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Forcipomyiinae Dasyheleinae Ceratopogoninae Leptoconopinae

Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges, are a family of small flies (1–4 mm long) in the order Diptera. They are called midgies in Scotland, are also known as no-see-ums, sand flies, punkies, and others in North America, and sandflies[1] in Australia. (The name "sandfly" is ambiguous, as it is also applied informally to many other flies, such as the subfamily Phlebotominae.) They are closely related to the Chironomidae, Simuliidae (or black flies), and Thaumaleidae.[2][3]

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Atrichopogon sp. on Oedemera virescens

They are found in almost any aquatic or semiaquatic habitat throughout the world, as well as in mountain areas. Females of most species are adapted to suck blood from some kind of host animal for the purpose of anautogenous reproduction. Culicoides, Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea), and Leptoconops
Leptoconops
suck vertebrate blood. Some Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species are ectoparasites on larger insects. Dasyhelea species feed exclusively on nectar. Species
Species
in other genera are predatory on other small insects. Larvae are always found in some damp location, such as under bark, in rotten wood, compost, mud, stream margins, tree holes, or water-holding plants (i.e., phytotelmata).

Ceratopogonid male

Leptoconops

Biting midge or "punky" on a flower

While this Sphodromantis
Sphodromantis
eats a bee, a ceratopogonid midge, sitting on the joint between the femur and tibia of the right-hand foreleg, fills its abdomen with the green mantis blood.

Many of the hematophagic (blood-eating) species are pests in beach or mountain habitats. Some other species are important pollinators of tropical crops such as cacao. The blood-sucking species may be vectors of disease-causing viruses, protozoa, or filarial worms. The bite of midges in the genus Culicoides
Culicoides
causes an allergic response in equines known as sweet itch. In humans, their bites can cause intensely itchy, red welts that can persist for more than a week. The discomfort arises from a localized allergic reaction to the proteins in their saliva, which can be somewhat alleviated by topical antihistamines. The smaller members of the family are tiny enough to pass through the apertures in typical window screens. Camping tents are often equipped with extra-fine mesh netting, called no-see-um nets, to keep the pests out. One experienced researcher recommends: "A mesh size of 4900 (per square inch) will stop most biting midges, but to ensure that even the smallest cannot feast on you, a mesh size of 10,000 is necessary."[4] Species
Species
in this family are known to be vectors for various arboviruses,[5] as well as for nonviral animal pathogens.[6] An example is the Tete virus, spread by Culicoides
Culicoides
sp.[7] See also[edit]

Culicoides
Culicoides
impunctatus—known as the Scottish midge, or Highland midge Culicoides
Culicoides
imicola

References[edit]

^ Whelan, Peter (September 2003). "Biting Midges or 'Sandflies' in the Northern Territory". The Northern Territory Disease
Disease
Control Bulletin. 10 (3).  ^ Boorman, John (1993). "Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae)": 288–309. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-1554-4_7.  ^ Wirth, Willis W.; Grogan, William L. (1 January 1988). The Predaceous Midges of the World. E.J. Brill. p. 208. ISBN 0-916846-43-1. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Borkent, Art. "How to Protect Oneself from Biting Midges". The Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
of Costa Rica. National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H.; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V. (2013). "Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe". Antiviral Research. 100 (1): 102–113. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.020. ISSN 0166-3542.  ^ Linley, J. R. (1985). "Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as Vectors of Nonviral Animal
Animal
Pathogens". Journal of Medical Entomology. 22 (6): 589–599. doi:10.1093/jmedent/22.6.589. ISSN 0022-2585.  ^ "Bunyaviridae". ViPR. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource Center (ViPR). Retrieved 17 January 2017. 

Blanton, F.S. and W.W. Wirth. 1979. The sand flies (Culicoides) of Florida (Ceratopogonidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas Volume 10. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Borkent, A. and W.W. Wirth. 1997. World species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 233: 1–257. Borkent, Art (2014). "World Species
Species
of Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)" (PDF). Illinois Natural History Survey. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 16 January 2017.  Clastrier, J. and W.W. Wirth. 1978. The Leptoconops
Leptoconops
kerteszi complex in North America
North America
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1573. Downes, J.A. and W.W. Wirth. 1981. Chapter 28: Ceratopogonidae. Pp. 393–421. In: McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood. Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Volume 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27. Hendry, George. Midges in Scotland 4th Edition, Mercat Press, Edinburgh, 2003 ISBN 1-84183-062-3 Mullen, G.R. and L.J. Hribar. 1988. Biology and feeding behavior of ceratopogonid larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in North America. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 13: 60–81. Wirth, W.W. and F.S. Blanton. 1974. The West Indian sandflies of the genus Culicoides
Culicoides
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1474. Wirth, W.W. and W.L. Grogan, Jr. 1988. The Predaceous Midges of the World (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Tribe Ceratopogonini). Flora and Fauna Handbook Number 4. E.J. Brill Publishers, Leiden. xv + 160 pp. Wirth, W.W., N.C. Ratanaworabhan, and D.H. Messersmith. 1977. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XXII. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 90(3): 615–647.

External links[edit]

British insects: the families of Diptera – Delta guides, Biodiversity and Biological Collections Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
– AAFC, Government of Canada The Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
– Inbio Site, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Ceratopogonid Web Page – Belmont University Biting midges on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Flying Teeth Spain Buddy Website Anatomical Atlas of Flies, maintained by CSIRO and ABRS of Australia

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1533239 ADW: Ceratopogonidae BugGuide: 19768 EoL: 486 EPPO: 1CERPF Fauna Europaea: 11644 Fossilworks: 138345 GBIF: 3340 ITIS: 127076 NCBI: 41819 WoRMS: 150940

Authority control

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