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The CHAD BASIN is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad . It has no outlet to the sea and contains large areas of desert or semi-arid savanna. The drainage basin is roughly coterminous with the sedimentary basin of the same name, but extends further to the northeast and east. The basin spans seven countries, including most of Chad
Chad
and a large part of Niger
Niger
. The region has an ethnically diverse population of about 30 million people as of 2011, growing rapidly.

A combination of dams, increased irrigation, climate change , and reduced rainfall are causing water shortages, contributing to terrorism and the rise of Boko Haram in the region. Lake Chad continues to shrink.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geology * 2 Drainage basin extent * 3 Climate and ecology

* 4 Water resources

* 4.1 Rivers * 4.2 Aquifers * 4.3 Management

* 5 People

* 5.1 History * 5.2 Population * 5.3 Economy

* 6 References

GEOLOGY

Benue trough. The northwest and east extensions lie below the Chad
Chad
Basin. ("Tibesti- Cameroon
Cameroon
Trough" is not shown.)

The geological basin, which is smaller than the drainage basin, is a Phanerozoic sedimentary basin formed during the plate divergence that opened the South Atlantic Ocean. The basin lies between the West African Craton and Congo Craton , and formed around the same time as the Benue Trough
Benue Trough
. It covers an area of about 2,335,000 square kilometres (902,000 sq mi). It merges into the Iullemmeden Basin to the west at the Damergou gap between the Aïr and Zinder
Zinder
massifs. The floor of the basin is made of Precambrian bedrock covered by more than 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) of sedimentary deposits.

The basin may have resulted from the intersection of an "Aïr-Chad Trough" running NW-SE and a "Tibesti- Cameroon
Cameroon
Trough" running NE-SW. That is, the two deepest parts are an extension of the Benue Trough that runs northeast to the margin of the basin, and another extension running from below the present lake to below the Ténéré
Ténéré
rift structure to the east of the Aïr massif. The southern part of the basin is underlain by another elongated depression. This runs in an ENE direction and extends from the Yola arm of the Benue trough.

At times, parts of the basin were below the sea. In the northeastern part of the Benue Trough
Benue Trough
where it enters the Chad
Chad
Basin there are marine sediments from the Late Cretaceous
Late Cretaceous
(100.5–66 Ma ). These sediments seem to be considerably thicker towards the northeast. Boreholes under Maiduguri
Maiduguri
have found marine sediments 400 metres (1,300 ft) deep, lying over continental sediments 600 metres (2,000 ft) deep. The sea seems to have retreated from the western part of the basin in the Turonian (93.5–89.3 Ma). In the Maastrichtian (72.1–66 Ma) the west was non-marine, but the southeast probably was still marine. No marine sediments have been found from the Paleocene (66–56 Ma). The eastern part of the basin, showing the Holocene "Mega Chad" lake (blue area) at its maximum size with the Chari in the south and the Benue in the south west. The modern Lake Chad
Chad
is in the centre of this map, in green.

For most of the Quaternary
Quaternary
, from 2.6 million years ago to the present, the basin seems to have been a huge, well-watered plain, with many rivers and water bodies, probably rich in plant and animal life. Towards the end of this period the climate became drier. Around 20,000-40,000 years ago, eolianite sand dunes began to form in the north of the basin. During the Holocene , from 11,000 years ago until recently, a giant "Lake Mega-Chad" covered an area of more than 350,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi) in the basin. It would have drained to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the Benue River . Stratigraphic records show that "Mega-Chad" varied in size as the climate changed, with a peak about 2,300 years ago. The remains of fish and molluscs from this period are found in what are now desert regions.

DRAINAGE BASIN EXTENT

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The Chad
Chad
Basin covers almost 8% of the African continent, with an area of about 2,434,000 square kilometres (940,000 sq mi). It is ringed by mountains. The Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
and the Termit Massif in Niger form the western boundary. To the northwest, in Algeria, are the Tassili n\'Ajjer mountains, including the 2,158 metres (7,080 ft) Jebel Azao . The Tibesti Mountains to the north of the basin include Emi Koussi , the highest mountain in the Sahara
Sahara
at 3,415 metres (11,204 ft). The Ennedi Plateau lies to the northeast, rising to 1,450 metres (4,760 ft). The Ouaddaï highlands lies the east. They include the Marrah Mountains in Darfur
Darfur
at up to 3,088 metres (10,131 ft) in height. The Adamawa Plateau , Jos Plateau , Biu Plateau , and Mandara Mountains lie to the south.

To the west the basin is separated by a watershed from the Niger River , and to the south it is separated by a basement dome from the Benue River . Further east, watersheds separate it from the Congo Basin and the Nile
Nile
.

The lowest part of the basin is not Lake Chad, but the Bodélé Depression , at a distance of 480 kilometres (300 mi) to the northeast of the lake. The Bodélé Depression is just 155 metres (509 ft) above sea level in its deepest portion, while the surface of Lake Chad is 275 metres (902 ft) above sea level.

The basin spans parts of seven countries. These are:

COUNTRY INDEPENDENT AREA WITHIN BASIN (KM2) % OF TOTAL AREA OF BASIN % OF COUNTRY IN BASIN

Algeria
Algeria
1962 93,451 3.9% 3.9%

Cameroon
Cameroon
1960 50,775 2.1% 10.7%

Central African Republic
Central African Republic
1960 219,410 9.2% 35.2%

Chad
Chad
1960 1,046,196 43.9% 81.5%

Niger
Niger
1960 691,473 29.0% 54.6%

Nigeria
Nigeria
1960 179,282 7.5% 19.4%

Sudan
Sudan
1956 101,048 4.2% 4.0%

Total

2,381,635 100%

CLIMATE AND ECOLOGY

Dunes in the Erg of Bilma

The northern half of the basin is desert, containing the Ténéré desert, Erg of Bilma and Djurab Desert . South of that is the Sahel zone, dry savanna and thorny shrub savanna. The main rivers include riparian forests, flooding savannas and wetland areas. In the far south there are dry forests. Rainfall varies widely from year to year. The amount of annual rainfall is very low in the north of the basin, rising to 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the south.

As late as 2000, the basin has remained home to large populations of wildlife. In the Sahel
Sahel
these include antelopes such as the addax and dama gazelle , and in the savannah there are korrigum and red-fronted gazelle . The black crowned crane and other waterbirds are found in the wetlands. There are populations of elephants , giraffes , and lions . The western black rhinoceros was once common but is now extinct. Elephants almost became extinct by the end of the nineteenth century due to European and American demand for ivory, but stocks have since recovered.

WATER RESOURCES

RIVERS

Yobe River catchment area showing location of the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands

The seasonal Korama River in the south of Niger
Niger
does not reach Lake Chad. Nigeria
Nigeria
includes two sub-basins that drain into Lake Chad. The Hadejia - Jama'are - Yobe sub-basin in the north contains the Hadejia and Jama\'are rivers, which supply the 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) Hadejia-Nguru wetlands . They converge to form the Yobe , which defines the border between Niger
Niger
and Nigeria
Nigeria
for 300 kilometres (190 mi), flowing into Lake Chad. About .5 cubic kilometres (0.12 cu mi) of water reaches Lake Chad annually. Construction of upstream dams and growth in irrigation have reduced water flow, and the floodplains are drying up. The Yedseram - Ngadda sub-basin further south is fed by the Yedseram River and Ngadda River , which join to form a 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi) swamp to the southwest of the lake. There is no significant water flow from the swamp to the lake. Chari River basin

The Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(CAR) contains the sources of the Chari and Logone rivers, which flow north into the lake. The volume of water entering Chad
Chad
annually from the CAR has fallen from about 33 cubic kilometres (7.9 cu mi) before the 1970s to 17 cubic kilometres (4.1 cu mi) in the 1980s. A further 3 cubic kilometres (0.72 cu mi) to 7 cubic kilometres (1.7 cu mi) of water annually flows from Cameroon
Cameroon
into Chad via the Logone River. The Chari-Logone system accounts for about 95% of the water entering Lake Chad.

AQUIFERS

The basin in the Nigerian section contains an upper aquifer of Early Pleistocene alluvial deposits that are often covered by recent sand dunes, varying in thickness from 15 to 100 metres (49 to 328 ft). It consists of interbedded sands, clays and silts, with discontinuous clay lenses. The aquifer recharges from run-off and rainfall. The local people access the water with hand-dug wells and shallow boreholes, and use it for domestic use, growing vegetables and watering their livestock. Below this aquifer, separated from it by a sequence of grey to bluish-grey clays from the Zanclean , is a second aquifer at a depth of 240 to 380 metres (790 to 1,250 ft). Due to heavy pumping, since the start of the 1980s the water levels in both aquifers has been lowered, and some wells no longer function. There is a third, much lower, aquifer in Bima Sandstones that lies at a depth of 2,700 to 4,600 metres (8,900 to 15,100 ft).

MANAGEMENT

The Lake Chad Basin Commission was set up in 1964 by Cameroon, Chad, Niger
Niger
and Nigeria, the four countries that contain parts of Lake Chad. About 20% of the basin, lying in these countries, is called the Conventional Basin. The Lake Chad Basin Commission manages use of water and other natural resources in this area. Although the lake fluctuates considerably in size from one year to another, the general trend has been for water levels to drop. There has been a proposal to supply water from the Congo Basin
Congo Basin
via a canal 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long, but major political, technical, and economic challenges would have to be overcome to make this practical.

PEOPLE

HISTORY

States in the Sahel
Sahel
/ Savanna
Savanna
around 1750

Humans have lived in the inner Chad
Chad
Basin from at least eight thousand years ago, and were engaging in agriculture and livestock management around the lake by 1000 BC. Permanent villages were established to the south of the lake by 500 BC at the start of the Iron Age
Iron Age
. The Chad
Chad
Basin contained important trade routes to the east and to the north across the Sahara. By the 5th century AD camels were being used for trans-Saharan trade via the Fezzan , or to the east via Darfur
Darfur
, where slaves and ivory were exchanged for salt, horses, glass beads, and, later, firearms. After the Arabs took over North Africa
North Africa
in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Chad
Chad
Basin became increasingly linked to the Muslim world.

Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early kingdoms of the Kanem Empire , the Wadai Empire , and the Sultanate of Bagirmi . Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. The Sayfuwa dynasty that ruled this kingdom had adopted Islam by the 12th century. The Kanem empire went into decline, shrank, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region. The Kanuri people led by the Sayfuwa migrated to the west and south of the lake, where they established the Bornu Empire . By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bilala. Satellite states of Bornu included the Sultanate of Damagaram
Sultanate of Damagaram
in the west and Baguirmi to the southeast of Lake Chad. Abéché , capital of Wadai, in 1918 after the French had taken over

The Tunjur people founded the Wadai Empire to the east of Bornu in the 16th century. In the 17th century, the Maba people revolted and established a Muslim dynasty. At first, Wadai paid tribute to Bornu and Durfur, but by the 18th century Wadai was fully independent and had become an aggressor against its neighbors. To the west of Bornu, by the 15th century the Kingdom of Kano had become the most powerful of the Hausa Kingdoms
Hausa Kingdoms
, in an unstable truce with the Kingdom of Katsina to the north. Both of these states adopted Islam in the 15th and 16th centuries. Both were absorbed into the Sokoto Caliphate during the Fulani War of 1805, which threatened Bornu itself.

During the Berlin Conference in 1884-85 Africa
Africa
was carved up between the European colonial powers, defining boundaries that are largely intact with today's post-colonial states. On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West Africa
French West Africa
and what would become Nigeria
Nigeria
. A boundary was agreed along a line from Say on the Niger
Niger
to Barruwa on Lake Chad, but leaving the Sokoto Caliphate
Sokoto Caliphate
in the British sphere. Parfait-Louis Monteil was given charge of an expedition to discover where this line actually ran. On 9 April 1892 he reached Kukawa on the shore of the lake. Over the next twenty years a large part of the Chad
Chad
Basin was incorporated by treaty or by force into French West Africa
French West Africa
. On 2 June 1909 the Wadai capital of Abéché was occupied by the French. The remainder of the basin was divided by the British in Nigeria
Nigeria
who took Kano
Kano
in 1903, and the Germans in Kameroun. The countries of the basin regained their independence between 1956 and 1962, retaining the colonial administrative boundaries.

POPULATION

People at a coronation in Chad, 2005

As of 2011, over 30 million people lived in the Chad
Chad
Basin. The population is growing rapidly. Ethnic groups include Kanuri , Maba , Buduma , Hausa , Kanembu , Kotoko , Bagger , Haddad , Kuri , Fulani and Manga . The largest cities are Kano
Kano
and Maiduguri
Maiduguri
in Nigeria
Nigeria
, Maroua in Cameroon
Cameroon
, N\'Djamena in Chad
Chad
and Diffa in Niger
Niger
.

ECONOMY

The main economic activities are farming, herding and fishing. At least 40% of the rural population of the basin lives in poverty and routinely face chronic food shortages. Crop production based on rain is possible only in the southern belt. Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad and in the riverine wetlands. Nomadic herders migrate with their animals into the grasslands of the northern part of the basin for a few weeks during each short rainy season, where they intensively graze the highly nutritious grasses. When the dry season starts they move back south, either to grazing lands around the lakes and floodplains, or to the savannas further to the south.

In the 2000-01 period, fisheries in the Lake Chad basin provided food and income to more than 10 million people, with a harvest of about 70,000 tons. Fisheries have traditionally been managed by a system where each village has recognized rights over a defined part of the river, wetland or lake, and fishers from elsewhere must seek permission and pay a fee to use this area. The governments only enforced rules and regulations to a limited extent. Fishery management practices vary. For example, on the Katagum river in Jigawa State , Nigeria, a village will have a water management council that collects a portion of each fisherman's catch and redistributes it among the villagers, or sells it and used the proceeds for communal projects. Local governments and traditional authorities are increasingly engaged in rent-seeking, collecting license fees with the help of the police or army.

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Ma: Million years ago

CITATIONS

* ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Lake Chad: Climate change fosters terrorism Africa
Africa
DW 07.12.2015". DW.COM. Retrieved 2017-07-08. * ^ A B C Obaje 2009 , p. 69. * ^ A B Wright 1985 , p. 94. * ^ A B C D Wright 1985 , p. 95. * ^ Schuster, Roquin & Duringer 2005 , p. 1821. * ^ A B Chad
Chad
Basin: Britannica . * ^ A B C D E Geography: Lake Chad Basin Commission . * ^ Haruna, Maigari & Tahir 2012 , p. 3. * ^ A B C D E F G H The Lake Chad basin: FAO . * ^ A B C Rangeley, Thiam & Anderson 1994 , p. 49. * ^ Kenmore 2004 , p. 228. * ^ Obaje 2009 , p. 71. * ^ Obaje 2009 , p. 70. * ^ A B C Decorse 2001 , p. 103. * ^ A B C Appiah -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">

* Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2010). Encyclopaedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * " Chad
Chad
Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * Decorse, Christopher R. (2001). West Africa
Africa
During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-7185-0247-8 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Falola, Toyin (2008-04-24). A History of Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-47203-6 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * "Geography". Lake Chad Basin Commission. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * Harlow, Barbara (2003). "Conference of Berlin (1884–1885)". Colonialism. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Haruna, Ahmed Isah; Maigari, A. S.; Tahir, M. L.; Mamman, Y. D.; Gusikit, R. B. (2012-12-21). Detrital Gypsum Forms in the Nigerian (Southern) Sector of Chad
Chad
Basin: A Criteria for interpretation in Nigeria’s inland basins: Implication of Detrital Gypsum Forms in Sedimentary Basins. GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-656-33912-0 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Hirshfield, Claire (1979). The diplomacy of partition: Britain, France, and the creation of Nigeria, 1890–1898. Springer. ISBN 90-247-2099-0 . Retrieved 2010-10-10. * Kenmore, Peter Ervin (2004). The Future is an Ancient Lake: Traditional Knowledge, Biodiversity and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Lake Chad Basin Ecosystems. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 215. ISBN 978-92-5-105064-4 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Lengyel, Emil (2007-03-01). Dakar - Outpost of Two Hemispheres. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4067-6146-7 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Mazenot, Georges (2005). Sur le passé de l\'Afrique Noire. Editions L'Harmattan. p. 352. ISBN 978-2-296-59232-2 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Obaje, Nuhu George (2009-08-12). Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Springer. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-540-92684-9 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Rangeley, Robert; Thiam, Bocar M.; Anderson, Randolph A.; Lyle, Colin A. (1994). International river basin organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Publications. ISBN 978-0-8213-2871-2 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Schuster, Mathieu; Roquin, Claude; Duringer, Philippe; Brunet, Michel; Caugy, Matthieu; Fontugne, Michel; Mackaye, Hassan Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Ghienne, Jean-François (September 2005). "Holocene Lake Mega- Chad
Chad
palaeoshorelines from space". Quaternary
Quaternary
Science Reviews. 24 (16–17). doi :10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.02.001 . Retrieved 2013-05-06. * "The Lake Chad basin". FAO. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * Udo, Reuben K. (1970). Geographical regions of Nigeria. University of California Press. GGKEY:7F4FLYR0FS5. Retrieved 2013-05-06. * Wright, J.B. (1985-11-30). Geology and Mineral Resources of West Africa. Springer. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-04-556001-1 . Retrieved 2013-05-06.

* v * t * e

Major African geological formations

PLATES

* African Plate * Somali Plate * Madagascar Plate * Seychelles Plate

CRATONS AND SHIELDS

* Arabian-Nubian Shield
Arabian-Nubian Shield
* Congo Craton * Kaapvaal Craton * Kalahari Craton * Saharan Metacraton
Saharan Metacraton
* Tanzania Craton * Tuareg Shield * West African Craton * Zimbabwe Craton

SHEAR ZONES

* Aswa Dislocation * Broodkop Shear Zone * Central African Shear Zone * Chuan Shear Zones * Foumban Shear Zone * Kandi Fault Zone * Mwembeshi Shear Zone * Todi Shear Zone * Western Meseta Shear Zone

OROGENS

* Alpide Orogen * Cape Fold Belt * Damara Orogen * East African Orogen * Eburnean Orogen * Gondwanide Orogen * Kibaran Orogen * Kuunga Orogen * Mauritanide Belt * Pan-African orogens * Terra Australis Orogen

RIFTS

* Afar Triangle * Anza trough * Bahr el Arab rift
Bahr el Arab rift
* Benue Trough
Benue Trough
* Blue Nile
Nile
rift * East African Rift
Rift
* Gulf of Suez Rift
Rift
* Lamu Embayment * Melut Basin * Muglad Basin * Red Sea
Red Sea
Rift
Rift
* Sangha Aulacogen * Atbara rift * White Nile
Nile
rift

SEDIMENTARY BASINS

* Angola Basin * Aoukar * Blue Nile
Nile
Basin * Chad
Chad
Basin * Congo Basin
Congo Basin
* Douala Basin * El Djouf * Foreland Karoo Basin * Gabon Basin * Iullemmeden Basin * Kufra Basin * Murzuq Basin * Niger
Niger
Delta Basin * Ogaden Basin * Orange River basin * Ouled Abdoun Basin * Owambo Basin * Reggane Basin * Rio del Rey Basin * Sirte Basin
Sirte Basin
* Somali Coastal Basin * Taoudeni basin * Tanzania Coastal Basin * Tindouf Basin * Turkana Basin

MOUNTAIN RANGES

* Aïr Mountains
Aïr Mountains
* Atlas Mountains * Aurès Mountains
Aurès Mountains
* Bambouk Mountains * Blue Mountains * Cameroon
Cameroon
line * Central Pangean Mountains * Chaillu Mountains * Drakensberg
Drakensberg
* Ethiopian Highlands * East African mountains * Great Escarpment * Great Karas Mountains * Guinée forestière
Guinée forestière
* Imatong Mountains * Jebel Uweinat * Loma Mountains * Mandara Mountains * Marrah Mountains * Mitumba Mountains * Nuba Mountains * Rif
Rif
Mountains * Rwenzori Mountains * Sankwala Mountains * Serra da Leba * Serra da Chela * Teffedest Mountains * Tibesti Mountains

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean
Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile
Nile
Valley * Nile
Nile
Delta * Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift
Rift
* Great Rift
Rift
Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift
Rift
Valley * Southern Rift
Rift
Valley

* Rift
Rift
Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika
Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan
Sudan
(region) * Sudanian Savanna
Savanna
* East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland
Maputaland
* Pool Malebo
Pool Malebo
* Congo Basin
Congo Basin
* Chad
Chad
Basin * Congolese rainforests
Congolese rainforests
* Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas
Cape Palmas
* Cape Mesurado
Cape Mesurado
* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna
Savanna
* Niger
Niger
Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan
Sudan
(region) * Niger
Niger
Delta * Inner Niger
Niger
Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo
Nama Karoo
* Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta
Okavango Delta
* False Bay * Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia
Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
* Peace River Country
Peace River Country
* Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
* Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
* Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula
Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula
Melville Peninsula
* Bruce Peninsula
Bruce Peninsula
* Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt
Cotton Belt
* Frost Belt * Rice Belt
Rice Belt
* Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco
Soconusco
* Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca
La Huasteca
* Bajío
Bajío
* Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
* Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula
Azuero Peninsula
* Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula
Paria Peninsula
* Paraguaná Peninsula
Paraguaná Peninsula
* Orinoco Delta
Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests
Chiquitano dry forests
* Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert
Aralkum Desert
* Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan
Sistan
* Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia
Pryazovia
* Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria * Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia
Baikalia
( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc
Northeastern Japan Arc
* Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
* China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan * Jianghuai
Jianghuai
* Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan
Shaannan

* Ordos Loop
Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
* Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast
Pirate Coast
* Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean
Eastern Mediterranean
* Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift
Rift
Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
* Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland
Kur-Araz Lowland
* Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan
* Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas * Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt
Alpide belt
* Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa
* Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux
Benelux
* Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion
Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands
Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain
European Plain
* Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe
* Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island
Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu
Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau * Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik * Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea
Argentine Sea
* Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion
Lion
* Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
* Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
* Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea
Sibuyan Sea
* Solomon Sea * South China Sea
South China Sea
* Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea
Bellingshausen Sea
* Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea *