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Ceanothus
Ceanothus
L. /ˌsiːəˈnoʊθəs/[2] is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing[3] shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae.[4] Common names for members of this genus are California lilac, wild lilac, and soap bush.[5] "Ceonothus" comes from a Greek word meaning "spiny plant",[5] Ancient Greek: κεάνωθος (keanōthos), which was applied by Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(371–287 BC) to an Old World plant believed to be Cirsium arvense.[6][7] The genus is endemic to North America, with the center of its distribution in California. Some species (e.g., C. americanus) are found in the eastern United States and southeast Canada, and others (e.g. C. coeruleus) extend as far south as Guatemala. Most are shrubs 0.5–3 metres (1.6–9.8 ft) tall, but C. arboreus and C. thyrsiflorus, both native to California, can be small multi-trunked trees up to 6–7 metres (20–23 ft) tall.

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Growth pattern 1.2 Leaves and stems 1.3 Flowers and fruit

2 Distribution 3 Names 4 Uses

4.1 Wildlife 4.2 Other uses

5 Cultivation

5.1 Cultivars
Cultivars
and hybrids 5.2 Propagation

6 Selected species

6.1 Formerly placed here

7 See also

7.1 References

8 External links

Description[edit]

Ceanothus
Ceanothus
arboreus, illustrating the three parallel leaf veins characteristic of this genus.

Growth pattern[edit] The majority[citation needed] of the species are evergreen, but the handful of species adapted to cold winters are deciduous. The leaves are opposite or alternate (depending on species), small (typically 1–5 cm long), simple, and mostly with serrated margins. Leaves and stems[edit] Ceanothus
Ceanothus
leaves may be arranged opposite to each other on the stem, or alternate. Alternate leaves may have either one or three main veins rising from the base of the leaf.[8] The leaves have a shiny upper surface that feels "gummy" when pinched between the thumb and forefinger, and the roots of most species have red inner root bark.[9] Flowers and fruit[edit]

Ceanothus fendleri
Ceanothus fendleri
blossom.

The flowers are white, greenish–white, blue, dark purple-blue, pale purple or pink, maturing into a dry, three-lobed seed capsule. The flowers are tiny and produced in large, dense clusters. A few species are reported to be intensely fragrant almost to the point of being nauseating, and are said to resemble the odor of "boiling honey in an enclosed area". The seeds of this plant can lie dormant for hundreds of years,[citation needed] and Ceanothus
Ceanothus
species are typically dependent on forest fires to trigger germination of their seeds.[9] Fruits are hard, nutlike capsules.[5] Distribution[edit]

Ceanothus americanus
Ceanothus americanus
(fruit left, flowers right)

Plants in this genus are widely distributed and can be found on dry, sunny hillsides from coastal scrub lands to open forest clearings, from near sea level to 9,000 feet (2,700 m) in elevation. These plants are profusely distributed throughout the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south through Colorado, the Cascades of Oregon and California, and the Coastal Ranges of California. Ceanothus velutinus
Ceanothus velutinus
is the most common member of this genus and is widespread throughout North America.[9] Names[edit] The Californian species are commonly known collectively as California lilacs, with individual species having more descriptive common names. Species native elsewhere have other common names, such as 'New Jersey tea' for C. americanus, since its leaves were used as a black tea substitute during the American Revolution.[4][10] In garden use, most are simply called by their scientific names or an adaptation of the scientific name, such as 'Maritime ceanothus' for C. maritimus. Uses[edit] Wildlife[edit] Ceanothus
Ceanothus
is a good source of nutrition for deer, specifically mule deer on the West Coast of the United States. However, the leaves are not as nutritious from late spring to early fall as they are in early spring. Porcupines and quail have also been seen eating stems and seeds of these shrubs. The leaves are a good source of protein and the stems and leaves have been found to contain a high amount of calcium. Other uses[edit] Native Americans used the dried leaves of this plant as an herbal tea, and early pioneers used the plant as a substitute for black tea. Miwok Indians of California
California
made baskets from Ceanothus
Ceanothus
branches. C. integerrimus has been used by North American tribes to ease childbirth.[11] Cultivation[edit]

Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus
Ceanothus cuneatus
(Buck brush, Wedgeleaf ceanothus) in Pinnacles National Park.

Many Ceanothus
Ceanothus
species are popular ornamental plants for gardens, and dozens of hybrids and cultivars have been selected, such as flexible ceanothus, Ceanothus
Ceanothus
× flexilis (C. cuneatus × C. prostratus).[citation needed] Cultivars
Cultivars
and hybrids[edit] The following cultivars and hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit
Award of Garden Merit
(confirmed 2017):[12]

’Autumnal Blue’[13] 'Blue Mound'[14] 'Burkwoodii'[15] 'Cascade'[16]

'Concha' [17][18] 'Dark Star' [19][20] 'Gloire de Versailles'[21] ’Perle Rose’[22]

'Puget Blue'[23] ’Skylark’[24] 'Topaze'[25]

Other cultivars available include:-

'Anchor Bay' [26] 'Diamond Heights' (variegated leaves)[27]

'Ray Hartman'[28] 'Snow Flurry'[29]

There are also more cultivars and hybrids of Ceanothus
Ceanothus
arboreus, Ceanothus griseus
Ceanothus griseus
horizontalis (groundcovers), and Ceanothus thyrsiflorus in the nursery trade. Propagation[edit]

Ceanothus integerrimus
Ceanothus integerrimus
(Deerbrush) in Yosemite National Park.

Propagation of ceanothus is by seed, following scarification and stratification. Seeds are soaked in water for 12 hours followed by chilling at 1 °C for one to three months. It can also sprout from roots and/or stems. Seeds are stored in plant litter in large quantities. It is estimated that there are about two million seeds per acre in forest habitats. Seeds are dispersed propulsively from capsules and, it has been estimated, can remain viable for hundreds of years. In habitat, the seeds of plants in this genus germinate only in response to range fires and forest fires.[citation needed] Selected species[edit]

Ceanothus americanus
Ceanothus americanus
L. – New Jersey Tea; Red Root [30] Ceanothus arboreus
Ceanothus arboreus
Greene – Feltleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus confusus
Ceanothus confusus
J.T. Howell – Rincon Ridge Ceanothus Ceanothus
Ceanothus
connivens Greene – Trailing Buckbrush Ceanothus cordulatus
Ceanothus cordulatus
Kellogg – Whitethorn Ceanothus Ceanothus crassifolius
Ceanothus crassifolius
Torr. – Hoaryleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus cuneatus
Ceanothus cuneatus
(Hook.) Nutt. – Buckbrush

Ceanothus cuneatus
Ceanothus cuneatus
var. fascicularis (McMinn) – Hoover Sedgeleaf Buckbrush Ceanothus cuneatus
Ceanothus cuneatus
var. rigidus (Nutt.) Hoover – Monterey Ceanothus

Ceanothus cyaneus
Ceanothus cyaneus
Eastw. – San Diego Buckbrush Ceanothus dentatus
Ceanothus dentatus
Torr. & A.Gray – Sandscrub Ceanothus Ceanothus depressus Benth. – junco Ceanothus divergens Parry – Calistoga Ceanothus Ceanothus diversifolius
Ceanothus diversifolius
Kellogg – Pinemat Ceanothus fendleri
Ceanothus fendleri
A.Gray – Fendler's Ceanothus Ceanothus ferrisiae
Ceanothus ferrisiae
McMinn – Coyote Ceanothus Ceanothus foliosus
Ceanothus foliosus
Parry – Wavyleaf Ceanothus

Ceanothus foliosus
Ceanothus foliosus
var. foliosus – Wavyleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus foliosus
Ceanothus foliosus
var. medius McMinn – Wavyleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus foliosus
Ceanothus foliosus
var. vineatus McMinn – Vine Hill Ceanothus

Ceanothus fresnensis
Ceanothus fresnensis
Dudley ex Abrams – Fresno Ceanothus Ceanothus gloriosus
Ceanothus gloriosus
J.T. Howell – Point Reyes Ceanothus

Ceanothus gloriosus
Ceanothus gloriosus
var. exaltatus J.T. Howell – Point Reyes Ceanothus Ceanothus gloriosus
Ceanothus gloriosus
var. gloriosus – Point Reyes Ceanothus Ceanothus gloriosus
Ceanothus gloriosus
var. porrectus J.T.Howell – Mt. Vision Ceanothus

Ceanothus greggii
Ceanothus greggii
A.Gray – Desert Ceanothus

Ceanothus greggii
Ceanothus greggii
var. greggii – Desert Ceanothus Ceanothus greggii
Ceanothus greggii
var. perplexans (Trel.) Jepson – Desert Ceanothus Ceanothus greggii
Ceanothus greggii
var. vestitus (Greene) McMinn – Mojave Ceanothus

Ceanothus griseus
Ceanothus griseus
(Trel. ex B.L.Rob.) McMinn – Carmel Ceanothus Ceanothus hearstiorum
Ceanothus hearstiorum
Hoover & J.B.Roof – Hearst Ranch Buckbrush Ceanothus herbaceus
Ceanothus herbaceus
Raf. – Jersey Tea Ceanothus impressus
Ceanothus impressus
Trel. – Santa Barbara Ceanothus

Ceanothus impressus
Ceanothus impressus
var. impressus – Santa Barbara Ceanothus Ceanothus impressus
Ceanothus impressus
var. nipomensis McMinn – Santa Barbara Ceanothus

Ceanothus incanus Torr. & A.Gray – Coast Whitethorn Ceanothus integerrimus
Ceanothus integerrimus
Hook. & Arn. – Deerbrush Ceanothus

Ceanothus jepsonii
Ceanothus jepsonii
Greene – Jepson Ceanothus

Ceanothus jepsonii
Ceanothus jepsonii
var. albiflorus J.T.Howell – Jepson Ceanothus Ceanothus jepsonii
Ceanothus jepsonii
var. jepsonii – Jepson Ceanothus

Ceanothus lemmonii Parry – Lemmon's Ceanothus Ceanothus leucodermis
Ceanothus leucodermis
Greene – Chaparral Whitethorn Ceanothus maritimus
Ceanothus maritimus
Hoover – Maritime Ceanothus Ceanothus
Ceanothus
martinii M.E.Jones – Martin's Ceanothus Ceanothus masonii
Ceanothus masonii
McMinn – Mason's Ceanothus Ceanothus megacarpus
Ceanothus megacarpus
Nutt. – Bigpod Ceanothus

Ceanothus megacarpus
Ceanothus megacarpus
var. insularis (Eastw.) Munz – Island Ceanothus Ceanothus megacarpus
Ceanothus megacarpus
var. megacarpus – Bigpod Ceanothus

Ceanothus
Ceanothus
microphyllus Michx. – Littleleaf Buckbrush Ceanothus oliganthus
Ceanothus oliganthus
Nutt. – Hairy Ceanothus Ceanothus ophiochilus
Ceanothus ophiochilus
Boyd, Ross & Arnseth – Vail Lake Ceanothus Ceanothus otayensis H. E. McMinn – Otay Mountain Buckbrush Ceanothus
Ceanothus
palmeri Trel. – Palmer Ceanothus Ceanothus papillosus
Ceanothus papillosus
Torr. & A.Gray – Wartleaf Ceanothus

Ceanothus papillosus
Ceanothus papillosus
var. papillosus – Wartleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus papillosus
Ceanothus papillosus
var. roweanus McMinn – Wartleaf Ceanothus

Ceanothus parryi
Ceanothus parryi
Trel. – Parry Ceanothus Ceanothus parvifolius
Ceanothus parvifolius
(S.Watson) Trel. – Littleleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus pinetorum
Ceanothus pinetorum
Coville – Coville Ceanothus Ceanothus prostratus
Ceanothus prostratus
Benth. – Prostrate Ceanothus Ceanothus pumilus
Ceanothus pumilus
Greene – Dwarf Ceanothus Ceanothus purpureus
Ceanothus purpureus
Jepson – Hollyleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus roderickii
Ceanothus roderickii
Knight – Pine Hill Buckbrush Ceanothus sanguineus
Ceanothus sanguineus
Pursh – Redstem Ceanothus Ceanothus
Ceanothus
serpyllifolius Nutt. – Coastal Plain Buckbrush Ceanothus sonomensis
Ceanothus sonomensis
J.T. Howell – Sonoma Ceanothus Ceanothus sorediatus
Ceanothus sorediatus
Hook. & Arn. – Jimbrush Ceanothus Ceanothus spinosus
Ceanothus spinosus
Nutt. – Green Bark Ceanothus Ceanothus thyrsiflorus
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus
Eschsch. – Blueblossom Ceanothus tomentosus
Ceanothus tomentosus
Parry – Woolyleaf Ceanothus Ceanothus velutinus
Ceanothus velutinus
Dougl. ex Hook. – Snowbrush Ceanothus

Ceanothus velutinus
Ceanothus velutinus
var. hookeri M.C. Johnston – Hooker's Ceanothus Ceanothus velutinus
Ceanothus velutinus
var. velutinus – Snowbrush Ceanothus

Ceanothus verrucosus
Ceanothus verrucosus
Nutt. – Barranca Brush[31]

[32]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Adolphia infesta (Kunth) Meisn. (as C. infesta Kunth) Colubrina arborescens (Mill.) Sarg. (as C. arborescens Mill.) Colubrina asiatica
Colubrina asiatica
(L.) Brongn. (as C. asiaticus L.) Colubrina elliptica (Sw.) Brizicky & W.L.Stern (as C. reclinata L’Hér.) Noltea
Noltea
africana (L.) Endl. (as C. africanus L.)[32]

See also[edit]

California
California
chaparral and woodlands — ecoregion. Flora of the California
California
chaparral and woodlands

References[edit]

^ "Genus: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-02-10. Retrieved 2012-04-25.  ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 ^ http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/benson/Frankia/Rhamnaceae.htm ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ceanothus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b c Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed., 2000, pp. 166–167 ^ Elmore, Francis H. (1976). Trees and Shrubs of the Southwest Uplands. Western National Parks Association. p. 195. ISBN 0-911408-41-X.  ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4.  ^ Native Shrubs of the Sierra Nevada, John Hunter Thomas, Dennis R. Parnell, University of California
California
Press, 1974, p. 70–77, [1] ^ a b c Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West, Gregory L. Tilford, ISBN 0-87842-359-1 ^ Coladonato, Milo (1993). " Ceanothus
Ceanothus
americanus". Fire Effects Information System (online). Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer): U.S.D.A; Forest Service. Retrieved March 3, 2016.  ^ Moerman, D. (1988). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Oregon. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Autumnal Blue'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Blue Mound'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Burkwoodii'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Cascade'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Concha' ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Concha'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Dark Star' ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Dark Star'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
× delileanus 'Gloire de Versailles'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Perle Rose'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Puget Blue'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Skylark'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Ceanothus
Ceanothus
× delileanus 'Topaze'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Anchor Bay' ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
griseus horizontalis 'Diamond Heights' ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
'Ray Hartman' ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus
Ceanothus
thyrsiflorus 'Snow Flurry' ^ University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point Plant
Plant
Database: Ceanothus americanus Archived 2007-01-16 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Ceanothus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2012-04-25.  ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Ceanothus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Ceanothus

USDA Plants Profile for Ceanothus
Ceanothus
(ceanothus) Calflora Database: Index of Ceanothus
Ceanothus
species native to California
California
— with images + info links.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ceanothus.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q311139 APDB: 189203 EoL: 37772 EPPO: 1CEAG Fossilworks: 157349 GBIF: 3039297 GRIN: 2210 IPNI: 33421-1 ITIS: 28453 NCBI: 22922 PLANTS: CEANO Tropicos: 40

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