Cell biology
The plant cell
Plant cell structure svg labels.svg
Components of a typical plant cell:
a. Plasmodesmata
b. Plasma membrane
c. Cell wall
1. Chloroplast
d. Thylakoid membrane
e. Starch grain
2. Vacuole
f. Vacuole
g. Tonoplast
h. Mitochondrion
i. Peroxisome
j. Cytoplasm
k. Small membranous vesicles
l. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
3. Nucleus
m. Nuclear pore
n. Nuclear envelope
o. Nucleolus
p. Ribosome
q. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
r. Golgi vesicles
s. Golgi apparatus (Golgi body)
t. Cytoskeleton

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism.[1] Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mollicute bacteria), in algae, fungi and eukaryotes including plants but are absent in animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters.

The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin. Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls. Algae possess cell walls made of glycoproteins and polysaccharides such as carrageenan and agar that are absent from land plants. In bacteria, the cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. The cell walls of archaea have various compositions, and may be formed of glycoprotein S-layers, pseudopeptidoglycan, or polysaccharides. Fungi possess cell walls made of the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin. Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic silica.[2]