] This runs in an ENE direction and extends from the Yola arm of the Benue trough.[4] At times, parts of the basin were below the sea. In the northeastern part of the Benue Trough
Benue Trough
where it enters the Chad
Basin there are marine sediments from the Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma[a]). These sediments seem to be considerably thicker towards the northeast. Boreholes under Maiduguri
have found marine sediments 400 metres (1,300 ft) deep, lying over continental sediments 600 metres (2,000 ft) deep.[4] The sea seems to have retreated from the western part of the basin in the Turonian
(93.5–89.3 Ma). In the Maastrichtian
(72.1–66 Ma) the west was non-marine, but the southeast probably was still marine. No marine sediments have been found from the Paleocene
(66–56 Ma).[4]

The eastern part of the basin, showing the Holocene
"Mega Chad" lake (blue area) at its maximum size with the Chari in the south and the Benue in the south west. The modern Lake Chad
Lake Chad
is in the centre of this map, in green.

For most of the Quaternary, from 2.6 million years ago to the present, the basin seems to have been a huge, well-watered plain, with many rivers and water bodies, probably rich in plant and animal life. Towards the end of this period the climate became drier. Around 20,000-40,000 years ago, eolianite sand dunes began to form in the north of the basin.[4] During the Holocene, from 11,000 years ago until recently, a giant "Lake Mega-Chad" covered an area of more than 350,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi) in the basin.[5] It would have drained to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the Benue River. Stratigraphic records show that "Mega-Chad" varied in size as the climate changed, with a peak about 2,300 years ago. The remains of fish and molluscs from this period are found in what are now desert regions.[6] Drainage basin extent[edit]

This article or section appears to contradict itself. Please see the talk page for more information. (March 2014)

The Chad
Basin covers almost 8% of the African continent, with an area of about 2,434,000 square kilometres (940,000 sq mi). It is ringed by mountains. The Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
and the Termit Massif
Termit Massif
in Niger form the western boundary. To the northwest, in Algeria, are the Tassili n'Ajjer
Tassili n'Ajjer
mountains, including the 2,158 metres (7,080 ft) Jebel Azao. The Tibesti Mountains
Tibesti Mountains
to the north of the basin include Emi Koussi, the highest mountain in the Sahara
at 3,415 metres (11,204 ft). The Ennedi Plateau
Ennedi Plateau
lies to the northeast, rising to 1,450 metres (4,760 ft).[7] The Ouaddaï highlands
Ouaddaï highlands
lies the east.[6] They include the Marrah Mountains
Marrah Mountains
in Darfur
at up to 3,088 metres (10,131 ft) in height. The Adamawa Plateau, Jos Plateau, Biu Plateau, and Mandara Mountains
Mandara Mountains
lie to the south.[7] To the west the basin is separated by a watershed from the Niger River, and to the south it is separated by a basement dome from the Benue River.[8] Further east, watersheds separate it from the Congo Basin and the Nile. The lowest part of the basin is not Lake Chad, but the Bodélé Depression, at a distance of 480 kilometres (300 mi) to the northeast of the lake. The Bodélé Depression
Bodélé Depression
is just 155 metres (509 ft) above sea level in its deepest portion, while the surface of Lake Chad
Lake Chad
is 275 metres (902 ft) above sea level.[7] The basin spans parts of seven countries. These are:[9]

Country Independent Area within basin (km2) % of total area of basin % of country in basin

Algeria 1962 93,451 3.9% 3.9%

Cameroon 1960 50,775 2.1% 10.7%

Central African Republic 1960 219,410 9.2% 35.2%

Chad 1960 1,046,196 43.9% 81.5%

Niger 1960 691,473 29.0% 54.6%

Nigeria 1960 179,282 7.5% 19.4%

Sudan 1956 101,048 4.2% 4.0%


2,381,635 100%

Climate and ecology[edit]

Dunes in the Erg of Bilma

The northern half of the basin is desert, containing the Ténéré desert, Erg of Bilma
Erg of Bilma
and Djurab Desert. South of that is the Sahel zone, dry savanna and thorny shrub savanna. The main rivers include riparian forests, flooding savannas and wetland areas. In the far south there are dry forests.[7] Rainfall varies widely from year to year. The amount of annual rainfall is very low in the north of the basin, rising to 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the south.[10] As late as 2000, the basin has remained home to large populations of wildlife. In the Sahel
these include antelopes such as the addax and dama gazelle, and in the savannah there are korrigum and red-fronted gazelle. The black crowned crane and other waterbirds are found in the wetlands. There are populations of elephants, giraffes, and lions. The western black rhinoceros was once common but is now extinct. Elephants almost became extinct by the end of the nineteenth century due to European and American demand for ivory, but stocks have since recovered.[11] Water resources[edit] Rivers[edit]

Yobe River
Yobe River
catchment area showing location of the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands

The seasonal Korama River in the south of Niger
does not reach Lake Chad. Nigeria
includes two sub-basins that drain into Lake Chad. The Hadejia - Jama'are - Yobe sub-basin in the north contains the Hadejia and Jama'are rivers, which supply the 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) Hadejia-Nguru wetlands. They converge to form the Yobe, which defines the border between Niger
and Nigeria
for 300 kilometres (190 mi), flowing into Lake Chad. About .5 cubic kilometres (0.12 cu mi) of water reaches Lake Chad
Lake Chad
annually. Construction of upstream dams and growth in irrigation have reduced water flow, and the floodplains are drying up. The Yedseram - Ngadda sub-basin further south is fed by the Yedseram River and Ngadda River, which join to form a 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi) swamp to the southwest of the lake. There is no significant water flow from the swamp to the lake.[9]

Chari River
Chari River

The Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(CAR) contains the sources of the Chari and Logone rivers, which flow north into the lake. The volume of water entering Chad
annually from the CAR has fallen from about 33 cubic kilometres (7.9 cu mi) before the 1970s to 17 cubic kilometres (4.1 cu mi) in the 1980s. A further 3 cubic kilometres (0.72 cu mi) to 7 cubic kilometres (1.7 cu mi) of water annually flows from Cameroon
into Chad via the Logone River. The Chari-Logone system accounts for about 95% of the water entering Lake Chad.[9] Aquifers[edit] The basin in the Nigerian section contains an upper aquifer of Early Pleistocene alluvial deposits that are often covered by recent sand dunes, varying in thickness from 15 to 100 metres (49 to 328 ft). It consists of interbedded sands, clays and silts, with discontinuous clay lenses. The aquifer recharges from run-off and rainfall. The local people access the water with hand-dug wells and shallow boreholes, and use it for domestic use, growing vegetables and watering their livestock. Below this aquifer, separated from it by a sequence of grey to bluish-grey clays from the Zanclean, is a second aquifer at a depth of 240 to 380 metres (790 to 1,250 ft). Due to heavy pumping, since the start of the 1980s the water levels in both aquifers has been lowered, and some wells no longer function.[12] There is a third, much lower, aquifer in Bima Sandstones that lies at a depth of 2,700 to 4,600 metres (8,900 to 15,100 ft).[13] Management[edit] The Lake Chad
Lake Chad
Basin Commission was set up in 1964 by Cameroon, Chad, Niger
and Nigeria, the four countries that contain parts of Lake Chad.[10] About 20% of the basin, lying in these countries, is called the Conventional Basin. The Lake Chad
Lake Chad
Basin Commission manages use of water and other natural resources in this area.[9] Although the lake fluctuates considerably in size from one year to another, the general trend has been for water levels to drop. There has been a proposal to supply water from the Congo Basin
Congo Basin
via a canal 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long, but major political, technical, and economic challenges would have to be overcome to make this practical.[9] People[edit] History[edit]

States in the Sahel
/ Savanna
around 1750

Humans have lived in the inner Chad
Basin from at least eight thousand years ago, and were engaging in agriculture and livestock management around the lake by 1000 BC. Permanent villages were established to the south of the lake by 500 BC at the start of the Iron Age.[14] The Chad Basin contained important trade routes to the east and to the north across the Sahara.[9] By the 5th century AD camels were being used for trans-Saharan trade via the Fezzan, or to the east via Darfur, where slaves and ivory were exchanged for salt, horses, glass beads, and, later, firearms.[15] After the Arabs took over North Africa
North Africa
in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Chad
Basin became increasingly linked to the Muslim world.[14] Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early kingdoms of the Kanem Empire, the Wadai Empire, and the Sultanate of Bagirmi.[15] Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. The Sayfuwa dynasty that ruled this kingdom had adopted Islam by the 12th century.[14] The Kanem empire went into decline, shrank, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region.[16] The Kanuri people
Kanuri people
led by the Sayfuwa migrated to the west and south of the lake, where they established the Bornu Empire. By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bilala.[17] Satellite states of Bornu included the Sultanate of Damagaram
Sultanate of Damagaram
in the west and Baguirmi to the southeast of Lake Chad.

Abéché, capital of Wadai, in 1918 after the French had taken over

The Tunjur people founded the Wadai Empire
Wadai Empire
to the east of Bornu in the 16th century. In the 17th century, the Maba people
Maba people
revolted and established a Muslim dynasty. At first, Wadai paid tribute to Bornu and Durfur, but by the 18th century Wadai was fully independent and had become an aggressor against its neighbors.[15] To the west of Bornu, by the 15th century the Kingdom of Kano
Kingdom of Kano
had become the most powerful of the Hausa Kingdoms, in an unstable truce with the Kingdom of Katsina to the north.[18] Both of these states adopted Islam in the 15th and 16th centuries.[19] Both were absorbed into the Sokoto Caliphate during the Fulani War
Fulani War
of 1805, which threatened Bornu itself.[20] During the Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
in 1884-85 Africa
was carved up between the European colonial powers, defining boundaries that are largely intact with today's post-colonial states.[21] On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West Africa
French West Africa
and what would become Nigeria. A boundary was agreed along a line from Say on the Niger
to Barruwa on Lake Chad, but leaving the Sokoto Caliphate
Sokoto Caliphate
in the British sphere.[22] Parfait-Louis Monteil
Parfait-Louis Monteil
was given charge of an expedition to discover where this line actually ran.[23] On 9 April 1892 he reached Kukawa
on the shore of the lake.[24] Over the next twenty years a large part of the Chad
Basin was incorporated by treaty or by force into French West Africa. On 2 June 1909 the Wadai capital of Abéché
was occupied by the French.[25] The remainder of the basin was divided by the British in Nigeria
who took Kano
in 1903,[26] and the Germans in Kameroun. The countries of the basin regained their independence between 1956 and 1962, retaining the colonial administrative boundaries. Population[edit]

People at a coronation in Chad, 2005

As of 2011, over 30 million people lived in the Chad
Basin. The population is growing rapidly.[9] Ethnic groups include Kanuri, Maba, Buduma, Hausa, Kanembu, Kotoko, Bagger, Haddad, Kuri, Fulani and Manga. The largest cities are Kano
and Maiduguri
in Nigeria, Maroua
in Cameroon, N'Djamena
in Chad
and Diffa
in Niger.[7] Economy[edit] The main economic activities are farming, herding and fishing.[9] At least 40% of the rural population of the basin lives in poverty and routinely face chronic food shortages.[27] Crop production based on rain is possible only in the southern belt. Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad
Lake Chad
and in the riverine wetlands.[10] Nomadic herders migrate with their animals into the grasslands of the northern part of the basin for a few weeks during each short rainy season, where they intensively graze the highly nutritious grasses. When the dry season starts they move back south, either to grazing lands around the lakes and floodplains, or to the savannas further to the south.[28] In the 2000-01 period, fisheries in the Lake Chad
Lake Chad
basin provided food and income to more than 10 million people, with a harvest of about 70,000 tons.[27] Fisheries have traditionally been managed by a system where each village has recognized rights over a defined part of the river, wetland or lake, and fishers from elsewhere must seek permission and pay a fee to use this area. The governments only enforced rules and regulations to a limited extent.[29] Fishery management practices vary. For example, on the Katagum river in Jigawa State, Nigeria, a village will have a water management council that collects a portion of each fisherman's catch and redistributes it among the villagers, or sells it and used the proceeds for communal projects.[30] Local governments and traditional authorities are increasingly engaged in rent-seeking, collecting license fees with the help of the police or army.[31] References[edit] Notes

^ Ma: Million years ago


^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Lake Chad: Climate change
Climate change
fosters terrorism Africa
DW 07.12.2015". DW.COM. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ a b c Obaje 2009, p. 69. ^ a b Wright 1985, p. 94. ^ a b c d Wright 1985, p. 95. ^ Schuster, Roquin & Duringer 2005, p. 1821. ^ a b Chad
Basin: Britannica. ^ a b c d e Geography: Lake Chad
Lake Chad
Basin Commission. ^ Haruna, Maigari & Tahir 2012, p. 3. ^ a b c d e f g h The Lake Chad
Lake Chad
basin: FAO. ^ a b c Rangeley, Thiam & Anderson 1994, p. 49. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 228. ^ Obaje 2009, p. 71. ^ Obaje 2009, p. 70. ^ a b c Decorse 2001, p. 103. ^ a b c Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254. ^ Falola 2008, p. 26. ^ Falola 2008, p. 27. ^ Falola 2008, p. 47. ^ Falola 2008, p. 32. ^ Udo 1970, p. 178. ^ Harlow 2003, p. 139. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 26. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 37-38. ^ Lengyel 2007, p. 170. ^ Mazenot 2005, p. 352. ^ Falola 2008, p. 105. ^ a b Kenmore 2004, p. 220. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 230. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 215. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 217. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 218.


Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2010). Encyclopaedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  " Chad
Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-05-05.  Decorse, Christopher R. (2001). West Africa
During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-7185-0247-8. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Falola, Toyin (2008-04-24). A History of Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-47203-6. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  "Geography". Lake Chad
Lake Chad
Basin Commission. Retrieved 2013-05-05.  Harlow, Barbara (2003). "Conference of Berlin (1884–1885)". Colonialism. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Haruna, Ahmed Isah; Maigari, A. S.; Tahir, M. L.; Mamman, Y. D.; Gusikit, R. B. (2012-12-21). Detrital Gypsum Forms in the Nigerian (Southern) Sector of Chad
Basin: A Criteria for interpretation in Nigeria’s inland basins: Implication of Detrital Gypsum Forms in Sedimentary Basins. GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-656-33912-0. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Hirshfield, Claire (1979). The diplomacy of partition: Britain, France, and the creation of Nigeria, 1890–1898. Springer. ISBN 90-247-2099-0. Retrieved 2010-10-10.  Kenmore, Peter Ervin (2004). The Future is an Ancient Lake: Traditional Knowledge, Biodiversity and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Lake Chad
Lake Chad
Basin Ecosystems. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 215. ISBN 978-92-5-105064-4. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Lengyel, Emil (2007-03-01). Dakar - Outpost of Two Hemispheres. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4067-6146-7. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Mazenot, Georges (2005). Sur le passé de l'Afrique Noire. Editions L'Harmattan. p. 352. ISBN 978-2-296-59232-2. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Obaje, Nuhu George (2009-08-12). Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Springer. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-540-92684-9. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Rangeley, Robert; Thiam, Bocar M.; Anderson, Randolph A.; Lyle, Colin A. (1994). International river basin organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Publications. ISBN 978-0-8213-2871-2. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Schuster, Mathieu; Roquin, Claude; Duringer, Philippe; Brunet, Michel; Caugy, Matthieu; Fontugne, Michel; Mackaye, Hassan Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Ghienne, Jean-François (September 2005). " Holocene
Lake Mega- Chad
palaeoshorelines from space". Quaternary
Science Reviews. 24 (16–17). doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.02.001. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  "The Lake Chad
Lake Chad
basin". FAO. Retrieved 2013-05-05.  Udo, Reuben K. (1970). Geographical regions of Nigeria. University of California Press. GGKEY:7F4FLYR0FS5. Retrieved 2013-05-06.  Wright, J.B. (1985-11-30). Geology and Mineral Resources of West Africa. Springer. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-04-556001-1. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 

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Major African geological formations


African Plate Somali Plate Madagascar
Plate Seychelles Plate

Cratons and shields

Arabian-Nubian Shield Congo Craton Kaapvaal Craton Kalahari Craton Saharan Metacraton Tanzania Craton Tuareg Shield West African Craton Zimbabwe Craton

Shear zones

Aswa Dislocation Broodkop Shear Zone Central African Shear Zone Chuan Shear Zones Foumban Shear Zone Kandi Fault Zone Mwembeshi Shear Zone Todi Shear Zone Western Meseta Shear Zone


Alpide Orogen Cape Fold Belt Damara Orogen East African Orogen Eburnean Orogen Gondwanide Orogen Kibaran Orogen Kuunga Orogen Mauritanide Belt Pan-African orogens Terra Australis Orogen


Afar Triangle Anza trough Bahr el Arab rift Benue Trough Blue Nile
rift East African Rift Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
Rift Lamu Embayment Melut Basin Muglad Basin Red Sea
Red Sea
Rift Sangha Aulacogen Atbara rift White Nile

Sedimentary basins

Angola Basin Aoukar Blue Nile
Basin Chad
Basin Congo Basin Douala Basin El Djouf Foreland Karoo Basin Gabon Basin Iullemmeden Basin Kufra Basin Murzuq Basin Niger
Delta Basin Ogaden Basin Orange River basin Ouled Abdoun Basin Owambo Basin Reggane Basin Rio del Rey Basin Sirte Basin Somali Coastal Basin Taoudeni basin Tanzania Coastal Basin Tindouf Basin Turkana Basin

Mountain ranges

Aïr Mountains Atlas Mountains Aurès Mountains Bambouk Mountains Blue Mountains Cameroon
line Central Pangean Mountains Chaillu Mountains Drakensberg Ethiopian Highlands East African mountains Great Escarpment Great Karas Mountains Guinée forestière Imatong Mountains Jebel Uweinat Loma Mountains Mandara Mountains Marrah Mountains Mitumba Mountains Nuba Mountains Rif
Mountains Rwenzori Mountains Sankwala Mountains Serra da Leba Serra da Chela Teffedest Mountains Tibesti Mountains

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Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland


Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad
Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift
Valley Gregory Rift Rift
Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean

Comoros Islands

North Africa


Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains


Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger
Delta Inner Niger

Southern Africa


Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands


North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay


Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia


Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee



Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail


Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram

Siachen Glacier


Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin


Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau


Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass


Greater Middle East


Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus


Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt


Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley


Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt



Indochina Malay Peninsula


Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe


Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands


Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia


Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group


Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt


Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America


Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth


Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie


South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States


Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt


Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania


Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia


Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula


Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu


Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island


Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America


Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado


Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta


Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula



Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions


Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands


Alaska British Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas


Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea