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The Celtic nations
Celtic nations
are territories in western Europe
Europe
where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.[1] The term "nation" is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity and culture and are identified with a traditional territory. The six territories widely considered Celtic nations
Celtic nations
are Brittany (Breizh), Cornwall
Cornwall
(Kernow), Wales
Wales
(Cymru), Scotland
Scotland
(Alba), Ireland (Éire) and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Mannin or Ellan Vannin),[1][2] commonly referred to as the "Celtic fringe". In each of the six nations a Celtic language is spoken.[3] Before the expansions of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and the Germanic and Slavic tribes, a significant part of Europe
Europe
was dominated by Celts, leaving behind a legacy of Celtic cultural traits.[4] Territories in north-western Iberia—particularly Galicia, northern Portugal
Portugal
and Asturias, historically referred to as Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and Astures, covering north-central Portugal
Portugal
and northern Spain—are considered Celtic nations due to their culture and history.[5] Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been spoken there in modern times.[5][6][7] A genetics study from an Oxford
Oxford
University research team in 2006 claimed that the majority of Britons, including many of the English, are descended from a group of tribes which arrived from Iberia
Iberia
around 5000 BC, prior to the spread of Celts
Celts
into western Europe.[4] However, three major genetic studies in 2015 have instead shown that haplogroup R1b in western Europe, most common in traditionally Celtic-speaking areas of Atlantic Europe
Europe
like Ireland
Ireland
and Brittany, would have largely expanded in massive migrations from the Indo-European homeland, the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, during the Bronze Age along with carriers of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
like proto-Celtic. Unlike previous studies, large sections of autosomal DNA were analyzed in addition to paternal Y-DNA
Y-DNA
markers. They detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic
Neolithic
or Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Europeans, and which would have been introduced into Europe
Europe
with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as the Indo-European languages. This genetic component, labelled as "Yamna" in the studies, then mixed to varying degrees with earlier Mesolithic
Mesolithic
hunter-gatherer and/or Neolithic
Neolithic
farmer populations already existing in western Europe.[8][9][10]

Contents

1 Six Celtic nations

1.1 Other territories

2 Celtic languages 3 Celtic identity 4 Terminology 5 Territories of the ancient Celts

5.1 Iberian Peninsula 5.2 England 5.3 Formerly Gaulish regions 5.4 Italian Peninsula 5.5 Central and Eastern European regions

6 Celtic diaspora 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Six Celtic nations[edit] Each of the six nations has its own Celtic language. In Wales, Ireland, Brittany, and Scotland
Scotland
these have been spoken continuously through time, while Cornwall
Cornwall
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
have languages that were spoken into modern times but later died as spoken community languages.[11][12] In the latter two regions, however, language revitalization movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and produced a number of native speakers.[13] Ireland, Wales, Brittany
Brittany
and Scotland
Scotland
contain areas where a Celtic language is used on a daily basis; in Ireland
Ireland
the area is called the Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
on the west coast; Y Fro Gymraeg
Y Fro Gymraeg
in Wales, and in Brittany Breizh-Izel.[14] Generally these communities are in the west of their countries and in more isolated upland or island areas. The term Gàidhealtachd
Gàidhealtachd
historically distinguished the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland
Scotland
(the Highlands) from the Lowland Scots (i.e. Anglo-Saxon-speaking) areas. More recently, this term has also been adopted as the Gaelic name of the Highland council area, which includes non-Gaelic speaking areas. Hence, more specific terms such as sgìre Ghàidhlig ("Gaelic-speaking area") are now used. In Wales, the Welsh language
Welsh language
is a core curriculum (compulsory) subject, which all pupils study.[15] Additionally, 20% of school children in Wales
Wales
go to Welsh medium schools, where they are taught entirely in the Welsh language.[16] In the Republic of Ireland, all school children study Irish as one of the three core subjects up until the end of secondary school, and 7.4% of primary school education is through Irish medium education, which is part of the Gaelscoil movement.[16] Other territories[edit] Parts of the northern Iberian Peninsula, namely Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias
Asturias
and Northern Portugal, also lay claim to this heritage.[5] Musicians from Galicia and Asturias
Asturias
have participated in Celtic music festivals, such as the Ortigueira's Festival of Celtic World
Ortigueira's Festival of Celtic World
in the village of Ortigueira
Ortigueira
or the Breton Festival Interceltique de Lorient, which in 2013 celebrated the Year of Asturias.[17] Northern Portugal, part of ancient Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(Galicia, Minho, Douro and Trás-os-Montes), also has traditions quite similar to Galicia.[5] However, no Celtic language has been spoken in northern Iberia
Iberia
since probably the Early Middle Ages.[18][19] Irish was once widely spoken on the island of Newfoundland before largely disappearing there by the early 20th century. Vestiges remain in some words found in Newfoundland English, such as scrob for "scratch", and sleveen for "rascal"[20] There are no fluent speakers of Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
in Newfoundland or Labrador today. Knowledge seems to be largely restricted to memorized passages, such as traditional tales and songs.[20] Canadian Gaelic
Canadian Gaelic
dialects of Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
are still spoken by Gaels in other parts of Atlantic Canada, primarily on Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
and adjacent areas of Nova Scotia. In 2011, there were 1,275 Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia,[21] and 300 residents of the province considered a Gaelic language to be their "mother tongue".[22] Patagonian Welsh
Patagonian Welsh
is spoken principally in Y Wladfa
Y Wladfa
in the Chubut Province of Patagonia
Patagonia
with sporadic speakers throughout Argentina
Argentina
by Welsh Argentines. Estimates of the number of Welsh speakers range from 1,500[23] to 5,000.[24] Celtic languages[edit] The chart below shows the population of each Celtic nation and the number of people in each nation who can speak Celtic languages. The total number of people residing in the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
is 19,596,000 people and, of these, the total number of people who can speak the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
is approximately 2,818,000 or 14.3%.

The Celtic nations
Celtic nations
and languages

Nation Celtic name Celtic language People Population Competent speakers Percentage of population

Ireland1 Éire Irish (Gaeilge) Irish (Éireannaigh, Gaeil) 6,399,115 (ROI 4,588,252, NI 1,810,863)[25] 1,944,353 total: — Ireland: 1,904,958 (ROI 1,774,437, NI 130,521)[26][27] — United States: 30,000 — Canada: 7,500 — Australia: 1,895 29.7% (ROI 38.6%, NI 7.2%)

 Scotland Alba Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Scottish (Albannaich) 5,313,600 92,400[28] 1.2%[29]

 Brittany Breizh Breton (brezhoneg) Bretons (Breizhiz) 4,300,000 206,000[30] 5%[30]

 Wales Cymru Welsh (Cymraeg) Welsh (Cymry) 3,000,000 750,000+ total: — Wales: 611,000[31] — England: 150,000 [32] — Argentina: 5,000[33] — United States: 2,500 [34] — Canada: 2,200 [35] 21.7%[36]

 Cornwall Kernow Cornish (Kernowek) Cornish (Kernowyon) 500,000 2,000[37] 0.1%[38][39]

 Isle of Man Mannin Ellan Vannin Manx (Gaelg) Manx (Manninee) 84,497[40] 1,662[40] 2.0%[40]

1 The flag of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
is used by the Celtic League
Celtic League
to represent Ireland, although there is no universally accepted flag for the whole of the island.

Of the languages above, three belong to the Goidelic or Gaelic branch (Irish, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx) and three to the Brythonic or Brittonic branch (Welsh, Cornish and Breton). Their names for each other in each language shows some of the similarities and differences:[citation needed]

Names of the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
(and related terms) in the living Celtic languages

(English) Irish (Gaeilge) Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Manx (Gaelg) Welsh (Cymraeg) Cornish[41] (Kernowek) Breton (Brezhoneg)

Ireland Éire Èirinn Nerin Iwerddon Wordhen Iwerdhon Iwerzhon

Scotland Albain Alba Nalbin yr Alban Alban Bro-Skos Skos Alban

Mann Isle of Man Manainn Oileán Mhanann Manainn Eilean Mhanainn Mannin Ellan Vannin Manaw Ynys Manaw Manow Enys Vanow Manav Enez-Vanav

Wales an Bhreatain Bheag a' Chuimrigh Bretin Cymru Kembra Kembre

Cornwall Corn na Breataine a' Chòrn yn Chorn Cernyw Kernow Kernev-Veur

Brittany an Bhriotáin a' Bhreatainn Bheag yn Vritaan Llydaw Breten Vian Breizh

Great Britain an Bhreatain Mhór Breatainn Mhòr Bretin Vooar Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Breizh-Veur

Celtic nations náisiúin Cheilteacha nàiseanan Ceilteach ashoonyn Celtiagh gwledydd Celtaidd broyow keltek broioù keltiek

Celtic languages teangacha Ceilteacha cànanan Cheilteach çhengaghyn Celtiagh ieithoedd Celtaidd yethow keltek yezhoù keltiek

Celtic identity[edit] Main article: Celts
Celts
(modern)

Pipers at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient

Formal cooperation between the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
is active in many contexts, including politics, languages, culture, music and sports: The Celtic League
Celtic League
is an inter-Celtic political organisation, which campaigns for the political, language, cultural and social rights, affecting one or more of the Celtic nations.[42] Established in 1917, the Celtic Congress
Celtic Congress
is a non-political organisation that seeks to promote Celtic culture and languages and to maintain intellectual contact and close cooperation between Celtic peoples.[43] Festivals celebrating the culture of the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
include the Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
(Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), CeltFest Cuba (Havana, Cuba), the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), the Celtic Media Festival
Celtic Media Festival
(showcasing film and television from the Celtic nations), and the Eisteddfod (Wales).[7][44][45][46] Inter- Celtic music
Celtic music
festivals include Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway).[47][48] Due to immigration, a dialect of Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
(Canadian Gaelic) is spoken by some on Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
in Nova Scotia, while a Welsh-speaking minority exists in the Chubut Province
Chubut Province
of Argentina. Hence, for certain purposes—such as the Festival Interceltique de Lorient—Gallaecia, Asturias, and Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
are considered three of the nine Celtic nations.[7] Competitions are held between the Celtic nations
Celtic nations
in sports such as rugby union (Pro14—formerly known as the Celtic League), athletics (Celtic Cup) and association football (the Nations Cup—also known as the Celtic Cup).[49][50] The Republic of Ireland
Ireland
enjoyed a period of rapid economic growth between 1995–2007, leading to the use of the phrase Celtic Tiger
Celtic Tiger
to describe the country.[51][52] Aspirations for Scotland
Scotland
to achieve a similar economic performance to that of Ireland's led the Scotland First Minister Alex Salmond
Alex Salmond
to set out his vision of a Celtic Lion economy for Scotland, in 2007.[53] Terminology[edit] Main article: Names of the Celts The term "Celtic nations" derives from the linguistics studies of the 16th century scholar George Buchanan
George Buchanan
and the polymath Edward Lhuyd.[54] As Assistant Keeper and then Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
Oxford
(1691–1709), Lhuyd travelled extensively in Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and Brittany
Brittany
in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Noting the similarity between the languages of Brittany, Cornwall
Cornwall
and Wales, which he called "P-Celtic" or Brythonic, the languages of Ireland, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and Scotland, which he called "Q-Celtic" or Goidelic, and between the two groups, Lhuyd published Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages, Histories and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Cornwall, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
in 1707. His Archaeologia Britannica concluded that all six languages derived from the same root. Lhuyd theorised that the root language descended from the languages spoken by the Iron Age
Iron Age
tribes of Gaul, whom Greek and Roman writers called Celtic.[55] Having defined the languages of those areas as Celtic, the people living in them and speaking those languages became known as Celtic too. There is some dispute as to whether Lhuyd's theory is correct. Nevertheless, the term "Celtic" to describe the languages and peoples of Brittany, Cornwall
Cornwall
and Wales, Ireland, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and Scotland
Scotland
was accepted from the 18th century and is widely used today.[54] These areas of Europe
Europe
are sometimes referred to as the " Celt
Celt
belt" or "Celtic fringe" because of their location generally on the western edges of the continent, and of the states they inhabit (e.g. Brittany is in the northwest of France, Cornwall
Cornwall
is in the south west of Great Britain, Wales
Wales
in western Great Britain and the Gaelic-speaking parts of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
are in the west of those countries).[56][57] Additionally, this region is known as the "Celtic Crescent" because of the near crescent shaped position of the nations in Europe.[58] Territories of the ancient Celts[edit] Main articles: Celts
Celts
and List of Celtic tribes

Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:   core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC   maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC   Lusitanian area of Iberia
Iberia
where Celtic presence is uncertain   the six Celtic nations
Celtic nations
which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period   areas where Celtic languages
Celtic languages
remain widely spoken today

During the European Iron Age, the ancient Celts
Celts
extended their territory to most of Western and Central Europe
Europe
and part of Eastern Europe
Europe
and central Anatolia. The Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
were extinct by the Early Middle Ages, and the continental "Celtic cultural traits", such as an oral traditions and practices like the visiting of sacred wells and springs, largely disappeared or, in some cases, were translated. Since they no longer have a living Celtic language, they are not included as 'Celtic nations'. Nonetheless, some of these countries have movements claiming a "Celtic identity" Iberian Peninsula[edit]

Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
at about 200 BC.[59]

Main articles: Celtiberians, Gallaeci, Celtici, and Astures The Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
was an area heavily influenced by Celtic culture, particularly the ancient region of Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(about the modern region of Galicia and Braga, Viana do Castelo, Douro, Porto, and Bragança in Portugal) and the Asturian region (Asturias, León, Zamora in Spain). Only France
France
and Britain have more ancient Celtic place names than Spain and Portugal
Portugal
combined (Cunliffe and Koch 2010 and 2012). Some of the Celtic tribes recorded in these regions by the Romans were the Gallaeci, the Bracari, the Astures, the Cantabri, the Celtici, the Celtiberi, the Tumorgogi, Albion and Cerbarci. The Lusitanians
Lusitanians
are categorised by some as Celts, or at least Celticised, but there remain inscriptions in an apparently non-Celtic Lusitanian language. However, the language had clear affinities with the Gallaecian Celtic language. Modern-day Galicians, Asturians, Cantabrians and northern Portuguese claim a Celtic heritage or identity.[5] Although the Celtic cultural traces are as difficult to analyse as in the other former Celtic countries of Europe, because of the extinction of Iberian Celtic languages in Roman times, Celtic heritage is attested in toponymics and language substratum, ancient texts, folklore and music.[5][60] At the end, late Celtic influence is also attributed to the fifth century Romano-Briton colony of Britonia
Britonia
in Galicia. Tenth century Middle Irish mythical history Lebor Gabála Érenn (Irish: Leabhar Gabhála Éireann) credited Gallaecia
Gallaecia
as the point from where the Gallaic Celts
Celts
sailed to conquer Ireland. England[edit]

Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of the Celtic tribes.

In Celtic languages, England
England
is usually referred to as "Saxon-land" (Sasana, Pow Sows, Bro-Saoz etc.), and in Welsh as Lloegr (though the Welsh translation of English also refers to the Saxon route: Saesneg, with the English people being referred to as "Saeson", or "Saes" in the singular). The mildly derogatory Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
term Sassenach derives from this source. However, spoken Cumbric survived until approximately the 12th century, Cornish until the 18th century, and Welsh within the Welsh Marches, notably in Archenfield, now part of Herefordshire, until the 19th century. Both Cumbria
Cumbria
and Cornwall
Cornwall
were traditionally Brythonic in culture. Cornwall
Cornwall
existed as an independent state for some time after the foundation of England, and Cumbria originally retained a great deal of autonomy within the Kingdom of Northumbria. The unification of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria with the Cumbric kingdom of Cumbria
Cumbria
came about due to a political marriage between the Northumbrian King Oswiu and Queen Riemmelth (Rhiainfellt in Old Welsh), a then Princess of Rheged. Movements of population between different parts of Great Britain over the last two centuries, with industrial development and changes in living patterns such as the growth of second home ownership, have greatly modified the demographics of these areas, including the Isles of Scilly off the coast of Cornwall, although Cornwall
Cornwall
in particular retains unique cultural features, and a Cornish self-government movement is well established.[61] Brythonic and Cumbric placenames are found throughout England
England
but are more common in the West of England
England
than the East, reaching their highest density in the traditionally Celtic areas of Cornwall, Cumbria and the areas of England
England
bordering Wales. Name elements containing Brythonic topographic words occur in many areas of England, such as: caer 'fort', as in the Cumbrian city of Carlisle; pen 'hill' as in the Cumbrian town of Penrith and Pendle Hill in Lancashire; afon 'river' as in the Rivers Avon in Warwickshire, Devon and Somerset; and mynydd 'mountain', as in Long Mynd in Shropshire. The name 'Cumbria' is derived from the same root as Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales, meaning 'the land of comrades'. Formerly Gaulish regions[edit]

Repartition of Gaul
Gaul
ca. 54 BC

Most French people identify with the ancient Gauls
Gauls
and are well aware that they were a people that spoke Celtic languages
Celtic languages
and lived Celtic ways of life.[62] Nowadays, the popular nickname Gaulois, "Gaulish people", is very often used to mean 'stock French people' to make the difference with the descendants of foreigners in France. Walloons occasionally characterise themselves as "Celts", mainly in opposition to the "Teutonic" Flemish and "Latin" French identities.[63] Others think they are Belgian, that is to say Germano-Celtic people different from the Gaulish-Celtic French.[63] The ethnonym "Walloon" derives from a Germanic word meaning "foreign", cognate with the words "Welsh" and "Vlach". The name of Belgium, home country of the Walloon people, is cognate with the Celtic tribal names Belgae
Belgae
and (possibly) the Irish legendary Fir Bolg. Italian Peninsula[edit] Main articles: Canegrate culture, Golasecca culture, Este culture, Cisalpine Gaul, and Lepontii The Canegrate culture
Canegrate culture
(13th century BC) may represent the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic[64] population from the northwest part of the Alps
Alps
that, through the Alpine passes, had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lake Maggiore and Lake Como
Lake Como
(Scamozzina culture). It has also been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(16th-15th century BC), when North Westwern Italy
Italy
appears closely linked regarding the production of bronze artifacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the Tumulus culture (Central Europe, 1600 BC - 1200 BC).[65] La Tène cultural material appeared over a large area of mainland Italy,[66] the southernmost example being the Celtic helmet from Canosa di Puglia.[67] Italy
Italy
is home to the Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC).[68] Anciently spoken in Switzerland
Switzerland
and in Northern-Central Italy, from the Alps
Alps
to Umbria.[69][70][71][72] According to the Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises, more than 760 Gaulish inscriptions have been found throughout present-day France—with the notable exception of Aquitaine—and in Italy,[73][74] which testifies the importance of Celtic heritage in the peninsula. The French- and Arpitan-speaking Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
region in Italy
Italy
also presents a claim of Celtic heritage.[75] The Northern League autonomist party often exalts what it claims are the Celtic roots of all Northern Italy
Italy
or Padania.[76] Reportedly, Friuli
Friuli
also has a claim to Celticity (recent studies have estimated that about 1/10 of Friulian words are of Celtic origin; also, a lot of typical Friulian traditions, dances, songs and mythology are remnants of the culture of Carnian tribes who lived in this area during the Roman age and the early Middle Ages. Some Friulians consider themselves and their region as one of the Celtic Nations[77]) Central and Eastern European regions[edit] Celtic tribes inhabited land in what is now southern Germany and Austria.[78] Many scholars have associated the earliest Celtic peoples with the Hallstatt culture.[79] The Boii, the Scordisci,[80] and the Vindelici[81] are some of the tribes that inhabited Central Europe, including what is now Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, Poland and the Czech Republic as well as Germany and Austria. The Boii
Boii
gave their name to Bohemia.[82] The Boii
Boii
founded a city on the site of modern Prague, and some of its ruins are now a tourist attraction.[83] There are claims among modern Czechs that the Czech people are as much descendants of the Boii
Boii
as they are from the later Slavic invaders (as well as the historical Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
of Czech lands). This claim may not only be political: according to a 2000 study by Semino, 35.6% of Czech males have y-chromosome haplogroup R1b,[84] which is common among Celts
Celts
but rare among Slavs. Celts
Celts
also founded Singidunum
Singidunum
near present-day Belgrade, though the Celtic presence in modern-day Serbian regions is limited to the far north (mainly including the historically at least partially Hungarian Vojvodina). The modern-day capital of Turkey, Ankara, was once the center of the Celtic culture in Central Anatolia, giving the name to the region—Galatia. The La Tène culture—named for a region in modern Switzerland—succeeded the Halstatt era in much of central Europe.[85] Celtic diaspora[edit] Main article: Celts (modern)
Celts (modern)
§ Migration from Celtic countries Further information: Cornish diaspora, Irish diaspora, Scottish people § Scottish ancestry abroad, and Welsh people
Welsh people
§ Welsh emigration In other regions, people with a heritage from one of the Celtic nations also associate with the Celtic identity. In these areas, Celtic traditions and languages are significant components of local culture. These include the Permanent North American Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
in Tamworth, Ontario, Canada
Canada
which is the only Irish Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
outside Ireland; the Chubut valley of Patagonia
Patagonia
with Welsh-speaking Welsh Argentines (known as Y Wladfa); Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
in Nova Scotia, with Scottish Gaelic-speaking Scottish Canadians; and southeast Newfoundland with traditionally Irish-speaking Irish Canadians. Also at one point in the 1900s there were well over 12,000 Gaelic Scots from the Isle of Lewis
Lewis
living in the Eastern Townships
Eastern Townships
of Quebec, Canada, with place names that still exist today recalling those inhabitants. Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John, New Brunswick
has often been called "Canada's Irish City". In the years between 1815, when vast industrial changes began to disrupt the old life-styles in Europe, and Canadian Confederation in 1867, when immigration of that era passed its peak, more than 150,000 immigrants from Ireland
Ireland
flooded into Saint John. Those who came in the earlier period were largely tradesmen, and many stayed in Saint John, becoming the backbone of its builders. But when the Great Irish Potato Famine raged between 1845-1852, huge waves of Famine refugees flooded these shores. It is estimated that between 1845 and 1847, some 30,000 arrived, more people than were living in the city at the time. In 1847, dubbed "Black 47," one of the worst years of the Famine, some 16,000 immigrants, most of them from Ireland, arrived at Partridge Island, the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour. However, thousands of Irish were living in New Brunswick prior to these events, mainly in Saint John.[86]

Celtic Cross of Partridge Island

After the partitioning of the British colony of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
in 1784 New Brunswick was originally named New Ireland
Ireland
with the capital to be in Saint John.[87] Large swathes of the United States
United States
of America were subject to migration from Celtic peoples, or people from Celtic nations. Irish-speaking Irish Catholics congregated particularly in the East Coast cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and also in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and Chicago, while Scots and Ulster-Scots were particularly prominent in the Southern United States, including Appalachia. A legend that became popular during the Elizabethan era
Elizabethan era
claims that a Welsh prince named Madoc
Madoc
established a colony in North America
North America
in the late 12th century. The story continues that the settlers merged with local Indian tribes, who preserved the Welsh language
Welsh language
and the Christian religion
Christian religion
for hundreds of years.[88] However, there is no contemporary evidence that Prince Madoc
Madoc
existed. An area of Pennsylvania known as the Welsh Tract
Welsh Tract
was settled by Welsh Quakers, where the names of several towns still bear Welsh names, such as Bryn Mawr, the Lower and Upper Gwynedd Townships, and Bala Cynwyd. In the 19th century, Welsh settlers arrived in the Chubut River
Chubut River
valley of Patagonia, Argentina
Argentina
and established a colony called Y Wladfa (Spanish: Colonia Galesa). Today, the Welsh language
Welsh language
and Welsh tea houses are common in several towns, many of which have Welsh names. Dolavon
Dolavon
and Trelew
Trelew
are examples of Welsh towns. In his autobiography, the South African poet Roy Campbell recalled his youth in the Dargle Valley, near the city of Pietermaritzburg, where people spoke only Gaelic and Zulu. In New Zealand, the southern regions of Otago
Otago
and Southland were settled by the Free Church of Scotland. Many of the place names in these two regions (such as the main cities of Dunedin
Dunedin
and Invercargill and the major river, the Clutha) have Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
names,[89] and Celtic culture is still prominent in this area.[90][91][92] In addition to these, a number of people from Canada, the United States, Australia, South Africa
Africa
and other parts of the former British Empire have formed various Celtic societies over the years. See also[edit]

Anglo-Celtic Breton nationalism Celt Celtic Christianity Celtic Revival Celtic art Celtic fusion Celtic mythology Galician nationalism Germanic languages Irish nationalism Pan-Celticism Romance-speaking Europe Scottish national identity Slavic Europe Welsh nationalism

References[edit]

^ a b Koch, John (2005). Celtic Culture : A Historical Encyclopedia. ABL-CIO. pp. xx, 300, 421, 495, 512, 583, 985. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0. Retrieved 24 November 2011.  ^ "Constitution of the League". The Celtic League. 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 365. ISBN 9781851094400. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ a b Ian Johnston (21 September 2006). "We're nearly all Celts
Celts
under the skin". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2007-11-24.  ^ a b c d e f Alberro, Manuel (2005). "Celtic Legacy in Galicia". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 1005–1035.  ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 365, 697, 788–791. ISBN 9781851094400. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ a b c "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". Festival Interceltique de Lorient website. Festival Interceltique de Lorient. 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-15.  ^ Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Haak et al, 2015 ^ Population genomics of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Eurasia, Allentoft et al, 2015 ^ Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, Mathieson et al, 2015 ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053. ISBN 9781851094400. Retrieved 15 June 2010.  ^ Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990). The Story of the Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-85025-371-3.  ^ "Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge". Iomtoday.co.im. 20 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ "www.breizh.net/icdbl/saozg/Celtic_Languages.pdf" (PDF). Breizh.net website. U.S. Branch of the International Committee for the Defense of the Breton Language. 1995. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Wales
Wales
– The School Gate – About School – The Curriculum at Primary School –". BBC
BBC
website. BBC. 20 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ a b " BBC
BBC
News:Education:Local UK languages 'taking off'". BBC
BBC
News website. BBC. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Les nations celtes". 43e Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
(in French). Archived from the original on 12 June 2011.  ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851094400.  ^ Koch, John T. (2006). "Britonia". In John T. Koch, Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 291. ^ a b Language: Irish Gaelic, Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage website. ^ Statistics Canada, NHS Profile 2011, by province. ^ Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Canada, Table: Detailed mother tongue ^ Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales). 27 Dec 2004. Patagonia
Patagonia
Welsh to watch S4C shows. Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Wales
Wales
and Patagonia". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.  ^ The 2011 population of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
was 4,588,252 and that of Northern Ireland
Ireland
in 2011 was 1,810,863. These are Census data from the official governmental statistics agencies in the respective jurisdictions:

Central Statistics Office, Dublin Northern Ireland
Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency (2008). "Population and Migration Estimates Northern Ireland
Ireland
(2008)" (PDF). Belfast: Department of Finance and Personnel. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 

^ "Central Statistics Office Ireland". Cso.ie. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ The figure for Northern Ireland
Ireland
from the 2001 Census is somewhat ambiguous, as it covers people who have "some knowledge of Irish". Out of the 167,487 people who claimed to have "some knowledge", 36,479 of them could understand it when spoken, but couldn't speak it themselves. ^ "Mixed report on Gaelic language". BBC
BBC
News. 2005-10-10. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ Kenneth MacKinnon (2003). "Census 2001 Scotland: Gaelic Language – first results". Archived from the original on 4 September 2006. Retrieved 24 March 2007.  ^ a b (in French) Données clés sur Breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg ^ "2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report – Welsh Language Board". Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – United Kingdom : Welsh". UNHCR. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ " Wales
Wales
and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2011.  ^ "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006–2008 Release Date: April, 2010" (xls). United States
United States
Census Bureau. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.  ^ "2006 Census of Canada: Topic based tabulations: Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.  ^ "Publication of the report on the 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey". Welsh Language Board
Welsh Language Board
website An increase from the 2001 census results: 582,368 persons age 3 and over were able to speak Welsh – 20.8% of the population. Welsh Language Board. 8 May 2006. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2010.  ^ "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.  ^ projects.ex.ac.uk – On being a Cornish ‘Celt’: changing Celtic heritage and traditions Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Effectively extinct as a spoken language in 1777. Language revived from 1904, though a tiny 0.1% percent is able to hold a limited conversion in Cornish. ^ a b c " Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Census 2011" (PDF). Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ "An English-Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form". Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ "The Celtic League". Celtic League
Celtic League
website. The Celtic League. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Information on The International Celtic Congress
Celtic Congress
Douglas, Isle of Man hosted by". Celtic Congress
Celtic Congress
website (in Irish and English). Celtic Congress. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page". Pan Celtic Festival
Pan Celtic Festival
2010 website. Fáilte Ireland. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "About the Festival". National Celtic Festival website. National Celtic Festival. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "About Us::Celtic Media Festival". Celtic Media Festival
Celtic Media Festival
website. Celtic Media Festival. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival". Celtic connections website. Celtic Connections. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "' Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 – the biggest homecoming party of the year". Hebridean Celtic Festival website. Hebridean Celtic Festival. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Magners League:About Us:Contact Information". Magners League website. Celtic League. 2009. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2010.  ^ "scottishathletics-news". scottishathletics website. scottishathletics. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ Coulter, Colin; Coleman, Steve (2003). The end of Irish history?: critical reflections on the Celtic tiger. Google Books. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-7190-6230-6. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ ""Celtic Tiger" No More – CBS Evening News – CBS News". CBS News
CBS News
website. CBS Interactive. 7 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ " BBC
BBC
News:Scotland:Salmond gives Celtic Lion vision". BBC
BBC
News website. BBC. 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ a b "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales
Wales
website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-10.  ^ Lhuyd, Edward (1707). Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages, Histories and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Cornwall, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland. Google Books. Oxford.  ^ Nathalie Koble, Jeunesse et genèse du royaume arthurien, Paradigme, 2007, ISBN 2-86878-270-1, p.145 ^ The term "Celtic Fringe" gained currency in late-Victorian years (Thomas Heyck, A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From 1870 to Present, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-30233-1, p.43) and is now widely attested, e.g. Michael Hechter, Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 0-7658-0475-1; Nicholas Hooper and Matthew Bennett, England
England
and the Celtic Fringe: Colonial Warfare in The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-44049-1 ^ Ian Hazlett, The Reformation in Britain and Ireland, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0-567-08280-6, p.21 ^ "Ethnographic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia
Iberia
(circa 200 b". Arkeotavira.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ Melhuish, Martin (1998). Celtic Tides: Traditional Music in a New Age. Ontario, Canada: Quarry Press Inc. p. 28. ISBN 1-55082-205-5.  ^ The Kingdom of Kernow 'exists apart from England' – Telegraph.co.uk, 29 January 2010 ^ "What Is France? Who Are the French?". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ a b "Belgium: Flemings, Walloons and Germans". Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ Venceslas Kruta: La grande storia dei celti. La nascita, l'affermazione e la decadenza, Newton & Compton, 2003, ISBN 88-8289-851-2, ISBN 978-88-8289-851-9 ^ "The Golasecca civilization is therefore the expression of the oldest Celts
Celts
of Italy
Italy
and included several groups that had the name of Insubres, Laevi, Lepontii, Oromobii (o Orumbovii)". (Raffaele C. De Marinis) ^ "Manufatti in ferro di tipo La Tène in area italiana : le potenzialità non sfruttate".  ^ Piggott, Stuart (6 May 2008). Early Celtic Art From Its Origins to its Aftermath. Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-202-36186-4.  ^ Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6.  ^ Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82.  ^ Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55.  ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12.  ^ MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277 ^ Peter Schrijver, "Gaulish", in Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, ed. Glanville Price (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), 192. ^ Landolfi, Maurizio (2000). Adriatico tra 4. e 3. sec. a.C. L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER. p. 43.  ^ "Aosta Festival digs up Celtic roots in Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ "Celtica Festival 2009, Northern Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ "KurMor Celtic Festival in Ara, Udine, Friuli, Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ " Celts
Celts
– Hallstatt and La Tene cultures". Celts.etrusia.co.uk. 2005-10-21. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ Celtic Impressions – The Celts
Celts
Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ AncientWorlds.net Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine., 27k ^ authorName. "Vindelici". Ancientworlds.net. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ " Boii
Boii
– Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ "Prague Celtic History Remains Route Celtic Walk in Prague". Prague.net. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ O. Semino et al., The genetic legacy of paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective, Science, vol. 290 (2000), pp. 1155–59. ^ "The Early Celts". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ "Trouble in the North End: The Geography of Social Violence in Saint John 1840-1860". Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ "Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia". lib.unb.ca.  ^ Catlin, G. Die Indianer Nordamerikas Verlag Lothar Borowsky ^ "Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Te Ara. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ Lewis, John (1 December 2008). "Regal poise amid 'Celtic' clime". Otago
Otago
Daily Times. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  ^ "DunedinCelticArts.org.nz". DunedinCelticArts.org.nz. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ "OtagoCaledonian.org". OtagoCaledonian.org. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

O'Neill, Tom (March 2006). "The Celtic Realm". National Geographic. Retrieved July 30, 2013.  There also known for There bravery

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCeltic nationsat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata

Celtic nations
Celtic nations
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Celtic League The Celtic Realm Celtic-World.Net, – Various information on Celtic culture and music "National Geographic Map: The Celtic Realm" (PDF).  (306 KB) Simon James Ancient Celts
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Pan-Celticism

Nations

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definition

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Other claimants

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Nationalisms

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East Africa

African Great Lakes

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Macro-regions

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East

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West

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South

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Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

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Regions of North America

Northern

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Yukon
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Arctic
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New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

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South

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Great Basin
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San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

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Latin

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Pearl Islands

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Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

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French Hispanic

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v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

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Maralinga

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Polynesia

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

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Amazon rainforest

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South

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West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

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Antarctic
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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
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Sea

Pacific Ocean

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Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Names Gaels Britons Picts Gauls Iberian Celts Galatians

Places

Gaelic Ireland Dálriata / Alba Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain / Roman Britain
Roman Britain
/ Sub-Roman Britain Dumnonia Iron Age
Iron Age
Gaul
Gaul
/ Roman Gaul
Gaul
/ Brittany Gallaecia Britonia Brigantia (ancient region) Cisalpine Gaul Balkans Transylvania Galatia

Religion

Polytheism Christianity Animism

Mythology

Irish Scottish Welsh British Breton Cornish

Society

Calendar Law Warfare (Gaelic warfare) Coinage

Art

Insular Pictish Brooches Carnyx High cross Interlace Knotwork Mazes Triple spiral Taranis

Modern Celts Celtic Revival

Modern Celtic nations Pan-Celticism
Pan-Celticism
(Celtic Congress Celtic League) Music (Rock) Neopaganism

Reconstructionist Celtic Wicca Neo-Druidism

Languages

Italo-Celtic Proto-Celtic Insular Celtic

Brythonic Goidelic

Continental Celtic

Celtiberian Gaulish Galatian Gallaecian Lepontic Noric

Festivals

Samhain/Calan Gaeaf Imbolc/Gŵyl Fair Beltane/Calan Mai Lughnasadh/Calan Awst

Lists

Celts Tribes Deities English words of Celtic origin Spanish words of Celtic origin Galician words of Celtic origin French words of Gaulish origin

Celts
Celts
portal Cat

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