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Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
(Portuguese: Catarina de Bragança; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, by marriage to King Charles II. She also served as regent of Portugal
Portugal
during the absence of her brother in 1701 and 1704-05, after her return to Portugal
Portugal
as widow. Catherine was born into the House of Braganza, the most senior noble house of Portugal, which became Portugal's royal house after Catherine's father, John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was proclaimed King John IV after overthrowing in 1640 the rule of the Spanish House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
over Portugal. Owing to her devotion to the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
beliefs in which she had been raised, Catherine was an unpopular consort for Charles II.[1] She was a special object of attack by the inventors of the Popish Plot. In 1678 the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey
Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey
was ascribed to her servants, and Titus Oates
Titus Oates
accused her of an intention to poison the king. These charges, the absurdity of which were soon shown by cross-examination, nevertheless placed the queen for some time in great danger. On 28 November Oates accused her of high treason, and the Commons passed an order for her removal and that of all Roman Catholics from Whitehall. A series of fresh depositions were made against her, and in June 1679 it was decided that she must stand trial; but she was protected by the king, which earned her gratitude. Catherine had three miscarriages and produced no heirs.[1] Her husband kept many mistresses, most notably Barbara Palmer, whom Catherine was forced to accept as one of her Ladies of the Bedchamber.[2] Charles fathered numerous illegitimate offspring by his mistresses whom he acknowledged. She and Charles are credited with introducing the custom of drinking tea to the British court,[3] which was common among the Portuguese nobility.

Contents

1 Early life and family 2 Marriage 3 Queen consort 4 Catholicism

4.1 Popish plot

5 Later life and death 6 Legacy 7 Arms 8 Ancestry 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life and family[edit]

Infanta Catherine of Portugal
Portugal
by Dirk Stoop, 1660–1661

Catherine was born at the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, as the second surviving daughter of John, 8th Duke of Braganza
Duke of Braganza
and his wife, Luisa de Guzmán.[4] Following the Portuguese Restoration War, her father was acclaimed King John IV of Portugal, on 1 December 1640. With her father's new position as one of Europe's most important monarchs, Portugal
Portugal
then possessing a widespread colonial empire, Catherine became a prime choice for a wife for European royalty, and she was proposed as a bride for John of Austria, François de Vendôme, duc de Beaufort, Louis XIV and Charles II. The consideration for the final choice was due to her being seen as a useful conduit for contracting an alliance between Portugal
Portugal
and England, after the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in which Portugal
Portugal
was arguably abandoned by France. Despite her country's ongoing struggle with Spain, Catherine enjoyed a happy, contented childhood in her beloved Lisbon. Commonly regarded as the power behind the throne, Queen Luisa was also a devoted mother who took an active interest in her children's upbringing and personally supervised her daughter's education. Catherine is believed to have spent most of her youth in a convent close by the royal palace where she remained under the watchful eye of her protective mother. It appears to have been a very sheltered upbringing, with one contemporary remarking that Catherine, "was bred hugely retired" and "hath hardly been ten times out of the palace in her life".[5] Catherine's older sister, Joana, Princess of Beira, died in 1653, leaving Catherine as the eldest surviving child of her parents. Her husband was chosen by Luisa, who acted as regent of her country following her husband's death in 1656.[1] Marriage[edit] Further information: Marriage Treaty Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of King Charles I, were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on 23 June 1661, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed. England secured Tangier
Tangier
(in North Africa) and the Seven Islands of Bombay
Bombay
(in India), trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal, and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000). In return Portugal obtained British military and naval support (which would prove to be decisive) in her fight against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.[6] She arrived at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
on the evening of 13–14 May 1662,[6] but was not visited there by Charles until 20 May. The following day the couple were married at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in two ceremonies – a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service[6] at the chapel of Domus Dei.[7]

Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
departs Lisbon
Lisbon
from the Palace Square, 23 April 1662

On 30 September 1662 the married couple entered London as part of a large procession, which included the Portuguese delegation and many members of the court. There were also minstrels and musicians, among them ten playing shawms and twelve playing Portuguese bagpipes, those being the new Queen’s favourite instruments. The procession continued over a large bridge, especially designed and built for the occasion, which led into the palace where Henrietta Maria, the Queen Mother waited, along with the British court and nobility. This was followed by feasting and firework displays. Catherine possessed several good qualities, but had been brought up in a convent, secluded from the world, and was scarcely a wife Charles would have chosen for himself. Her mother in law the Dowager Queen Henrietta Maria was pleased with her and Henrietta wrote that she is "The best creature in the world, from whom I have so much affection, I have the joy to see the King love her extremely. She is a Saint!". In reality, Catherine's personal charms were not potent enough to wean Charles away from the society of his mistresses, and in a few weeks after her arrival she became aware of her painful and humiliating position as the wife of a licentious king.[8] Little is known of Catherine's own thoughts on the match. While her mother plotted to secure an alliance with England and thus support in Portugal's fight for independence, and her future husband celebrated his restoration by dallying with his mistresses, Catherine's time had been spent in the sombre seclusion of her convent home, with little opportunity for fun or frivolity. Even outside the convent her actions were governed by the strict etiquette of the royal court of Portugal. By all accounts Catherine grew into a quiet, even-tempered young woman.

A plaque at Sally Port in the Garrison walls at Portsmouth commemorates Catherine's first setting foot on English soil.

At the time of her marriage she was already twenty-three, something which was not lost on her critics, and had long since resigned herself to the necessity of making a grand match abroad. Contented and serene, Catherine's response on being told of her impending nuptials was to request permission to make a pilgrimage to a favourite shrine of hers in Lisbon. Devoted to her beloved Portugal, as she set sail for England any distress she may have felt at leaving her family and her home was no doubt lessened by the knowledge that her marriage had been hailed as "the welcomest news that ever came to the Portuguese people".[5]

Rex Carolus II and Regina Catharina, Dei Gratia Angliæ Scotiæ Franciæ et Hiberniæ

Catherine became pregnant and miscarried at least three times, and during a severe illness in 1663, she imagined, for a time, that she had given birth. Charles comforted her by telling her she had indeed given birth to two sons and a daughter. Her position was a difficult one, and though Charles continued to have children by his many mistresses, he insisted she be treated with respect, and sided with her against his mistresses when he felt she was not receiving the respect she was due. After her three miscarriages, it seemed to be more and more unlikely that the queen would bear an heir. Royal advisors urged the monarch to seek a divorce, hoping that the new wife would be Protestant
Protestant
and fertile – but Charles refused. This eventually led to her being made a target by courtiers.[1] Throughout his reign, Charles firmly dismissed the idea of divorcing Catherine, and she remained faithful to Charles throughout their marriage. Queen consort[edit] Catherine was not a particularly popular choice of queen since she was a Roman Catholic.[1] Her religion prevented her from being crowned, as Roman Catholics were forbidden to take part in Anglican
Anglican
services. She initially faced hardships due to the language barrier, the king's infidelities and the political conflicts between Roman Catholics and Anglicans. Over time, her quiet decorum, loyalty and genuine affection for Charles changed the public's perception of her. Although her difficulties with the English language persisted, as time went on, the once rigidly formal Portuguese Infanta mellowed and began to enjoy some of the more innocent pleasures of the court. She loved to play cards and shocked devout Protestants by playing on Sundays. She enjoyed dancing and took great delight in organising masques. She had a great love for the countryside and picnics; fishing and archery were also favourite pastimes. In a far cry from her convent-days the newly liberated Catherine displayed a fondness for the recent trend of court ladies wearing men's clothing, which we are told, "showed off her pretty, neat legs and ankles"; and she was even reported to have considered leading the way in wearing shorter dresses, which would show off her feet. In 1670, on a trip to Audley End with her ladies-in-waiting, the once chronically shy Catherine attended a country fair disguised as a village maiden, but was soon discovered and, due to the large crowds, forced to make a hasty retreat. And when in 1664 her favourite painter, Jacob Huysmans, a Flemish Catholic, painted her as St Catherine, it promptly set a trend among court ladies.[5]

Queen Catherine as St Catherine of Alexandria, by Jacob Huysmans

She did not involve herself in English politics, instead she kept up an active interest in her native country. Anxious to re-establish good relations with the Pope and perhaps gain recognition for Portuguese independence, she sent Richard Bellings, later her principal secretary, to Rome with letters for the pope and several cardinals. In 1669 she involved herself in the last-ditch effort to relieve Candia in Crete, which was under siege by the Turks and whose cause Rome was promoting, although she failed to persuade her husband to take any action. In 1670, as a sign of her rising favour with the pontiff she requested, and was granted, devotional objects.[5] Catherine fainted when Charles's official mistress, Barbara Palmer
Barbara Palmer
was presented to her. Charles insisted on making Palmer Catherine's Lady of the Bedchamber.[9] After this incident, Catherine withdrew from spending time with the king, declaring she would return to Portugal rather than openly accept the arrangement with Palmer. Clarendon failed to convince her to change her mind. Charles then dismissed nearly all the members of Catherine's Portuguese retinue. After which, she stopped actively resisting, which pleased the king, but participated very little in court life and activities.[10] Catholicism[edit] Though known to keep her faith a private matter, her religion and proximity to the king made her the target of anti-Catholic sentiment. Catherine occupied herself with her faith. Her piety was widely known and was a characteristic in his wife that the King greatly admired; in his letters to his sister, Catherine's devoutness is described almost with awe. Her household contained between four and six priests, and in 1665, Catherine decided to build a religious house east of St James's to be occupied by thirteen Portuguese Franciscans
Franciscans
of the order of St Peter of Alcantara. It was completed by 1667 and would become known as The Friary.[5]

Queen Catherine as a Shepherdess, by Jacob Huysmans

In 1675 the stress of a possible revival of the divorce project indirectly led to another illness, which Catherine's physicians claimed and her husband cannot fail to have noted, was "due as much to mental as physical causes". In the same year, all Irish and English Catholic priests were ordered to leave the country, which left Catherine dependent upon foreign priests. As increasingly harsher measures were put in place against Catholics, Catherine appointed her close friend and adviser, the devoutly Catholic Francisco de Mello, former Portuguese Ambassador to England, as her Lord Chamberlain. It was an unusual and controversial move but "wishing to please Catherine and perhaps demonstrate the futility of moves for divorce, the King granted his permission. De Mello was dismissed the following year for ordering the printing of a Catholic book, leaving the beleaguered Catherine even more isolated at court".[5] One consolation was that Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, who replaced Barbara Palmer as reigning mistress, always treated the Queen with proper deference; the Queen in return showed her gratitude by using her own influence to protect Louise during the Popish Plot. Popish plot[edit] Further information: Popish plot The Test Act
Test Act
of 1673 had driven all Catholics out of public office, and anti-Catholic feelings intensified in the years to come. Although she was not active in religious politics, in 1675 Catherine was criticised for supposedly supporting the idea of appointing a bishop to England who, it was hoped, would resolve the internal disputes of Catholics. Critics also noted the fact that, despite orders to the contrary, English Catholics attended her private chapel. As the highest-ranking Catholic in the country, Catherine was an obvious target for Protestant
Protestant
extremists, and it was hardly surprising that the Popish Plot
Popish Plot
of 1678 would directly threaten her position. However, Catherine was completely secure in her husband's favour ("she could never do anything wicked, and it would be a horrible thing to abandon her" he told Gilbert Burnet), and the House of Lords, most of whom knew her and liked her, refused by an overwhelming majority to impeach her.[5] Relations between the royal couple became notably warmer: Catherine wrote of Charles' "wonderful kindness" to her. and it was noted that his visits to her apartments became longer and more frequent. Later life and death[edit]

In Portugal, Catherine spent the rest of her life as a mentor for her nephew, Prince John.

At Charles' final illness in 1685, she showed anxiety for his reconciliation with the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
faith, and she exhibited great grief at his death. When he lay dying in 1685, he asked for Catherine, but she sent a message asking that her presence be excused and "to beg his pardon if she had offended him all his life." He answered, "Alas poor woman! she asks for my pardon? I beg hers with all my heart; take her back that answer."[11] Later in the same year, she unsuccessfully interceded with James II for the life of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Charles's illegitimate son and leader of the Monmouth Rebellion – even though Monmouth in rebellion had called upon the support represented by the staunch Protestants opposed to the Catholic Church. Catherine remained in England, living at Somerset House,[12] through the reign of James and his deposition in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
by William III and Mary II. She remained in England partly because of a protracted lawsuit against her former Lord Chamberlain, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, over money that she claimed as part of her allowance and that he claimed was part of the perquisite of his office. Catherine's fondness for money is one of the more unexpected features of her character: her brother-in-law James, who was himself notably avaricious, remarked that she always drove a hard bargain. Initially on good terms with William and Mary, her position deteriorated as the practice of her religion led to misunderstandings and increasing isolation. A bill was introduced to Parliament to limit the number of Catherine's Catholic servants, and she was warned not to agitate against the government. She finally returned to Portugal
Portugal
in March 1692, where she took care of and mentored her nephew, Prince John. His mother, Maria Sofia of Neuburg, had recently died, and the prince had fallen into a depression. Catherine was instrumental in lifting the young prince's spirits, and soon became a key part in his life, as his tutor and main female figure in his life. Her death would, in fact, cause Prince John to experience another depression. In 1703, she supported the Treaty of Methuen
Treaty of Methuen
between Portugal
Portugal
and England. She acted as regent for her brother, Peter II, in 1701 and 1704–05. She died at the Bemposta Palace
Bemposta Palace
in Lisbon
Lisbon
on 31 December 1705 and was buried at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
Lisbon. Legacy[edit] Catherine is credited with the introduction of tea drinking to Britain, although Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
makes reference to drinking tea for the first time in his diary entry for 25 September 1660 (i.e. prior to Catherine's emigration to England and marriage to Charles). It is more likely that she popularised the drink, which was unusual in Britain at the time.[13] Beyond tea, her arrival brought and promulgated goods such as cane, lacquer, cottons, and porcelain.[14]

Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
(Jacobite broadside)

Queens, a borough of New York City, was supposedly named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen when Queens
Queens
County was established in 1683. Queens' naming is consistent with those of Kings County (the borough of Brooklyn, originally named after her husband, King Charles II) and Richmond County (the borough of Staten Island, named after his illegitimate son, the 1st Duke of Richmond).[15][16][17] However, there is no historical evidence that Queens
Queens
County was named in her honor, neither is there a document from the time proclaiming it so. Some written histories of Queens
Queens
skip over the monarch entirely and make no mention of her or her supposed namesake county.[18] Historians furthermore argue that Catherine "probably didn't even know Queens
Queens
existed"[19] and point out that "Catherine herself ... played no role in the settlement of Queens."[20] After the tri-centennial of the establishment of Queens
Queens
County in 1983, a group of Portuguese-Americans
Portuguese-Americans
began raising money to erect a 35-foot statue of Queen Catherine on the East River
East River
waterfront in Long Island City. The sculptor of the proposed statue was Audrey Flack. The project was well advanced when opposition arose. Historians objected on the grounds that there was no evidence that Queens
Queens
was actually named after her, and further that a British monarch was an inappropriate subject for a public monument. African-Americans objected to the statue on the grounds that the British and Portuguese royal houses benefited from the African slave trade. Irish-Americans objected to any statue of a British monarch. The controversy forced Borough President Claire Shulman
Claire Shulman
to withdraw her support, and the statue was never erected.[21][22] A quarter-scale model survives at the site of Expo '98
Expo '98
in Lisbon, Portugal, facing west across the Atlantic. Novelists, notably Margaret Campbell Barnes in With All My Heart, Jean Plaidy in her Charles II trilogy and Susanna Gregory in her Thomas Chaloner mystery novels, usually portray the Queen in a sympathetic light. So did Alison Macleod in her 1976 biography of the queen, The Portingale. Catherine's marriage had an important result for the later history of India and of the British Empire, though the Queen personally had little to do with it: soon after acquiring the Seven Islands of Bombay as part of her dowry, Charles II rented them to the East India Company which moved its Presidency there - resulting in Bombay/Mumbai eventually growing to become one of the main cities of India. Arms[edit] The royal arms of the British monarch are impaled with the royal arms of her father. For supporters, she used the crowned lion of England on the dexter side, and on the sinister, the wyvern Vert of Portugal.[23]

Catherine's coat of arms as queen consort of England

Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Catherine of Braganza

16. Teodósio I, Duke of Braganza

8. João I, Duke of Braganza

17. Isabel de Lencastre

4. Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza

18. Duarte, Duke of Guimarães

9. Catarina of Portugal

19. Isabel de Bragança

2. John IV of Portugal

20. Íñigo de Velasco y Girón, 4th Duke of Frías

10. Juan de Velasco y Guzmán, 5th Duke of Frías

21. Ana de Guzmán y Aragón

5. Ana de Velasco y Girón

22. Pedro Téllez-Girón y la Cueva, 1st Duke of Osuna

11. María Téllez-Girón y Guzmán

23. Leonor de Guzmán y Aragón

1. Catherine of Braganza

24. Juan Carlos de Guzmán y Aragón, 9th Count of Niebla

12. Alonso de Guzmán y Sotomayor, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia

25. Leonor de Sotomayor y Zúniga

6. Juan Manuel de Guzmán y Silva, 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia

26. Rui Gomes da Silva, 1st Prince of Éboli

13. Ana de Silva y Mendoza

27. Ana de Mendoza y Silva, 2nd Princess of Mélito

3. Luisa de Guzmán

28. Francisco de Sandoval y Zúñiga, 4th Marquis of Denia

14. Francisco de Sandoval y Borja, 1st Duke of Lerma

29. Isabel de Borja y Castro

7. Juana de Sandoval y la Cerda

30. Juan de la Cerda y Silva, 4th Duke of Medinaceli

15. Catalina de la Cerda y Portugal

31. Joana de Noronha

See also[edit]

List of English consorts History of tea in the United Kingdom

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Kenneth J. Panton; Kenneth John Panton (24 February 2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-8108-5779-7. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Herman (2005), p. 61 ^ Martin, Laura C (2007). Tea: the drink that changed the world. Catherine of Braganza: Tuttle Publishing. pp. 120–123. ISBN 0-8048-3724-4.  ^ Laufer (1999), p. 83 ^ a b c d e f g Heidi Murphy. "Biographies of Great Men & Women of England, Wales and Scotland". Britannia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2016.  ^ a b c Wynne, S. M. (2004). "Catherine (1638–1705)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4894. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  (subscription or UK public library membership required) ^ Brand, Emily (2011). Royal Weddings. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-1139-8.  ^ Herman (2005), pp. 58–59 ^ Herman (2005), p. 60 ^ Herman (2005), pp. 61–62 ^ Laufer (1999), p. 83 ^ British empire; British isles (1856). The land we live in ... the British Islands. pp. 157–. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ "Catherine of Braganza", UK Tea Council. Retrieved 1 March 2013 ^ Thomas, Gertrude Z. (1965). Richer than spices; how a royal bride's dowry introduced cane, lacquer, cottons, tea, and porcelain to England, and so revolutionized taste, manners, craftsmanship, and history in both England and America. New York: Knopf.  ^ Adrian Room (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Jason D. Antos (14 January 2009). Queens. Arcadia Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7385-6308-4. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Jane Mushabac; Angela Wigan; Museum of the City of New York (1 January 1999). A Short and Remarkable History of New York City. Fordham Univ Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8232-1985-8. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ More, James F. (2003). The History of Queens
Queens
County. Ontario: Global Heritage Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1894378789.  ^ Lippincott, E.E. "A Borough President's Goal: Dethroning the Queen of Queens". The New York Times.  ^ "The Wrong Place for Queen Catherine". The New York Times.  ^ New York Times, 11 October 1990 and 9 January 1998. ^ Catherine Of Braganza: The Fall Of A Queen Archived 19 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Queens
Queens
Tribune ^ Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press, p. 181, ISBN 0-900455-25-X 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Catherine of Braganza". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Sources[edit]

Herman, Eleanor (2005). Sex with Kings: 500 Years of Adultery, Power, Rivalry, and Revenge. 'The Contempt of the World': William Morrow Paperbacks. ISBN 0-06-058544-7.  Laufer, Guida Myrl Jackson (1999). Women rulers throughout the ages: an illustrated guide. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-091-3. 

Further reading[edit]

Plaidy, Jean (1993). The Pleasures of Love: The Story of Catherine of Braganza. Chivers Large print. ISBN 978-0-7451-7528-7.  Plaidy, Jean. (2008). The Merry Monarch's Wife: The Story of Catherine of Braganza. Broadway. ISBN 0-307-34617-X Plaidy, Jean. (2005). The Loves of Charles II: The Stuart Saga. Broadway. ISBN 1-4000-8248-X Lewis, Hilda (2007). Wife to Charles II. Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-3948-8.  Koen, Karleen. (2006). Dark Angels. Broadway. ISBN 0-307-33992-0 Fraser, Antonia (2002). King Charles II. Phoenix Paperbacks. ISBN 0-7538-1403-X.  Sousa, Manuel E. (1995). Catherine of Braganza. Howell Press Inc. ISBN 978-972-9019-73-9 Elsna, Hebe. (1967). Catherine of Braganza : Charles II's Queen. Hale. Mackay, Janet. (1937).Catherine of Braganza. J. Long, Limited; First Edition. Barnes, Margaret Campbell. (1951). With All My Heart: The Love Story of Catherine of Braganza. Macrae-Smith Company.

External links[edit]

Media related to Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
at Wikimedia Commons

Catherine of Braganza House of Braganza Cadet branch of the House of Aviz Born: 25 November 1638 Died: 31 December 1705

British royalty

Vacant Title last held by Henrietta Maria of France Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland 1662–1685 Succeeded by Mary of Modena

v t e

English royal consorts

Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Æthelflæd of Damerham Ælfgifu Ælfthryth Ælfgifu of York Sigrid the Haughty/Świętosława Ealdgyth Emma of Normandy Edith of Wessex Edith of Mercia Matilda of Flanders Matilda of Scotland Adeliza of Louvain Matilda of Boulogne Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou Eleanor of Aquitaine Margaret of France Berengaria of Navarre Isabella of Angoulême Eleanor of Provence Eleanor of Castile Margaret of France Isabella of France Philippa of Hainault Anne of Bohemia Isabella of Valois Joan of Navarre Catherine of Valois Margaret of Anjou Elizabeth Woodville Anne Neville Elizabeth of York Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Lord Guildford Dudley Philip II of Spain Anne of Denmark Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza Mary of Modena George of Denmark

Spouses of debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Scottish royal consorts

Gruoch (c. 1040 – 1057) Ingibiorg Finnsdottir (1058–1069) Margaret of Wessex (1070–1093) Ethelreda of Northumbria (1093–1094) Sybilla of Normandy (1107–1122) Maud of Northumbria (1124–1130) Ermengarde de Beaumont (1186–1214) Joan of England (1221–1238) Marie de Coucy
Marie de Coucy
(1239–1249) Margaret of England
Margaret of England
(1251–1275) Yolande de Dreux (1285–1286) Elizabeth de Burgh
Elizabeth de Burgh
(1306–1327) Joan of the Tower
Joan of the Tower
(1329–1362) Margaret Drummond (1364–1369) Euphemia de Ross (1371–1386) Anabella Drummond
Anabella Drummond
(1390–1401) Joan Beaufort (1424–1437) Mary of Guelders (1449–1460) Margaret of Denmark (1469–1486) Margaret Tudor
Margaret Tudor
(1503–1513) Madeleine of Valois
Madeleine of Valois
(1537) Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise
(1538–1542) Francis II of France
Francis II of France
(1558–1560) Henry, Duke of Albany (1565–1567) James, Earl of Bothwell (1567) Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
(1589–1619) Henrietta Maria of France
Henrietta Maria of France
(1625–1649) Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
(1662–1685) Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena
(1685–1688) George, Duke of Cumberland (1702–1707)

v t e

House of Braganza

Members of the Ducal House

Generations indicate descent from Afonso, Duke of Braganza, founder of the House of Braganza, until João II, Duke of Braganza, the first Braganza monarch of Portugal; italics indicate a head of the House

1st generation

Afonso, 1st Marquis of Valença Isabel, Lady of Reguengos de Monsaraz Fernando I

2nd generation

Fernando II João, 1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo Afonso, Count of Faro
Count of Faro
do Alentejo Álvaro, 4th Lord of Cadaval António Isabel Beatriz, Marquise of Vila Real Guiomar, Countess of Viana do Alentejo Catarina

3rd generation

Roderigo, 1st Marquis of Ferreira Jorge Alberto, 1st Count of Gelves Beatriz, Duchess of Coimbra Joana, Countess of Vimioso Maria, Countess of Portalegre Filipe Jaime I Dinis, Count of Lemos Margarida

4th generation

Fernando, 7th Count of Lemos Afonso Isabel Maria Isabel, Duchess of Guimarães Teodósio I Joana, Marquise of Elche Jaime Eugénia, Marquise of Ferreira Maria Constantino, Viceroy of India Fulgêncio Teotónio, Archbishop of Évora

5th generation

João I Jaime Isabel, Duchess of Caminha

6th generation

Maria Serefina Teodósio II Duarte, 1st Marquise of Frechilla Alexandre, Archbishop of Évora Querubina Angélica Maria Isabel Filipe

7th generation

João II Duarte, 1st Lord of Vila do Conde Catarina Alexandre

Members of the Royal House

Generations indicate descent from João IV, King of Portugal, formerly João II, Duke of Braganza, the first Braganza monarch of Portugal, until Manuel II, King of Portugal, the last monarch of Portugal, excluding the Miguelist line; italics indicate a head of the House

1st generation

Teodósio, Prince of Brazil Ana Joana, Princess of Beira Catarina, Queen Consort of the England Manuel Afonso VI Peter II Maria

2nd generation

Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira João, Prince of Brazil João V Francisco, Duke of Beja António Francisca Xaviera Teresa Maria Manuel, Count of Ourém Francisca Josefa Luísa, Duchess of Cadaval Miguel José, Archbishop of Braga

3rd generation

António Gaspar, Archbishop of Braga José, High Inquisitor of Portugal Maria Rita of Braganza Barbara, Queen Consort of Spain Pedro, Prince of Brazil José I Carlos Pedro III Alexandre João da Bemposta Joana Francisca, Marquise of Cascais Pedro Henrique, 1st Duke of Lafões João Carlos, 2nd Duke of Lafões Francisca

4th generation

Maria I Mariana Francisca Maria Doroteia Maria Benedita, Princess of Brazil José João, Duke of Miranda do Corvo Carlota Ana Maria, 3rd Duchess of Lafões Maria Domingas, Duchess of Cadaval

5th generation

José, Prince of Brazil João Carlos João Francisco João VI Maria Ana Vitória Maria Clementina Maria Isabel

6th generation

Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira Francisco António, Prince of Beira Maria Isabel, Queen Consort of Spain Pedro IV Maria Francisca, Countess of Molina Isabel Maria, Regent
Regent
of Portugal Miguel I Maria da Assunção Ana de Jesus Maria, Marquise of Loulé

7th generation

Maria II Miguel, Prince of Beira João Carlos, Prince of Beira Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil

8th generation

Pedro V Luís I Maria João, Duke of Beja Maria Anna, Princess of Saxony Antónia, Princess of Hohenzollern Fernando Augusto, Duke of Coimbra Leopoldo Maria da Glória Eugénio

9th generation

Carlos I Afonso, Duke of Porto

10th generation

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal Maria Ana Manuel II

Members of the Imperial house

Generations indicate descent from Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, also Pedro IV, King of Portugal, founder of the Empire of Brazil, until Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, the last monarch of Brazill; italics indicates a head of the House

1st generation

Maria II, Queen of Portugal Januária, Countess of Aquila Paula Francisca, Princess of Joinville Pedro II Maria Amélia

2nd generation

Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Leopoldina Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil

3rd generation

Pedro Augusto Augusto Leopoldo José Fernando Luís Gastão Luís Maria Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará Antônio Gastão

Members of the Miguelist House

Generations indicate descent from Miguel I, King of Portugal, founder of the Miguelist House, until Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the current head of the House of Braganza; italics indicates a head of the House

1st generation

Maria das Neves, Duchess of San Jaime Miguel, Duke of Braganza Maria Teresa, Archduchess of Austria Maria José, Duchess in Bavaria Adelgundes, Duchess of Guimarães Maria Ana, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Maria Antónia, Duchess of Parma

2nd generation

Miguel, Duke of Viseu Francisco José Maria Teresa, Princess of Thurn and Taxis Isabel Maria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis Maria Benedita Mafalda Maria Ana, Princess of Thurn and Taxis Maria Antónia Filipa Maria Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza Maria Adelaide

3rd generation

Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza Miguel, Duke of Viseu Henrique, Duke of Coimbra

4th generation

Afonso, Prince of Beira Maria Francisca Dinis, Duke of Porto

Titles

see List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown

Regnal

King of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves Emperor of Brazil King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves

Royal

Prince of Portugal Prince of Brazil Prince Royal of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Prince Royal of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves Prince of Beira Prince Imperial of Brazil Prince of Grão-Pará Prince of Brazil Infante of Portugal

Noble

Duke of Braganza Duke of Guimarães Duke of Barcelos Duke of Porto Duke of Beja Duke of Viseu Duke of Coimbra Marquis of Vila Viçosa Marquis of Valença Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo Count of Guimarães Count of Barcelos Count of Arraiolos Count of Ourém Count of Neiva Count of Faro Count of Faria

Patrimony

Portugal

Ajuda Palace Belém Palace Buçaco Palace Castle of Vila Viçosa Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa Mafra Palace Necessidades Palace Palace of the Counts of Barcelos Palace of the Dukes of Braganza Pena Palace Queluz Palace Ramalhão Palace Ribeira Palace

Brazil

Grão-Pará Palace Petrópolis Palace Quinta da Boa Vista Rio de Janeiro Palace São Cristóvão Palace Santa Cruz Estate

Cadet houses

Agnatic

House of Valença House of Lafões House of Cadaval

Non-agnatic

House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha House of Bourbon-Braganza House of Orléans-Braganza

Miscellaneous

Topics

Duchy of Braganza Dukedom of Braganza List of Dukes of Braganza Duchess of Braganza Pantheon of the House of Braganza

v t e

Infantas of Portugal

The generations indicate descent form Afonso I, and continues through the House of Aviz, the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
through Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, and the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
through Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza.

1st generation

Infanta Urraca, Queen of León Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy Infanta Mafalda

2nd generation

Infanta Teresa, Queen of León Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer Infanta Constança Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark

3rd generation

Infanta Leonor, Junior Queen of Denmark Infanta Maria of Flanders

4th generation

Infanta Branca, Lady of Las Huelgas Infanta Sancha Infanta Maria Infanta Constança

5th generation

Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile and León Infanta Maria, Lady of Meneses and Orduña Infanta Isabel, Lady of Penela Infanta Constança, Lady of Portalegre Infanta Beatriz, Lady of Lemos

6th generation

Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile and León Infanta Isabel Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

7th generation

Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque

8th generation

Infanta Beatriz, Queen of Castile and León Infanta Branca (1388–1389) Infanta Isabel, Duchess of Burgundy Infanta Branca (1398)

9th generation

Infanta Filipa Infanta Maria Infanta Leonor, Holy Roman Empress Infanta Catarina Infanta Joana, Queen of Castile and León Infanta Isabel, Queen of Portugal Infanta Beatriz, Lady of Ravenstein Infanta Filipa of Coimbra Infanta Isabel, Queen of Castile and León Infanta Beatriz, Duchess of Viseu Infanta Filipa, Lady of Almada

10th generation

Joana, Princess of Portugal Infanta Leonor, Queen of Portugal Infanta Isabel, Duchess of Braganza Infanta Catarina of Viseu

11th generation

Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain Infanta Beatriz, Duchess of Savoy Infanta Maria Infanta Maria, Duchess of Viseu

12th generation

Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal
Portugal
and Asturias Infanta Isabel Infanta Beatriz Infanta Luísa of Guarda Infanta Maria, Hereditary Princess of Parma Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza

13th generation

Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, Co-Sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands* Infanta Catalina Micaela, Duchess of Savoy* Infanta María*

14th generation

Infanta Ana, Queen of France* Infanta María* Infanta María Ana, Holy Roman Empress* Infanta Margarita Francisca*

15th generation

Infanta María Margarita* Infanta Margarita María Catalina* Infanta María Eugenia* Infanta Isabel María Teresa* Infanta María Ana Antonia* María Teresa, Queen of France* Joana, Princess of Beira Infanta Catarina, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland

16th generation

Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira Infanta Teresa Maria Infanta Francisca Josefa

17th generation

Princess Bárbara, Queen of Spain

18th generation

Maria I Infanta Maria Ana Francisca Infanta Maria Doroteia Benedita, Princess of Brazil

19th generation

Infanta Mariana Victoria, Infanta of Spain Infanta Maria Clementina Infanta Maria Isabel

20th generation

Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira
Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira
and Infanta of Spain Infanta Maria Isabel, Queen of Spain Infanta Maria Francisca, Countess of Molina Infanta Isabel Maria Infanta Maria da Assunção Infanta Ana de Jesus Maria, Marchioness of Loulé

21st generation

Maria II** Princess Januária, Countess of Aquila** Princess Paula** Princess Francisca, Princess of Joinville** Princess Maria Amélia** Infanta Maria das Neves, Duchess of San Jaime Infanta Maria Teresa, Archduchess of Austria Infanta Maria José, Duchess in Bavaria Infanta Aldegundes, Duchess of Guimarães and Countess of Bardi Infanta Maria Ana, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Infanta Maria Antónia, Duchess of Parma

22nd generation

Infanta Maria*** Infanta Maria Ana, Princess Georg of Saxony*** Infanta Antónia, Princess of Hohenzollern*** Infanta Maria da Glória*** Infanta Maria Teresa, Princess Karl Ludwig of Thurn und Taxis Infanta Isabel Maria, Princess of Thurn und Taxis Infanta Maria Benedita Infanta Mafalda Infanta Maria Ana, Hereditary Princess of Thurn und Taxis Infanta Maria Antónia, Mrs Sidney Chanler Infanta Filipa Infanta Maria Adelaide, Mrs Nicolaas van Uden

23rd generation

None

24th generation

Infanta Maria Ana*** Infanta Maria Francisca

* also an infanta of Spain and an archduchess of Austria,  ** also an imperial princess of Brazil,  *** also a princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess in Saxony

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Portugal
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84378729 LCCN: n84107660 ISNI: 0000 0000 5702 2420 GND: 136069053 SELIBR: 355226 SUDOC: 117226319 BNF: cb16258771r (data) SN

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