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The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
defines Catholic devotions as "...expressions of love and fidelity that arise from the intersection of one's own faith, culture and the Gospel of Jesus Christ."[1] Catholic devotions
Catholic devotions
are not part of liturgical worship, even if they are performed in a Catholic church, in a group, or in the presence of (or even led by) a priest.[2] The Congregation for Divine Worship at the Vatican publishes a Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy.[3] Devotion to saints, with the Virgin Mary as the most prominent example, is a key characteristic of Roman Catholicism.[4] Catholic devotions have various forms, ranging from formalized, multi-day prayers such as novenas[5] to activities which do not involve any prayers, such as Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
outside Mass,[6] the wearing of scapulars,[7] the veneration of the saints, the Canonical coronations of sacred Marian or Christological images and even horticultural practices such as maintaining a Mary garden.[5] Common examples of Catholic devotions
Catholic devotions
include the Rosary, the Stations of the Cross, the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus, the Holy Face of Jesus, the various scapulars, the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Seven Sorrows of Mary, novenas to various saints, pilgrimages and devotions to the Blessed Sacrament, and the veneration of saintly images.

Contents

1 Context and background 2 Devotions to the Holy Trinity 3 Devotions to Jesus 4 Marian devotions

4.1 Marian Processions

5 Devotions to saints 6 Other devotional practices 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Context and background[edit]

Part of a series on

Devotions to Jesus in the Catholic Church

Jesus
Jesus
Christ in the Catacombs of Rome
Catacombs of Rome
(4th century)

Devotions

Holy Wounds Sacred Heart Holy Face Divine Mercy Eucharistic adoration Holy Name Holy Hour Acts of Reparation Stations of the Cross Precious Blood Infant of Prague

Prayers

Anima Christi Shoulder Wound Morning offering Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
prayer Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
Consecration You are Christ Vianney's prayer Perboyre's prayer Montfort's prayer Crucifix prayer

Catholicism portal

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While the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considers the liturgy as central to the life and mission of the Church and encourages Catholics to participate in it as often as possible, it also acknowledges the objective nature of the liturgy and encourages the cultivation of pious acts and personal devotions; the constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium
Sacrosanctum Concilium
states, "The spiritual life, however, is not limited solely to participation in the liturgy. ... Popular devotions of the Christian people are to be highly commended, provided they accord with the laws and norms of the Church, above all when they are ordered by the Apostolic See." It goes on to say: "These devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them."[8] Several factors shape the efficacy of devotional practices in eliciting feelings of devotion: a strong emotional appeal, a simplicity of form which puts them within the reach of all, the association with many others engaged in the same practices, and their derivation from the example of others considered to lead a holy life.[7] Since the Middle Ages, popes have encouraged devotions such as Eucharistic Adoration, the Rosary
Rosary
and the Stations of the Cross. However, the position of the Church with respect to the primacy of liturgy over specific devotions has always been maintained.[9] On the other hand, pious devotions have influenced some important parts of the Catholic calendar such as the feast of Corpus Christi which arose after petitions by those following the devotion; or various Marian feasts that gradually appeared with the growth of devotions.[10] Catholic devotions
Catholic devotions
can form the basis of major community events e.g. the statue of our Our Lady of Zapopan attracts over one million pilgrims on October 12 each year as the statue travels through the streets moving from one Cathedral to another.[11][12] In Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
tradition a wide range of practices have developed, from devotions to the Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
to specific saints ranging from Saint
Saint
Joseph to Saint
Saint
Francis Xavier. The three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia determines the appropriate type of worship and veneration for different situations.[13][14] The term latria (from the Greek λατρεία, latreia) is used for worship, adoration and reverence directed only to the Holy Trinity.[15] Dulia (from the Greek δουλεία, douleia) is the kind of honor given to the communion of saints, with the exception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who is honored with hyperdulia. Thus hyperdulia is below latria and above dulia.[13][14] Various unapproved acts such as the promotion of chain letters that contain prayers or the belief that the use of a statue of Saint
Saint
Joseph can speed up the sale of a house have been discouraged as non-pious, superstitious and against Catholic values. In general, acts and beliefs that aim at the manipulation of divine power for specific gainful purposes are always condemned as contrary to Catholic devotional practices.[10] Devotions to the Holy Trinity[edit] The Feast of the Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
is a devotional day celebrated on the first Sunday after Pentecost
Pentecost
and honors the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.[16] The Novena
Novena
to the Holy Trinity may include the Glory Be
Glory Be
prayer, as well as other prayers, although the other prayers may vary.[17] According to the Fátima seer Lúcia Santos, in late September or October 1916, the Angel of Peace appeared for the third time to herself and the other visionaries, her cousins Francísco and Jacinta Marto, and taught them a prayer of reparation to the Holy Trinity.[18] Devotions to Jesus[edit] Main article: Roman Catholic devotions to Jesus
Catholic devotions to Jesus
Christ

Secondo Pia's negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin, used in the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.

Several widespread devotions in the Catholic tradition relate directly to Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Official Catholic teachings consider Eucharistic adoration an important practice which "stimulates the faithful to an awareness of the marvelous presence of Christ and is an invitation to spiritual communion with Him."[19][20] In many cases Eucharistic adoration is performed by each person for an uninterrupted hour known as the Holy Hour.[21] The inspiration for the Holy Hour
Holy Hour
is Matthew 26:40 when in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before his crucifixion, Jesus
Jesus
asks Peter: "So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?".[22] Some devotions have the form of Acts of Reparation to Jesus
Jesus
Christ for the sufferings and insults that Jesus
Jesus
endured during His Passion or for the sin of blasphemy, e.g. the Golden Arrow Prayer.[23] Devotions involving the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus
Jesus
first appeared in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, but most current devotions are attributed to Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque (1647–1690).[24] In the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
tradition, the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
has been closely associated with Acts of Reparation to Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[25] The devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus
dates back to Sister Marie of St. Peter in 1843 who reported visions of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary in which she was urged to spread the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus, in reparation for the many insults Jesus
Jesus
suffered in His Passion. This resulted in The Golden Arrow Holy Face Devotion (Prayer).[26] The Devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus
was first approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1885.[27] Sister Maria Pierina
Maria Pierina
de Micheli further promoted the devotion based on the image from Secondo Pia's photograph of the Shroud of Turin.[28][29] In 1958, Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
approved of the devotion and the Holy Face medal and confirmed the Feast of the Holy Face of Jesus
Jesus
as Shrove Tuesday (the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday) for all Roman Catholics.[30][31] Other devotions include the Divine Mercy
Divine Mercy
based on the visions of Saint Faustina Kowalska, known as the "Apostle of Mercy",[32] and First Friday devotions which are related to devotion to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus.[33][34] and the Chaplet of the Five Wounds. Marian devotions[edit] Main articles: Marian devotions, Consecration and entrustment to Mary, and Blessed Virgin Mary See also: Rosary
Rosary
devotions and spirituality

Part of a series on the

Mariology of the Catholic Church

The Immaculate Conception, by Murillo

Overview

Prayers Antiphons Hymns to Mary Devotional practices

Prayers

Angelus Fátima Prayers Flos Carmeli Hail Mary Hail Mary
Hail Mary
of Gold Immaculata prayer Magnificat Mary, Mother of Grace Mary Our Queen Memorare Sub tuum praesidium

Antiphons

Alma Redemptoris Mater Ave Maris Stella Ave Regina Caelorum Salve Regina

Hymns to Mary

Hail Queen of Heaven, the Ocean Star Immaculate Mary Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming O Sanctissima Regina Coeli Stabat Mater

Devotional practices

Acts of Reparation Consecration to Mary First Saturdays Rosary Seven Joys of the Virgin Seven Sorrows of Mary Three Hail Marys Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

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A wide range of Marian devotions
Marian devotions
are practiced by Roman Catholics and the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
item 971 states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."[35] In 1993 Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
encouraged priests to foster devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary.[36] Some beliefs about Marian devotions
Marian devotions
have been asserted by the saints and theologians, but have not been dogmatically approved by the Church. An example is the belief that Marian devotions
Marian devotions
are a sign of predestination, supported by Saint
Saint
Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint Bonaventure, and Saint
Saint
Alphonsus Ligouri
Alphonsus Ligouri
as well as R. Garrigou-Lagrange.[37][38][39][40] In his Apostlic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope John Paul II emphasized the importance of Marian devotions
Marian devotions
by quoting Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort:

Since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus
Jesus
Christ, it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary, his Holy Mother, and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[41]

Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
teachings and traditions includes specific devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary
Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary
for insults that she suffers. The Raccolta
Raccolta
Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See
Holy See
in 1898) includes a number of such prayers.[42][43] Devotions to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
date back to St. Bernard and in the 17th century Saint
Saint
Jean Eudes obtained the approbation and the first book on the devotion to the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary.[44][45] However, the 1830 reported vision of Saint
Saint
Catherine Labouré
Catherine Labouré
which introduced the Miraculous Medal
Miraculous Medal
depicting the thorn-crowned Heart of Jesus
Jesus
and the pierced Heart of Mary had a significant impact on the devotion. Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
consecrated the human race to the Immaculate Heart on December 8, 1942.[46][47][48][49][50] Other doctrine-based devotions include the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
which was declared a dogma in 1854[48][51][52] In the 20th century Saint Maximillian Kolbe
Maximillian Kolbe
encouraged consecration to the Immaculata, partly relying on the 1858 messages of Our Lady of Lourdes.[53][54] Among the many Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
prayers and devotions, Rosary
Rosary
devotions and spirituality are among the most prominent, and most often recited prayers. The rosary is widely emphasized in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
teachings, e.g. Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort's widely read book The Secret of the Rosary
Rosary
discusses the religious and mystical views on the rosary from multiple perspectives.[55] Although the Scapular
Scapular
may have initially started as a Christocentric devotion, by the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it had taken on a distinct Marian tone, to the extent that the Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages called it "one of the main Marian devotions
Marian devotions
of Christendom".[56] Rosary
Rosary
and scapular devotions have been supported, encouraged and linked by a number of Catholic figures such as popes, saints and cardinals and specific promises and indulgences have been associated with them.[57][58][59] The Rosary
Rosary
and the devotional scapular continue to be encouraged together as key Marian devotions
Marian devotions
in the 21st century.[60][61][62][63][64][65][66] A number of devotions involve Marian Apparitions, e.g. major and approved apparitions such as Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fatima
Our Lady of Fatima
or Our Lady of Akita
Our Lady of Akita
as well as a multitude of regional devotions across the continents from Our Lady of Good Health in India to Our Lady of Licheń
Our Lady of Licheń
in Poland.[67][68][69][70] Other Marian devotions
Marian devotions
include The Five First Saturdays, Seven Joys of Mary and Seven Sorrows of Mary. Marian Processions[edit]

Annual Grand Marian Procession through Downtown Los Angeles

Processions have historically played a significant role in the liturgical and spiritual life of Christians throughout the world. In every culture, public anniversaries, triumphant heroes, religious festivals, and innumerable other events have been marked by parades of local leadership and activists — and participated in by the viewers. In this way, the entire community is able to reaffirm its values and traditions, while inspiring onlookers with a sense of purpose. In Los Angeles, California, a Marian procession took place annually for roughly the first 100 years following the founding of the city. In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions, in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation, founded by Mark Anchor Albert, inaugurated an annual "Grand Marian Procession" in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles' historic core.[71][72] This yearly procession, intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles, begins outside of the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, better known as "La Placita". By way of city streets, the procession eventually terminates at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels where a public Rosary
Rosary
and Mass in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
are offered.[73] Subsequent years have seen the involvement and participation of numerous chivalric, fraternal, and religious orders, parishes, lay groups, political figures, as well as other religious and civic organizations. Devotions to saints[edit] In Catholic teachings, saints in Heaven
Heaven
have lasting links with humanity which can provide an abundance of good for the faithful.[74] The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(item 957) states:[75]

It is not merely by the title of example that we cherish the memory of those in heaven; we seek, rather, that by this devotion to the exercise of fraternal charity the union of the whole Church in the Spirit may be strengthened. Exactly as Christian communion among our fellow pilgrims brings us closer to Christ, so our communion with the saints joins us to Christ.

Devotions to saints may involve specific prayers, or acts such as the naming of schools or children after them. Some devotions seek the intercession of saints, submitting specific petitions to them.[74]

A Saint
Saint
Michael Chaplet.

Devotions to Saint
Saint
Joseph include the Novena
Novena
to Saint
Saint
Joseph and the Prayer to Saint
Saint
Joseph, as well as the Cord of St. Joseph. Saint Joseph's Medal is a sacramental introduced in 1971 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Saint
Saint
Joseph being declared the patron of the universal church. Saint
Saint
Joseph's scapular was approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1893.[76] A number of local devotions and customs to Saint Joseph exist around the world, e.g. Alpine regions, Josephstragen (German for carrying Saint
Saint
Joseph) takes place on the 9 days before Christmas. A statue of Saint
Saint
Joseph is carried between 9 homes, and on the first day one boy prays to him, on the second day two boys pray, until 9 boys pray the 9th day. The statue is then placed near a manger in the town church on Christmas Eve.[77] Devotions to Saint
Saint
Michael involve specific prayers and novenas to him, hymns such as Te Splendor
Te Splendor
as well as the Scapular
Scapular
of St. Michael the Archangel and the Chaplet of Saint
Saint
Michael. The Prayer to Saint Michael is also a popular prayer, composed by Pope Leo XIII.[78] Devotions to Saint
Saint
George are also widely practiced by Catholics, given that he is one of the most popular saints in Christianity.[79] These devotions and churches built in his honor date to the 6th century.[80] A wide range of other devotions to saints exist, e.g. Novena
Novena
of Grace is addressed to Saint
Saint
Francis Xavier, while the Cord of St. Francis is associated with Francis of Assisi. Other devotional practices[edit] A wide range of other devotional practices can be found among Catholics. An example is the use of a Home Altar. This practice dates back to the early Christians who used to pray in their homes even before churches were built for public worship. In a Home Altar, a cross usually hangs on the wall, and images of Jesus, the Blessed Virgin and saints may be displayed, along with a copy of the Bible or other devotional literature.[81] Catholic devotional practices are so wide-ranging at the local level that Catholics in one part of the world may be totally unaware of the local devotional practices in another corner of the world. For instance, devotions to, and the retablos depicting Santa Eduviges (Hedwig of Poland) in Mexico are virtually unknown to other Catholics, and she remains relatively unknown outside Poland. In fact, despite having Spanish influences at their origin, many of the devotions practiced in Mexico are now quite distinct from those practiced in Spain.[82] See also[edit]

Christian devotional literature Saint
Saint
George in devotions, traditions and prayers Saint
Saint
Michael (Roman Catholic)

References[edit]

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Sacred Heart
of Jesus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 May 2013 ^ Pope Pius XI, Miserentissimus Redemptor Archived August 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Golden Arrow", Catholic Tradition ^ Cruz, Joan Carroll. Relics, p.57, (Sep 1984), OSV Press, ISBN 0879737018 ^ Pope Benedict XVI, Angelus
Angelus
Address 30 May 2010 ^ "Holy Face nun beatified, remembered by Pope Benedict XVI". Catholic News Agency. May 30, 2010.  ^ Cruz, Joan Carroll. Saintly Men of Modern Times. (2003) ISBN 1-931709-77-7 ^ Holy Face Devotion ^ Alan Butler and Paul Burns, 2005, Butler's Lives of the Saints, Burns and Oats ISBN 0-86012-383-9 page 251 ^ Stravinskas, p. 428. ^ White, p. 35. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Vatican ^ Priests Must Foster Devotion to Mary, General Audience June 30, 1993, Vatican ^ The Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
in England by Brother Anthony Josemaria 2008 ISBN 0-595-50074-9 pages 401-403 ^ Fiat, M. Antoine. Life of Blessed John Gabriel Perboyre, Priest of the Congregation of the Mission, p. 56, ISBN 1-115-29333-8 ^ Saint
Saint
Alphonsus Liguori, The Glories of Mary, 1868, ISBN 0-7648-0664-5 page 139 ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 pages 144-147 ^ Pope John Paul II, Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Vatican ^ Delany, Francis Xavier. "Raccolta." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 29 May 2013 ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta
Raccolta
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Missio Immaculatae
(English Edition) Year III, N° 4 (May to December 2007).[1] ^ White p. 34. ^ "Agenzia Fides - Congregazione per l'Evangelizzazione dei Popoli". Fides.org. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ Rasmussen, Martha, The Catholic Church: the first 2,000, p. 261, 2003, ISBN 0-89870-969-5 ^ Flinn, Frank K. and Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Catholicism, pp. 409-410, 2007, ISBN 0-8160-5455-X ^ Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort
Louis de Montfort
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Indulgentiarum Doctrina
[2] ^ Petrisko, Thomas. Inside Heaven
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and Hell, p.105, 2000, St. Andrews Press ISBN 978-1-891903-23-6 ^ Pope John Paul II, 1996, Gift And Mystery, Doubleday Books ISBN 978-0-385-40966-7 page 28 ^ Cardinal Urges Devotion to Rosary
Rosary
and Scapular, Zenit, 2008 ^ Petrisko, Thomas W. The Fatima Prophecies, p. 345, St. Andrews Press, 1998, ISBN 978-1-891903-30-4 ^ Santos, Lucia. Fatima in Lucia's Own Words, Ravengate Press, 1976, ISBN 0-911218-10-6 ^ Lederhendler, Eli. Jews, Catholics, and the Burden of History, p.98, Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-19-530491-8 ^ Hilgers, Joseph. "Scapular." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 29 May 2013 ^ EWTN
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[3] ^ Lea, Henry Charles. A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences
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in the Latin Church, p. 498, Adamant Media Corp., 2002, ISBN 1-4021-6108-5 ^ The Hindu Newspaper ^ Vatican website: John Paul II
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at Lichen Archived October 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hermkens, Anna-Karina and Jansen, Willy. Moved by Mary: The Power of Pilgrimage in the Modern World, p. 217, 2009 ISBN 0-7546-6789-8 ^ Notitiae, bulletin of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2002, pages 194-195 ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/tidings-online20110906.pdf ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/marian_procession_seeks_prayer_for_los_angeles_on_citys_birthday___ewtn_n.pdf ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/tidings-online20110902.pdf ^ a b Ball, p. 504-505. ^ Vatican website: Catechism of the Church, item 957 ^ Ball, p. 576. ^ Ball, p. 275. ^ Raccolta
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Manual of Indulgences
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Sources[edit]

Ball, Ann. Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices, 2003, ISBN 0-87973-910-X Binz, Stephen J., Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus, 2006, ISBN 1-58595-597-3 Carroll, Michael. The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary: Hope for the World, 2007, Queenship Publishing ISBN 1-882972-98-8 Forster, Mark. Catholic Revival in the Age of the Baroque Cambridge Univ Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-78044-6 Murphy, John F. Mary's Immaculate Heart, 2007, ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 Stravinskas, Peter. Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia, 1998, OSV Press ISBN 0-87973-669-0 White, James F. Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
worship: Trent to today, 2003, ISBN 0-8146-6194-7

Further reading[edit]

O'Grady, John F. Catholic beliefs and traditions, 2002, ISBN 0-8091-4047-0

External links[edit]

Eternal Word Television Network, Global Catholic Network (EWTN), Faith Devotionals. Carroll, Michael P.,Catholic cults and devotions, 1989 ISBN&

.