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Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
(also known as Central Morocco
Morocco
Tamazight, Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
Tamazight, Tamazight, Central Shilha and, rarely, Beraber or Braber; native name: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ Tamazight [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]) is a Berber language[nb 1] of the Afroasiatic language family
Afroasiatic language family
spoken by 3 to 5 million people in the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
of Central Morocco
Morocco
as well as by smaller emigrant communities in France
France
and elsewhere.[3][4] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
is one of the most-spoken Berber languages, along with Kabyle, Shilha, Riff, Shawiya and Tuareg. In Morocco, it rivals Shilha as the most-spoken. All five languages may be referred to as "Tamazight", but Central Atlas speakers are the only ones who use the term exclusively. As is typical of Afroasiatic languages, Tamazight has a series of "emphatic consonants" (realized as pharyngealized), uvulars, pharyngeals and lacks the phoneme /p/. Tamazight has a phonemic three-vowel system but also has numerous words without vowels. Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
(unlike neighbouring Tashelhit) had no known significant writing tradition until the 20th century. It is now officially written in the Tifinagh
Tifinagh
script for instruction in Moroccan schools,[5][6] while descriptive linguistic literature commonly uses the Latin
Latin
alphabet, and the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
has also been used. The standard word order is verb–subject–object but sometimes subject–verb–object.[7] Words inflect for gender, number and state, using prefixes, suffixes and circumfixes. Verbs are heavily inflected, being marked for tense, aspect, mode, voice, person of the subject and polarity, sometimes undergoing ablaut. Pervasive borrowing from Arabic
Arabic
extends to all major word classes, including verbs; borrowed verbs, however, are conjugated according to native patterns, including ablaut.[8][9]

Contents

1 Classification 2 History 3 Geographic distribution 4 Status

4.1 Official status

5 Orthography 6 Phonology

6.1 Consonants 6.2 Vowels 6.3 Stress

7 Grammar

7.1 Morphology 7.2 Syntax

8 Vocabulary 9 Examples 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Classification[edit] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
is one of the four most-spoken Berber languages, in addition to Kabyle, Shilha, and Riff,[10][11] and rivals Shilha as the most-spoken Berber language
Berber language
in Morocco.[12][13][14] Differentiating these dialects is complicated by the fact that speakers of other languages may also refer to their language as 'Tamazight'.[4] The differences between all three groups are largely phonological and lexical, rather than syntactic.[15] Tamazight itself has a relatively large degree of internal diversity, including whether spirantization occurs.[4][16] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
speakers refer to themselves as Amazigh (pl. Imazighen), an endonymic ethnonym whose etymology is uncertain, but may translate as "free people".[17][18] The term Tamazight, the feminine form of Amazigh, refers to the language. Both words are also used self-referentially by other Berber groups to replace local terms such as ašəlḥi or rifi, although Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
speakers use them regularly and exclusively.[4][nb 2] In older studies, Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
is sometimes referred to as "Braber" / "Beraber", a dialetical Arabic
Arabic
term, or its Tamazight equivalent "Taberbrit".[4][19] This is related to the Standard Arabic and English term "Berber", used to refer to all Berber dialects/languages, though eschewed by many Berbers because its etymology is pejorative.[20] Tamazight belongs to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic language family; Afroasiatic subsumes a number of languages in North Africa
North Africa
and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
including the Semitic languages, the Egyptian language, and the Chadic and Cushitic languages. Along with most other Berber languages, Tamazight has retained a number of widespread Afroasiatic features, including a two-gender system, verb–subject–object (VSO) typology, emphatic consonants (realized in Tamazight as pharyngealized), a templatic morphology, and a causative morpheme /s/ (the latter also found in other macrofamilies, such as the Niger–Congo languages.) Within Berber, Central Atlas Tamazight belongs, along with neighbouring Tashelhiyt, to the Atlas branch of the Northern Berber subgroup. Tamazight is in the middle of a dialect continuum between Riff to its north-east and Shilha to its south-west.[4] The basic lexicon of Tamazight differs markedly from Shilha, and its verbal system is more similar to Riff or Kabyle.[4] Moreover, Tamazight has a greater amount of internal diversity than Shilha.[16] Tamazight's dialects are divided into three distinct subgroups and geographic regions: those spoken in the Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
mountains; those spoken in the High Atlas
High Atlas
mountains; and those spoken in Jbel Saghro and its foothills.[4] Although the characteristic spirantization of /b/ > [β]; /t/ > [θ] or [h]; /d/ > [ð]; /k/ > [ç] or [ʃ]; and /ɡ/ > [ʝ], [ʃ] or [j] is apparent in Berber languages in central and northern Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria,[21] as in many Middle Atlas dialects, it is more rare in High Atlas
High Atlas
Tamazight speakers, and is absent in Tamazight speakers from the foothills of Jbel Saghro.[4][22] Southern dialects (e.g. Ayt Atta) may also be differentiated syntactically: while other dialects predicate with the auxiliary /d/ (e.g. /d argaz/ "it's a man"), Southern dialects use the typically (High Atlas, Souss-Basin rural country, Jbel Atlas Saghro) auxiliary verb /g/ (e.g. /iga argaz/ "it's a man").[4] The differences between each of the three groups are primarily phonological.[15] Groups speaking Tamazight include: Ait Ayache, Ait Morghi, Ait Alaham, Ait Youb, Marmoucha, Ait Youssi, Beni Mguild, Zayane, Zemmour, Ait Rbaa, Ait Seri, Guerouane, Ait Segougou, Ait Yafelman, Ait Sikhmane, Ayt Ndhir (Beni Mtir).[23][24][nb 3] There is some ambiguity as to the eastern boundary of Central Atlas Tamazight. The dialect of the Ait Seghrouchen and Ait Ouarain tribes are commonly classed as Central Atlas Tamazight, and Ait Seghrouchen is reported to be mutually intelligible with the neighbouring Tamazight dialect of Ait Ayache.[25] Genetically, however, they belong to the Zenati subgroup of Northern Berber, rather than to the Atlas subgroup to which the rest of Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
belongs,[26] and are therefore excluded by some sources from Central Atlas Tamazight.[27] The Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists another group of Zenati dialects, South Oran Berber
South Oran Berber
(ksours sud-oranais), as a dialect of Central Atlas Tamazight,[3] but these are even less similar, and are treated by Berber specialists as a separate dialect group.[28] History[edit] See also: Berber people
Berber people
and History of Morocco The Berbers have lived in North Africa
North Africa
between western Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean since before recorded history began in the region about 33 centuries ago.[29][30][15] By the 5th century BC, the city of Carthage, founded by Phoenicians, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa; in the wake of the Punic Wars, Rome
Rome
replaced it as regional hegemon. The Central Atlas region itself remained independent throughout the classical period, but occasional loanwords into Central Atlas Tamazight, such as ayugu, "plough ox", from Latin iugum, "team of oxen"[31] and aẓalim "onion" < Punic bṣal-im,[32] bear witness to their ancestors' contact with these conquerors. Arabs conquered the area of modern-day Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria
Algeria
around the 7th century,[33] prompting waves of Arab
Arab
migration and Berber adoption of Islam.[34] Particularly following the arrival of the Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
in modern-day Tunisia
Tunisia
in the 11th century, more and more of North Africa became Arabic-speaking over the centuries. However, along with other high mountainous regions of North Africa, the Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
continued to speak Berber.

The Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
(green) at its greatest extent, c. 1120.

Between the 12th and 15th centuries, the Central Atlas, along with the rest of Morocco, successively fell within the domain of the Berber Almoravid, Almohad, and Marinid dynasties. Since the 17th century the region has acknowledged the rule of the Alaouite Dynasty, the current Moroccan royal family. However, effective control of the region was limited; until the 20th century much of the Central Atlas was in a condition of siba, recognising the spiritual legitimacy of royal authority but rejecting its political claims.[35] The expansion of the Ait Atta starting from the 16th century brought Tamazight back into the already Arabised Tafilalt
Tafilalt
region[36] and put other regional tribes on the defensive, leading to the formation of the Ait Yafelman alliance. The 1912 Treaty of Fez made most of Morocco
Morocco
a French-Spanish protectorate (under French and Spanish military occupation), leaving the Alaouite monarchy but establishing a French military presence in the Atlas region and installing a French commissioner-general.[37] However, the Berber tribes of the Middle Atlas, as in other areas, put up stiff military resistance to French rule, lasting until 1933 in the case of the Ait Atta. After Morocco's independence in 1956, a strong emphasis was laid on the country's Arab
Arab
identity,[38] and a national Arabic
Arabic
language educational system was instituted, in which Berber languages, including Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
Tamazight, had no place. However, in 1994 the government responded to Berber demands for recognition by decreeing that Berber should be taught and establishing television broadcasts in three Berber languages, including Central Atlas Tamazight.[39] For the promotion of Tamazight and other Berber languages
Berber languages
and cultures, the government created the Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture
Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture
(IRCAM) in 2001.[40][41] Geographic distribution[edit]

Percent of Tmazight speakers in Morocco
Morocco
by census 2004 Based on data found Here

Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
is among the four most-spoken Berber languages (the other three being Kabyle, Shilha, and Riff),[10][11] and rivals Shilha as the most-spoken Berber language
Berber language
in Morocco.[12][13][14] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
is mostly spoken in the entire Middle Atlas and its outcroppings, reaching east to Taza
Taza
and west to the region near Rabat.[3][4][42] It is also spoken in the central and eastern High Atlas
High Atlas
mountains in Morocco.[4] It is thus spoken across areas with widely varying ecological conditions — from the mountainous and forested regions of the Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
mountains to the oases of the northwestern Sahara (Tafilalt).[4] Berber in Morocco
Morocco
is spread into three areas: Riff in the north, Central Atlas in the center, and Shilha in the south/southwest.[43] Central Atlas is not mutually intelligible with the Riff language but is with the Shilha dialect; Shilha- and Riff-speakers also cannot understand each other,[44] That said, the Riffian language
Riffian language
is of course related to both Shilha and Atlas Tamazight, and even though Riffian and the other two are not mutually intelligible, they share a high degree of the same vocabulary and grammar.[4] Figures for the number of speakers of Berber languages
Berber languages
are generally a matter of estimates rather than linguistic censuses.[11][45] At least a third of Moroccans seem to speak Berber languages,.[nb 4][46][nb 5] Tamazight is estimated to be spoken by about 40~49% of Morocco's Berber-speakers, while Shilha commands 32~40% and Riff 20~25%.[13][nb 5] Status[edit] Tamazight, along with other Berber languages
Berber languages
of Morocco, has a low sociolinguistic status, used mainly in the home, and rarely in official or formal contexts; it is not an official language.[47] However, media broadcasts and music are available in it,[48] and there is a policy of teaching it in schools. Of the Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
speakers, 40–45% are monolingual, while the others use Arabic
Arabic
as a second language.[3] Monolingual speakers consist mostly of older generations and children.[20] Women are more likely to be monolingual than men, since they typically stay in the village while the men go to work in the cities.[38] Since Tamazight is the language of the home, girls grow up speaking Berber languages and pass them on to their children — this gender stratification helps to preserve the language.[49] Bilingual Berber speakers have learned Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
via schooling, migration, media, or through the government.[20] Most rural Berber children are monolingual. They struggle to succeed in schools where the teachers do not speak Berber, and require them to learn both Arabic
Arabic
and French.[20] Rural Morocco, including the Central Atlas area, suffers from poverty. Tamazight along with its relative Shilha are undergoing "contraction" as rural families, motivated by economic necessity,[34] move to cities and stop speaking Tamazight, leading many intellectuals to fear Berber language shift or regression.[20][50] However, Tamazight speakers are reported to immigrate less than many other Berber groups.[51] Moreover, Tamazight has a large enough body of native speakers not to be considered under risk of endangerment,[6] although Tamazight speakers reportedly have a lower birth rate than the country of Morocco
Morocco
as a whole.[51] Official status[edit]

The IRCAM
IRCAM
(Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe) in Rabat

Main article: Standard Moroccan Tamazight As of the Moroccan constitutional referendum, 2011, the Berber languages are official in Morocco
Morocco
alongside Arabic. In 1994, King Hassan II declared that a national Berber dialect would acquire a formal status; television broadcasts are summarized in Tamazight, as well as Shilha and Rif, three times a day; and educational materials for schools are being developed.[52][53][54] On October 17, 2001 King Mohammed VI sealed the decree (Dahir 1–01–299) creating and organizing the Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture
Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture
(IRCAM).[40][41] IRCAM's board is composed of Amazigh experts, artists, and activists, all of whom are appointed by the king.[55] The institute, located in Rabat, has played an important role in the establishment of the Tifinagh
Tifinagh
script in Morocco.[55] There are multiple political parties and cultural associations in Morocco
Morocco
that advocate for the advancement of Berber, calling for it to be recognized as an official language, used more extensively in the mass media, and taught more in schools.[29][56] A legal issue affecting Tamazight speakers is restrictions on naming - Moroccan law stipulates that first names must have a "Moroccan character", and uncommon names, including some Berber ones used in the Central Atlas, are often rejected by the civil registry.[52][57] Orthography[edit] Main article: Berber orthography

Tamaziɣt in Tifinagh

Until the 20th century Tamazight, like many other Berber languages
Berber languages
but in contrast with neighbouring Tashelhiyt, was basically unwritten[58][59] (although sporadic cases, using Arabic
Arabic
script, are attested.[60]) It was preserved through oral use in rural areas, isolated from urban hubs.[59] Scholars from the Middle Atlas, as elsewhere in North Africa, usually wrote in the more prestigious Arabic
Arabic
language, rather than their vernacular.[59] At present three writing systems exist for Berber languages, including Tamazight: Neo-Tifinagh, the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and the Arabic
Arabic
script.[55] To some extent, the choice of writing system is a political one, with various subgroups expressing preference based on ideology and politics.[55] The orthography used for government services including schooling is Neo-Tifinagh, rendered official by a Dahir of King Mohammed VI based on the recommendation of IRCAM.[55] However, various Latin
Latin
transcriptions have been used in a number of linguistic works describing Central Atlas Tamazight, notably the dictionary of Taïfi (1991).[61] Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
has a contrastive set of "flat" consonants, manifested in two ways:

For front segments, pharyngealization: /tˤ dˤ sˤ zˤ lˤ nˤ rˤ/) For back segments, labialization: /xʷ ɣʷ qʷ χʷ ʁʷ/)

Note that pharyngealization may spread to a syllable or even a whole word.[62] Historically Proto-Berber only had two pharyngealized phonemes (/dˤ, zˤ/), but modern Berber languages
Berber languages
have borrowed others from Arabic
Arabic
and developed new ones through sound shifts.[63] In addition Tamazight has uvular and pharyngeal consonants, as well as a conspicuous lack of /p/ in its plosive inventory.[nb 6] All segments may be geminated except for the pharyngeals /ʕ ħ/. In Ayt Ndhir, which is a dialect of Tamazight with spirantization, the spirantizeable consonants appear in their stop forms when geminated, and additionally the geminate correspondents of /ʁ, dˤ, ʃ, ʒ, w, j/ are usually /qː, tˤː, t͡ʃː, d͡ʒː, ɣʷː, ɣː/ respectively. However some native Berber words have /ʁː/ (not /qː/) where other dialects have singleton /ʁ/, and similarly for /ʃː, ʒː/.[64] In addition, in Arabic
Arabic
loans singleton non-spirantized [b, t, tˤ, d, k, ɡ, q] occur (though [b t d] and to an extent [tˤ] often alternate with their spirantized versions in loans), giving this alternation marginal phonemic status.[62] In the table below, when consonants appear in pairs, the one on the left is voiceless.

Tamazight consonants (Ayt Ayache)[65][66]

Labial Alveolar /Dental Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn -geal3 Glottal3

plain phar. plain lab. plain lab.

Nasal m n nˤ

Stop b4 t5 d tˤ dˤ

k1 ɡ1

q qʷ

Fricative f s z sˤ zˤ ʃ ʒ

xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ2 ʁʷ2 ħ ʕ h

Approximant

l lˤ j

w

Flap/Trill[nb 7]

r rˤ

Phonetic notes:

^1 /k ɡ/ are fricatives [x ɣ] in the Ayt Ayache dialect ^2 rare—native speakers can freely substitute /χ ʁ/ ^3 mainly in Arabic
Arabic
borrowings ^4 For a small number of speakers, /b/ is sometimes lenited to [β].[67] ^5 /t/ is aspirated [tʰ].[67]

Example words

Phoneme Example Gloss Phoneme Example Gloss Phoneme Example Gloss

/m/ /ma/ 'what?' /n/ /ini/ 'say!' /b/ /bab/ 'owner'

/t/ /isalt/ 'he asked him' /d/ /da/ 'here' /tˤ/ /tˤalˤb/ 'to demand'

/dˤ/ /dˤmn/ 'to guarantee' /k/ /ks/ 'to tend sheep' /ɡ/ /iɡa/ 'he did'

/xʷ/ /xʷulː/ 'all' /ɣʷ/ /aɣʷːa/ 'a burden' /q/ /iqrˤːa/ 'he confessed'

/qʷ/ /iqʷmːrˤ/ 'he gambled' /f/ /fa/ 'to yawn' /s/ /sus/ 'to shake off'

/z/ /zːr/ 'to pluck' /sˤ/ /sˤbrˤ/ 'to be patient' /zˤ/ /zˤdˤ/ 'to weave'

/ʃ/ /ʃal/ 'to buy grain' /ʒ/ /ʒhd/ 'to be strong' /χ/ /χulf/ 'to be different'

/ʁ/ /ʁal/ 'to think' /χʷ/ /aχʷmːas/ 'sharecropper' /ʁʷ/ /ʁʷzif/ 'tall'

/ħ/ /ħml/ 'to flood' /ʕ/ /ʕbd/ 'to adore, worship' /h/ /ha/ 'here is, are'

/j/ /jːih/ 'yes' /w/ /waχːa/ 'all right' /l/ /la/ 'no'

/lˤ/ /lˤazˤ/ 'hunger' /r/ /rdm/ 'to demolish' /rˤ/ /rˤdˤu/ 'to bless'

Vowels[edit] Tamazight has a typical phonemic three-vowel system, similarly to Classical Arabic:

Tamazight vowel phonemes[68]

Front Central Back

Close i

u

Open

a

These phonemes have numerous allophones, conditioned by the following environments: (# denotes word boundary, X denotes C[−flat −/χ/ −/ʁ/], C̣ denotes C[+flat], G denotes C, /χ/, and /ʁ/)

Tamazight vowel allophony[69]

Phoneme Realization Environment Example Gloss

/i/ [i] #_X /ili/ 'to exist'

[ɨ] #_Xː / Xː_ /idːa/ 'he went'

[ɪ] [e] _G / G_ /dˤːiqs/ 'to burst out'

[ɪj] X_# /isːfrˤħi/ 'he made me happy'

/u/ [u] #_X / X(ː)_X /umsʁ/ 'I painted'

[ʊ] [o] _G / G_ /idˤurˤ/ 'he turned'

[ʊw] X(ː)_# /bdu/ 'to begin'

/a/ [æ] #_X(ː) / X(ː)_X /azn/ 'to send'

[ɐ] X(ː)_# /da/ 'here'

[ɑ] _C̣ / C̣_ /ħadˤr/ 'to be present'

Phonetic Schwa There is a predictable non-phonemic vowel inserted into consonant clusters, realized as [ɪ̈] before front consonants (e.g. /b t d .../) and [ə] before back consonants (e.g. /k χ .../).[70] It is voiced before voiced consonants and voiceless before voiceless consonants, or alternatively it can be realized as a voiced or unvoiced consonant release.[70][71] It also may be realized as the syllabicity of a nasal, lateral, or /r/.[71] The occurrence of schwa epenthesis is governed morphophonemically.[71] These are some of the rules governing the occurrence of [ə]: (# denotes word boundary, L denotes /l r m n/, H denotes /h ħ ʕ w j/)

Tamazight schwa epenthesis[72]

Environment Realization Example Pronunciation Gloss

#C(ː)# əC(ː) /ɡ/ [əɡ] 'to be, to do'

#LC# əLC or LəC /ns/ [əns] ~ [nəs] 'to spend the night'

#CC# CəC /tˤsˤ/ [tˤəsˤ] 'to laugh'

#CːC# əCːəC /fːr/ [əfːər] 'to hide'

#CCC# CCəC / C1C2 are not L H /χdm/ [χdəm] 'to work'

/zʕf/ [zʕəf] 'to get mad'

#CCC# əCCəC or #CəCəC# / C1 C3 is L H /hdm/ [əhdəm] ~ [hədəm] 'to demolish'

#CCC# CəCəC / C2C3 = L H /dˤmn/ [dˤəmən] 'to guarantee'

Examples:

/tbrˤːmnt/ > [tbərːəmənt] ('you (fp) turned') /datːħadˤar/ > [datːəħadˤar] ('she is present') /ʕadˤːrˤ/ > [ʕadˤːərˤ] ('to meet')

However note that word-initial initial /j, w/ are realized as /i, u/ before consonants. In word-medial or -final position [əj], [əʝ], and [əw] are realized as [ij], [ij], and [uw] respectively, and may become [i] and [u] in rapid speech.[71] Tamazight in fact has numerous words without phonemic vowels, and those consisting entirely of voiceless consonants will not phonetically contain voiced vowels.[nb 8] [ə] is written as ⟨ⴻ⟩ in neo- Tifinagh
Tifinagh
and as ⟨e⟩ in the Berber Latin
Latin
alphabet. French publications tended to include [ə] in their transcriptions of Berber forms despite their predictability, perhaps due to the French vowel system. This can cause problems because alternations such as /iʁ(ə)rs/ 'he slaughtered' – /uriʁris/ 'he did not slaughter' would then have to conditioned morphologically.[73] Stress[edit] Word stress is non-contrastive and predictable — it falls on the last vowel in a word (including schwa).[74][75] Examples:

/sal/ > [ˈsal] ('to ask') /dajtːħadˤarˤ/ > [dajtːəħaˈdˤarˤ] ('he is present') /fsːr/ > [fəsːˈər] ('to explain') /tfsːrnt/ > [təfəsːəˈrənt] ('you (fp) explained')

Grammar[edit] Main article: Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
grammar Central Atlas Tamazight grammar has many features typical of Afro-Asiatic languages, including extensive apophony in both the derivational and inflectional morphology, gender, possessive suffixes, VSO typology, the causative morpheme /s/, and use of the status constructus. Morphology[edit] Tamazight nouns are inflected for gender, number, and state. Singular masculine nouns usually have the prefix /a-/, and singular feminines the circumfix /t...t.[76] Plurals may either involve a regular change ("sound plurals"), internal vowel change ("broken plurals"), or a combination of the two.[77] Masculine plurals usually take the prefix /i-/, feminines /ti-/, and sound plurals also take the suffix /-n/ in masculine and /-in/ in feminine, although many other plural patterns are found too.[78] Examples:[79]

/axam/ → /ixamn/ 'big tent(s)' (m) /amaziɣ/ → /imaziɣn/ 'Berber(s)' (m) /adaʃu/ → /iduʃa/ 'sandal(s)' (m) /asrdun/ → /isrdan/ 'mule(s)' (m) /taxamt/ → /tixamin/ 'tent(s)' (f) /tafunast/ → /tifunasin/ 'cow(s)' (f) /taɡrtilt/ → /tiɡrtal/ 'mat(s)' (f) /tamazirt/ → /timizar/ 'property(ies)' (f)

Nouns may be put into the construct state (contrasting with free state) to indicate possession, or when the subject of a verb follows the verb. This is also used for nouns following numerals and some prepositions, as well as the conjunction /d-/ ('and').[80] The construct state is formed as follows: in masculines, initial /a/ becomes /u, wː, wa/, initial /i/ becomes /i, j, ji/, and initial /u/ becomes /wu/. In feminines, initial /ta/ usually becomes /t/, initial /ti/ usually becomes /t/, and initial /tu/ remains unchanged.[81] Examples (in Ayt Ayache):[81]

/babuxam/ ( ← /axam/) 'head of the house' /ijːs ntslit/ ( ← /tislit/) 'the horse of the bride'

Central Atlas Tamazight's personal pronouns distinguish three persons, and two genders. Pronouns appear in three forms: an independent form used in the subject position, a possessive suffix (and a derived independent possessive pronoun), and an object form affixed[nb 9] to the controlling verb. Demonstrative pronouns distinguish between proximate and remote. When they occur independently, they inflect for number. They may also be suffixed to nouns, e.g. /tabardaja/ 'this pack-saddle'.[82]

Tamazight subject affixes[83][84]

Person (Ayt Ayache) (Ayt Ndhir)

s 1 /...-ɣ/ /...-x/

2 /t-...-d/ /θ-...-ð/

3 m /i-.../ /j-.../

f /t-.../ /θ-.../

pl 1 /n-.../

2 m /t-...-m/ /θ-...-m/

f /t-...-nt/ /θ-...-nθ/

3 m /...-n/

f /...-nt/ /...-nθ/

Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
verbs are heavily inflected, being marked for tense, aspect, mode, voice, person, and polarity. Tamazight verbs have at their core a stem, modified by prefixes, suffixes, moveable affixes, circumfixes, and ablaut. The prefixes indicate voice, tense, aspect, and polarity, while the suffixes indicate mood (normal, horatory, or imperative). Subject markers are circumfixed to the verb, while object marking and satellite framing are accomplished via either prefixing or suffixing depending on environment[85] Some verb forms are accompanied by ablaut, and sometimes metathesis.[86] Pronominal complement markers cliticize to the verb, with the indirect object preceding the direct object, e.g. /iznz-as-t/ "he sold it to him".[87] Attributive Adjectives after the noun they modify, and inflect for number and gender.[88][89] Adjectives may also occur alone, in which case they become an NP.[89] Practically all adjectives also have a verbal form used for predicative purposes, which behaves just like a normal verb.[89]

/argaz amʕdur/ 'the foolish man' (lit. 'man foolish') /tamtˤut tamʕdur/ 'the foolish woman' /irgzen imʕdar/ 'the foolish men' /tajtʃin timʕdar/ 'the foolish women' /i-mmuʕdr urgaz/ 'the man is foolish' (lit. '3ps–foolish man') /argaz i-mmuʕdr-n/ 'the foolish man' [using a non-finite verb]

Prepositions include /xf/ ('on'), /qbl/ ('before'), /ɣr/ ('to'), and the proclitics /n/ ('of') and /d/ ('with, and').[nb 10] These may take pronominal suffixes. Some prepositions require the following noun to be in the construct state, while others do not.[90] Syntax[edit] Word order is usually VSO (with the subject in construct state) but sometimes is SVO (with the subject in free state), e.g. (/ifːɣ umaziɣ/ vs. /amaziɣ ifːɣ/ 'the Berber went out').[7] Tamazight also exhibits pro-drop behavior. [91] Tamazight may use a null copula,[92] but the word /ɡ/ 'to be, to do' can function as a copula in Ayt Ayache, especially in structures preceded by /aj/ 'who, which, what'.[93] wh- questions are always clefts, and multiple wh-questions[nb 11] do not occur.[94] Consequently, Tamazight's clefting, relativisation, and wh-interrogation contribute to anti-agreement effects,[nb 12] similar to Shilha,[94] and causes deletion of the verbal person marker in certain situations.[95] Vocabulary[edit] As a result of relatively intense language contact, Central Atlas Tamazight has a large stratum of Arabic
Arabic
loans. Many borrowed words in Berber also have native synonyms, e.g. /lbab/ or /tiflut/ 'door', the latter used more in rural areas.[96] The contact was unequal, as Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
has not borrowed as much from Berber languages,[97] though Berber has contributed to Moroccan and Algerian Arabics' very reduced vowel systems.[98] Arabic
Arabic
loans span a wide range of lexical classes. Many nouns begin with /l-/, from the Arabic
Arabic
definite prefix, and some Arabic
Arabic
feminines may acquire the native Berber feminine ending /-t/, e.g. /lʕafit/ for /lʕafia/ 'fire'.[99] Many Arabic
Arabic
loans have been integrated into the Tamazight verb lexicon. They adhere fully to inflectional patterns of native stems, and may even undergo ablaut.[8][9] Even function words are borrowed, e.g. /blli/ or /billa/ 'that', /waxxa/ 'although', /ɣir/ 'just', etc.[96] The first few (1–3 in Ayt Ayache and Ayt Ndhir) cardinal numerals have native Berber and borrowed Arabic
Arabic
forms.[nb 13][100] All higher cardinals are borrowed from Arabic, consistent with the linguistic universals that the numbers 1–3 are much more likely to be retained, and that a borrowed number generally implies that numbers greater than it are also borrowed. The retention of one is also motivated by the fact that Berber languages
Berber languages
near-universally use unity as a determiner.[101] Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
uses a bipartate negative construction (e.g. /uriffiɣ ʃa/ 'he did not go out') which apparently was modeled after proximate Arabic
Arabic
varieties, in a common development known as Jespersen's Cycle.[102] It is present in multiple Berber varieties, and is argued to have originated in neighboring Arabic
Arabic
and been adopted by contact.[103] Examples[edit]

English Tamazight (Ayt Ayache)

Hello /sːalamuʕlikːum/ (to a man by a man)

/ʕlikːumsːalam/ (response)

/lˤːahiʕawn/ (to or by a woman)

/lˤːajslːm/ (response)

Good morning /sˤbaħ lxirˤ/

Good evening /mslxirˤ/

Good night /ns jlman/ (to m.s. or f.s.)

/mun dlman/ (response)

/nsat jlman/ (to m.p.)

/tmunm dlman/ (response)

/nsint jlman/ (to f.p.)

/tmunt dlman/ (response)

Goodbye

/lˤːajhnːikː/ (to m.s.) /lˤːajhnːikːm/ (to f.s.) /lˤːajhnːikːn/ (to m.p.) /lˤːajhnːikːnt/ (to f.p.)

/tamanilːah/ (response)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: ⵉⵎⴷⴰⵏⴻⵏ, ⴰⴽⴽⵏ ⵎⴰ ⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⵜⵜⵍⴰⵍⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵍⴻⵍⵍⵉⵢⵏ ⵎⵙⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴷⵉ ⵍⵃⵡⵕⵎⴰ ⴷ ⵢⵉⵣⵔⴼⴰⵏ ⵖⵓⵔ ⵙⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⵙⴰⴽⵡⵉⵜ ⴷ ⵍⵄⵇⵍ ⵓ ⵢⵙⵙⴼⴽ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵉⵍⵉ ⵜⴳⵎⴰⵜ ⴳⴰⵔ ⴰⵙⵏ[104] Imdanen, akken ma llan ttlalen d ilelliyen msawan di lḥweṛma d yizerfan ɣur sen tamsakwit d leɛqel u yessefk ad tili tegmat gar asen.[105] See also[edit]

Languages of Morocco Shilha language

Notes[edit] (from "[nb 1]")

^ Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
may be referred to as either a Berber language or a Berber dialect. As Berber languages
Berber languages
have a some degree of mutual intelligibility, there is little consensus on what is considered a "language" and what a "dialect". Additionally, Berber activists like to consider all Berber dialects to be a language to emphasize unity, though this is not entirely linguistically sound (e.g. geographically non-proximate "dialects" may be mutually unintelligible), see Brenzinger (2007:124) ^ Using ⟨gh⟩ for [ɣ] when embedding Berber words in English text follows the tradition set by French-language publications, even those written by Berbers Goodman (2005:xii). The name "Tamazirt" results from French transcription of Tamazight /ɣ/ with the letter ⟨r⟩, which in French represents the similar-sounding phoneme /ʁ/. Cf. Souag (2004) ^ (/ajt~/ literally means "children of ~", see Abdel-Massih (1971b:118) ^ André Basset estimated in 1952 that a "small majority" of Morocco's population spoke Berber, see Basset, André (1952), "La langue berbère", Handbook of African Languages, Part I, London: Oxford University Press  ^ a b According to the Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(by deduction from its Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
figures), the Berber-speaking population should be estimated at 35% or around 10.5 million speakers. However, the figures provided for individual languages only add up to 7.5 million, divided into the three dialects as follows: Riff at 1.5 million speakers in 1991; Shilha at 3 million speakers in 1998; and Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
at 3 million in 1998, which would give Central Atlas 40%, Shilha 40%, and Riff 20% of the total. See

"Languages of Morocco". SIL International. n.d. Archived from the original on November 19, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  "Tarifit". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  "Tachelhit". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  "Tamazight, Central Atlas". SIL International. December 20, 2009. 

^ [p] is missing from about 10% of languages that have a [b]. (See voiced velar plosive for another such gap.) This is an areal feature of the "circum-Saharan zone" (Africa north of the equator plus the Arabian peninsula). It is not known how old this areal feature is, and whether it might be a recent phenomenon due to Arabic
Arabic
as a prestige language ( Arabic
Arabic
lost its /p/ in prehistoric times), or whether Arabic was itself affected by a more ancient areal pattern. It is found in other areas as well; for example, in Europe, Proto-Celtic is reconstructed as having [b] but no [p]. Nonetheless, the [p] sound is very common cross-linguistically. ^ Abdel-Massih refers to this as a "flap" produced with "vibration" of the tongue. ^ Audio recordings of selected words without vowels in Shilha can be downloaded from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-20. Retrieved 2009-06-19. . ^ prefixed or suffixed depending on multiple factors ^ /n/ and /d/ assimilate to some initial consonants: e.g. /ʃa lːħlib/ 'some milk'), /aɣjul tːfunast/ 'the donkey and the cow'. ^ such as the English "who saw what?", see Stoyanova (2004:174–175) ^ when the verb does not agree with, or agrees in a relative manner with wh-words, see Richards (2004:18). ^ In Ayt Ayache the Arabic
Arabic
numerals are only used for counting in order and for production of higher numbers when combined with the tens, see Abdel-Massih (1971b:22)

References[edit]

^ Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Atlas Tamazight". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b c d "Tamazight, Central Atlas". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved December 17, 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chaker ^ " Tifinagh
Tifinagh
alphabet and Berber languages". Omniglot. S. Ager. n.d. Retrieved December 17, 2009.  ^ a b Brenzinger (2007:128) ^ a b Abdel-Massih (1971b:295) ^ a b Sadiqi (1986:25–26) ^ a b Abdel-Massih (1971b:153) ^ a b Kjeilen, Tore (n.d.). "Berber". LookLex Encyclopedia. LookLex Ltd. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b c El Aissati (1993:5–6) ^ a b " Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report for Morocco". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b c Ross (2004:20) ^ a b Moustaoui, 1.3 The distribution of speakers in the territory ^ a b c Sadiqi (1986:2) ^ a b Kossmann & Stroomer (1997:461) ^ Brenzinger (2007:124) ^ Messaoudi, D. (2009). "The Etymology of the Word "Amazigh"". Scribd. Retrieved March 21, 2010.  ^ Penchoen (1973:1) ^ a b c d e Ennaji (2005:71) ^ Achab, Karim (2001). "The Tamazight Language
Language
Profile". University of Ottawa. III.9 Dialectic variation. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ Penchoen (1973:5) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971a:ix) ^ Penchoen (1973:4) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:xiii) ^ Edmond Destaing, "Essai de classification des dialectes berbères du Maroc", Études et Documents Berbère, 19-20, 2001-2002 (1915) ^ Augustin Bernard and Paul Moussard, Arabophones et berbérophones au Maroc, Annales de Géographie
Annales de Géographie
1924, Volume 33 Numéro 183, pp. 267-282. ^ Maarten Kossmann, "Grammatical notes on the Berber dialect of Igli (Sud oranais, Algeria)", in ed. D. Ibriszimow, M. Kossmann, H. Stroomer, R. Vossen, Études berbères V – Essais sur des variations dialectales et autres articles. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe, 2010. ^ a b Balkassm, Hasan (2008). Legal and constitutional status of Amazigh language in Morocco
Morocco
& North Africa. International Expert Group Meeting on Indigenous Languages (UNPFII). Retrieved December 20, 2009.  ^ "The Berbers – History". Arabic
Arabic
German Consulting. n.d. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ Vermondo Brugnatelli, "I prestiti latini in berbero: un bilancio", 9° Incontro di Linguistica Afroasiatica (Camito-Semitica), Trieste, 23-24 aprile 1998, http://www.brugnatelli.net/vermondo/articoli/Trieste.html ^ Abdel-Massih 1971; Werner Vycichl, Berberstudien & A Sketch of Siwi Berber (Egypt). Ed. Dymitr Ibriszimow & Maarten Kossmann. Berber Studies, vol. 10. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. ISBN 3-89645-389-0 ^ "The Berbers". B. Whitaker. 2009. Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b "Berbers". World Directory of Minorities. The Gale Group. n.d. Retrieved December 17, 2009.  ^ David Hart, Qabila: tribal profiles and tribe-state relations in Morocco
Morocco
and on the Afghanistan-Pakistan frontier, 2001, p. 33 ^ Mezzine, Larbi (1987). Le Tafilalt, Contribution à l'histoire du Maroc aux XVIIè et XVIIIè siècles. Publications de la FLSH, Mohammed V University (in French). Rabat.  ^ Sussman, Sarah (n.d.). "Jewish Population of French North Africa". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b Becker (2006) ^ Joël Donnet, APRÈS DEUX MILLE ANS DE MÉPRIS: Renaissance berbère au Maroc, Le Monde diplomatique Jan. 1995 ^ a b El Jechtimi, Ahmed (2009). "Amazigh from oblivion to the classroom". Rabat: Agence Maghreb Arabe Presse. Retrieved December 20, 2009. [dead link] ^ a b Wikisource:Dahir n° 1-01-299 ^ Sadiqi (1986:2) ^ Chaker (2003:2) ^ Brenzinger (2007:125) ^ "Berber Language
Language
Page". Michigan: African Studies Center. n.d. 2 Number of Speakers. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ The 1960 census estimated via interpolation that 37% of Moroccans were Berbers, see "Berbers of Morocco
Morocco
– Orientation". everyculture.org. Retrieved December 19, 2009.  ^ El Aissati (1993:8) ^ El Aissati (1993:8,10) ^ Penchoen (1973:3) ^ Hoffman (2006:148) ^ a b El Aissati (1993:7) ^ a b van Heelsum (2002:9) ^ "Berber Language
Language
Page". Michigan: African Studies Center. n.d. 3 Dialect
Dialect
Survey. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ Benmhend, Driss (1997). "The Amazigh Revival in Morocco". Georgetown: Gourad Media Group LLC. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b c d e Larbi, Hsen (2003). "Which Script for Tamazight, Whose Choice is it ?". Amazigh Voice (Taghect Tamazight). New Jersey: Amazigh Cultural Association in America (ACAA). 12 (2). Retrieved December 17, 2009.  ^ El Aissati (1993:11–12) ^ "Morocco: Lift Restrictions on Amazigh (Berber) Names". New York: Human Rights Watch. September 3, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ Abdel-Massih (1971a:viii) ^ a b c Ben-Layashi (2007:166) ^ Ahmed Touderti, Une prophétie berbère en tamazight (Maroc central), Etudes et Documents Berbères, 15-16, 1998 : pp. 101-113 ^ Miloud Taïfi, Dictionnaire tamazight-français (parlers du Maroc central), Paris, L'Harmattan-Awal, 1991 ^ a b Penchoen (1973:7) ^ Kossman & Stroomer (1997:464) ^ Penchoen (1973:5–7) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:4, 6, 19–20) ^ Abdel-Massih (1968:16) ^ a b Abdel-Massih (1971b:5) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:11) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:13–15, 20) ^ a b Abdel-Massih (1971b:15) ^ a b c d Penchoen (1973:10) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:15–17) ^ Abdel-Massih (1968:3–4) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:17–18) ^ Penchoen (1973:11) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:88–89) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:97) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:88–89, 93–96) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:97–112) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:121–123) ^ a b Abdel-Massih (1971b:119–121) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:69, 81) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:159, 217) ^ Penchoen (1973:25–26) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:154–159, 216–217) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:161–166, 218–219) ^ Louali, Naïma; Philippson, Gerard (2003). Vowel apophony and underlying segments in Siwa Berber (Egypt) (PDF). Workshop on the Phonology
Phonology
of African Languages (WOPAL). University of Vienna. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  ^ "Berber (Middle Atlas)". The World Atlas of Language
Language
Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology & Max Planck Digital Library. n.d. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ a b c Sadiqi (1986:23) ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:123–125) ^ Stoyanova (2004:172) ^ Chaker, Salem (n.d.). "La Syntaxe de la Langue Berbere" (in French). Paris: INALCO. Archived from the original on November 30, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ Abdel-Massih (1971a:298) ^ a b Stoyanova (2008:105) ^ Richards (2004:19) ^ a b Sadiqi (1986:25) ^ Sadiqi (1986:24–25) ^ "Interview met Karl-G. Prasse". Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  ^ Sadiqi (1986:25) ^ Penchoen (1973:24) ^ Souag (2007:240) ^ Lucas (2007a:2) ^ Lucas (2007b:1) ^ " Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
– Tamazight, Central Atlas (Tifinagh)". The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  ^ " Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
– Tamazight, Central Atlas". The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved December 18, 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1968). "Tamazight Verb
Verb
Structure". Bloomington: Indiana University. ISBN 0-87750-160-2.  Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971a). "A Course in Spoken Tamazight". Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 0-932098-04-5.  Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971b). "A Reference Grammar of Tamazight". Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 0-932098-05-3.  Becker, Cynthia (2006). "Amazigh textiles and dress in Morocco: metaphors of motherhood". African Arts. Los Angeles: James S. Coleman African Studies Center. 39 (3): 42–55. doi:10.1162/afar.2006.39.3.42. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  Ben-Layashi, Samir (2007). "Secularism in the Moroccan Amazigh Discourse" (PDF). The Journal of North African Studies. Routledge. 12 (2): 153. doi:10.1080/13629380701201741. ISSN 1362-9387. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2010. Retrieved December 19, 2009.  Bouhjar, Aicha (2008). Amazigh Language
Language
Terminology in Morocco
Morocco
or Management of a 'Multidimensional' Variation (PDF). International Conference on Language
Language
Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Rabat: IRCAM. Retrieved December 19, 2009.  Brenzinger, Matthias (2007). " Language
Language
Diversity Endangered". Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017049-3.  Chaker, Salem. "Le TAMAZIGHT (Maroc central) – Tamaziɣt" (in French). Paris: INALCO. Archived from the original on December 28, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2009.  Chaker, Salem (1996). Tira n Tmaziɣt – propositions pour la notation usuelle a base latine du berbere (PDF). Problèmes en suspens de la notation usuelle à base latine du berbère (in French). Paris: INALCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 29, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  Chaker, Salem (2003). Berber, a "long-forgotten" language of France (PDF). Language
Language
and (Im)migration in France, Latin
Latin
America, and the United States: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved December 20, 2009.  El Aissati, Abderrahman (1993). "Berber in Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria: Revival or Decay?" (PDF). AILA Review (Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquée). 10: 88–109. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  El Aissati, Abderrahman (2001). "Ethnic identity, language shift and The Amazigh voice in Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria" (PDF). Race, Gender & Class. an Interdisciplinary and Multicultural Journal. 8 (3). Retrieved December 20, 2009. [permanent dead link] Ennaji, Moha (2005). Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco. University of Fés, Morocco. ISBN 0-387-23979-0.  Goodman, Jane E. (2005). "Berber culture on the world stage: from village to video". Bloomington: Indiana University. ISBN 0-253-21784-9.  Hoffman, Katherine E. (2006). " Berber language
Berber language
ideologies, maintenance, and contraction: Gendered variation in the indigenous margins of Morocco" (PDF). Language
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& Communication. 26: 144–167. doi:10.1016/j.langcom.2006.02.003. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  Kossmann, Maarten G; Stroomer, Harry J. (1997). "Berber Phonology". In Kaye, Alan S. Phonologies of Asia and Africa (PDF). Eisenbrauns. pp. 461–475. ISBN 1-57506-019-1. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  Lucas, Christopher (2007a). Contact-induced grammatical change: towards an explicit account (PDF). UK Language
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Variation and Change Conference. Lancaster University. Retrieved December 19, 2007. [permanent dead link] Lucas, Christopher (2007b). " Jespersen's Cycle
Jespersen's Cycle
in Arabic
Arabic
and Berber" (PDF). Transactions of the Philological Society. 105 (3). Retrieved December 19, 2009. [permanent dead link] Moustaoui, Adil. "Dossier no. 14 – The Amazigh language within Morocco's language policy". Barcelona: Ciemen. Archived from the original on August 27, 2003. Retrieved December 18, 2009.  Penchoen, Thomas G. (1973). "Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir". Los Angeles: Undena Publications. ISBN 0-89003-000-6.  Prasse, Karl G. (2000). "Études berbères et chamito-sémitiques: mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse" (in French). ISBN 90-429-0826-2.  Richards, Norvin (2004). "The Syntax of the Conjunct and Independent Orders in Wampanoag". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  access-date= requires url= (help) Ross, Samantha (2004). "The Mother Tongue in Morocco: The politics of an indigenous education" (PDF). University of East Anglia. Retrieved December 20, 2009. [permanent dead link] Sadiqi, Fatima (1986). Studies in Berber Syntax. Würzbug: Königshausen und Neumann. ISBN 3-88479-295-4.  Souag, Lameen (2004). "Writing Berber Languages: a quick summary". L. Souag. Archived from the original on July 30, 2005. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  Souag, Lameen (2007). The Typology of Number Borrowing in Berber (PDF). CamLing 2007. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 237–244. Retrieved December 19, 2009.  Stoyanova, Marina (2004). "The typology of multiple wh-questions and language variation" (PDF). Proceedings of ConSOLE XII. ConSOLE XII. University of Leiden. pp. 171–184. Retrieved December 19, 2009.  Stoyanova, Marina (2008). "Unique focus: languages without multiple wh-questions". Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-5506-7.  van Heelsum, Anja (2002). Explaining trends, developments and activities of Moroccan organisations in the Netherlands (PDF). Sociaal Wetenschappelijke Studiedagen. Amsterdam. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

(in French) INALCO
INALCO
report on Central Atlas Tamazight: maps, extension, dialectology, name UCLA Archive for Tamazight Berber (Middle Atlas) Tamazight Dictionary (southern variety)

v t e

Berber languages

Languages

Historical

Proto-Berber†,R

Guanche

Guanche†

Eastern

Awjila Fezzan

Foqaha Sokna Tmessa

Ghadamès Jaghbub† Kufra Nafusi

Jadu Nalut Wazzin Yefren

Siwa

Northern

Zenati

Eastern Middle AtlasTA

Seghrouchen Warayn

Northern Saharan

Gurara Mozabite South Oranie and Figuig Tidikelt Tuwat Wad Righ Wargla

Riffian

Central Riffian Eastern Moroccan Iznasen Snouss Western Riffian

Shawiya Tunisian-ZuwaraTE

Jerba Matmata Sened† Tataouine Zuwara

Western Algerian

Gouraya Shelif Shenwa

Non-Zenati

Atlas languages

Central Atlas Gharb† Ghomara Judeo-Berber Sanhaja de Srayr Shilha

Kabyle

Central-Eastern Central-Western Eastern Western

Standardized

Moroccan Berber

Tuareg

Tamahaq Tamashek Tawellemmet Tayart

Southwestern

Tetserret Zenaga

Orthography

Tifinagh Berber Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Judeo-Berber alphabet Berber Latin
Latin
alphabet

Institutions

Governmental

AAAL (Algeria) HCA (Algeria) IRCAM
IRCAM
(Morocco) DNAFLA (Mali) CRB (France)

NGOs

Berber Academy World Amazigh Congress

TE Transitional to Eastern · TA Transitional to Atlas · † Extinct · R Reconstructed

v t e

Languages of Morocco

Official languages

Arabic1 Berber

Native vernaculars

Arabic

Pre-Hilalian

Northern Judeo-Moroccan Old Urban

Hilal-Mâqil

Western Eastern Hassaniya

Koiné

Darija

Berber

Atlas

Central Atlas Tashelhit Judeo-Berber Sanhaja de Srair Ghomara Gharbi†

Zenati

Tarifit Tabeldit Eastern Middle Atlas Eastern Morocco

Romance

Western

Sabir† Haketia Spanish†,4

Undescribed

African Latin†

Main liturgical languages

Arabic1 2 Hebrew3

Main foreign languages

French Spanish4 English

1 Modern Standard Arabic 2 Classical Arabic 3 Medieval Hebrew 4 Formerly native to Moriscos, extinct as native in Morocco † Extinct

Authority control

LCCN: sh85132168 GND: 4184393-9 BNF:

.