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Casimir IV KG (Polish: Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk [kaˈʑimi̯ɛʒ jaɡi̯ɛlˈlɔɲt͡ʃɨk] ( listen); Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis [kaˈziˈmieˈrʲaːs joːˈgaːiˈlʲaiˈtisʲ] ( listen); 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492[1]) of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, and the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
became one of the leading royal houses in Europe. He was a strong opponent of aristocracy, and helped to strengthen the importance of Parliament and the Senate.[2] The great triumph of his reign was bringing Prussia
Prussia
under Polish rule.[3] The long and brilliant rule of Casimir corresponded to the age of “new monarchies” in western Europe. By the 15th century Poland
Poland
had narrowed the distance separating it from western Europe and become a significant factor in international relations. The demand for raw materials and semi-finished goods stimulated trade, producing a positive balance, and contributed to the growth of crafts and mining in the entire country.[4] He was a recipient of the English Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(KG), the highest order of chivalry and the most prestigious honour in England.

Contents

1 Youth 2 Grand Duke of Lithuania 3 King of Poland 4 Foreign policies 5 Legacy and opinion of reign

5.1 Culture

6 Curse of the Royal Tomb 7 Children 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources

Youth[edit] Casimir Jagiellon
Jagiellon
was the third and youngest son of King Władysław II Jagiełło and his fourth wife, Sophia of Halshany.[5] His father was already 65 at the time of Casimir’s birth, and his brother Władysław III, three years his senior, was expected to become king before his majority. Strangely, little was done for his education; he was never taught Latin, nor was he trained for the responsibilities of office, despite the fact he was the only brother of the rightful sovereign.[6] He often relied on his instinct and feelings and had little political knowledge, but shared a great interest in the diplomacy and economic affairs of the country. Throughout Casimir's youth, Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki was his mentor and tutor, however, the cleric felt a strong reluctance towards him, believing that he would be an unsuccessful monarch following Władysław's death. Grand Duke of Lithuania[edit] The sudden death of Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
left the office of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
empty. The Voivode of Trakai, Jonas Goštautas, and other magnates of Lithuania, supported Casimir as a candidate to the throne. However many Polish noblemen hoped that the thirteen-year-old boy would become a Vice-regent for the Polish King in Lithuania.[7] Casimir was invited by the Lithuanian magnates to Lithuania, and when he arrived in Vilnius
Vilnius
in 1440, he was proclaimed as the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
on 29 June 1440 by the Council of Lords, contrary to the wishes of the Polish noble lords—an act supported and coordinated by Jonas Goštautas.[7] When the news arrived in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
concerning the proclamation of Casimir as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, it was met with hostility, even to the point of military threats against Lithuania.[7] Since the young Grand Duke was underage, the supreme control over the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in the hands of the Council of Lords, presided by Jonas Goštautas. Casimir had been taught Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
and the customs of Lithuania by appointed court officials.[8] During Casimir's rule the rights of the Lithuanian nobility—dukes, magnates and boyars (lesser nobles), irrespective of their religion and ethnicity—were put on an equal footing to those of the Polish szlachta. Additionally, Casimir promised to protect the Grand Duchy's borders and not to appoint persons from the Polish Kingdom to the offices of the Grand Duchy. He accepted that decisions on matters concerning the Grand Duchy would not be made without the Council of Lords' consent. He also granted the subject region of Samogitia the right to elect its own elder. Casimir was the first ruler of Lithuania baptised at birth, becoming the first native Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Grand Duke. King of Poland[edit] Casimir succeeded his brother Władysław III (killed at the Battle of Varna in 1444) as King of Poland
King of Poland
after a three-year interregnum on 25 June 1447. In 1454, he married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the late King of the Romans
King of the Romans
Albert II of Habsburg
Albert II of Habsburg
by his late wife Elisabeth of Bohemia. Her distant relative Frederick of Habsburg became Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and reigned as Frederick III until after Casimir's own death. The marriage strengthened the ties between the house of Jagiellon
Jagiellon
and the sovereigns of Hungary- Bohemia
Bohemia
and put Casimir at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
through internal Habsburg rivalry. That same year, Casimir was approached by the Prussian Confederation for aid against the Teutonic Order, which he promised, by making the separatist Prussian regions a protectorate of the Polish Kingdom. However, when the insurgent cities rebelled against the Order, it resisted and the Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) ensued. Casimir and the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
defeated the Teutonic Order, entering its abandoned capital at Marienburg ( Malbork
Malbork
Castle). In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the Order recognized Polish sovereignty over the seceded western Prussian regions, Royal Prussia, and the Polish crown's overlordship over the remaining Teutonic Monastic State, transformed in 1525 into a duchy, Ducal Prussia. Elisabeth's only brother Ladislaus, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary, died in 1457, and after that Casimir and Elisabeth's dynastic interests were directed also towards her brother's former kingdoms. King Casimir IV died on 7 June 1492 in the Old Grodno Castle
Old Grodno Castle
in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which was in a personal union with Poland. Foreign policies[edit] The intervention of the Roman curia, which hitherto had been hostile to Casimir because of his steady and patriotic resistance to papal aggression, was due to the permutations of European politics. The pope was anxious to get rid of the Hussite
Hussite
King of Bohemia, George Podebrad, as the first step towards the formation of a league against the Turk. Casimir was to be a leading factor in this combination, and he took advantage of it to procure the election of his son Vladislaus II as King of Bohemia. But he would not commit himself too far, and his ulterior plans were frustrated by the rivalry of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, who even went so far as to stimulate the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
to rise against Casimir. The death of Matthias in 1490 was a great relief to Poland, and Casimir employed the two remaining years of his reign in consolidating his position still further. Legacy and opinion of reign[edit] In domestic affairs Casimir was relatively passive but anxious to preserve the prerogatives of the crown, notably his right to nominate bishops. In the question of territories in dispute between his two states ( Volhynia
Volhynia
and Podolia) he favoured Lithuania. During the war against the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
he was forced to grant the Polish nobility substantial concessions by the Privilege (statute) of Nieszawa (November 1454). These, however, became important only after his death, and royal power was not greatly diminished during his lifetime. The feature of Casimir's character which most impressed his contemporaries was his extraordinary simplicity and sobriety. He, one of the greatest monarchs in Europe, habitually wore plain cloth from Kraków, drank nothing but water, and kept the most austere of tables. His one passion was the chase. Yet his liberality to his ministers and servants was proverbial, and his vanquished enemies he always treated with magnificent generosity. Casimir was neither a splendid ruler nor a good and wise administrator, but a mistrusting, cautious, and sober head of a large family who regarded Lithuania as his personal estate, however his reign was remembered as being both successful and the most peaceful in the history of Poland.[6] Culture[edit] During Casimir's rule the cultural progress was striking, with the reconstituted and enlarged University of Kraków
Kraków
playing a major role. Humanist trends found a promoter at Kraków
Kraków
in the Italian scholar Filippo de Buonacorsi, known as Callimachus. From the pen of Jan Długosz came the first major, royal history of Poland. Curse of the Royal Tomb[edit] The remains of King Casimir IV and his wife Elisabeth were interred in a tomb situated in the chapel of the Wawel Castle
Wawel Castle
in Kraków, Poland. With the consent of then Cardinal Karol Wojtyła (Archbishop of Kraków, who became Pope John Paul II), a team of scientists was given permission to open the tomb and examine the remains, with restoration as the ultimate objective. Casimir's tomb was opened on Friday 13 April 1973. Twelve researchers were present. Inside the tomb they found a wooden coffin that was heavily rotted. It contained what was left of the king's decayed corpse. Within a few days, four of the twelve scientists and researchers had died. Not long after, there were only two survivors: Dr. Bolesław Smyk, a microbiologist, and Dr. Edward Roszycki. Smyk was to suffer problems with his equilibrium for the next five years. In the course of his microbiological examinations, Dr. Smyk found traces of fungi on the royal insignia taken from the tomb. He identified three species - Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium rubrum and Penicillium rugulosum. These fungi are known to produce aflatoxins that can be deadly when in contact with skin and inhaled into the lungs.[9] Children[edit]

Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
combined the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia. Hedwig Jagiellon
Jagiellon
married George the Rich, of the Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
dynasty of Bavaria. Delegates had gone to Kraków
Kraków
to negotiate the marriage, and their "Landshut Wedding" took place in Bavaria
Bavaria
with much pomp and celebration in 1475, starting a tradition which continues to this day. Saint Casimir
Saint Casimir
was to have married the daughter of Emperor Frederick III, but instead chose a religious life, eventually being canonized as St. Casimir. Sophie, married to Margrave Frederick V of Brandenburg-Ansbach John I of Poland
Poland
(27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) succeeded him as the king of Poland
Poland
(1492–1501) Alexander I of Poland
Poland
(5 August 1461 – 19 August 1506) King of Poland
Poland
(12 December 1501 – 19 August 1506) Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I the Old
(1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548) King of Poland (1506–1548) Frederick Jagiellon
Frederick Jagiellon
(27 April 1468 – 14 March 1503) Archbishop of Gniezno, Bishop of Kraków, and Primate of Poland. Anna married to Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania; they had eight children, including Sophie of Pomerania, who became queen of Denmark Barbara married to Duke Georg dem Bärtigen of Saxony Elizabeth Jagiellon
Jagiellon
(13 November 1482 – 16 February 1517) who married Frederick II of Legnica Two additional daughters named Elizabeth[10]

Gallery[edit]

Casimir IV in an advanced age, by Jan Matejko

Portrait of King Casimir, by Aleksander Lesser, 1860

Giovanni da Capistrano
Giovanni da Capistrano
and King Casimir IV

Tomb of Casimir IV in the Wawel Cathedral, late Gothic masterpiece by Veit Stoss

Statue of Casimir IV Jagiellon
Jagiellon
in Malbork

Poland
Poland
and Lithuania in 1466, under Casimir's rule

Polish knights and soldiers during the times of Casimir

See also[edit]

History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellonian dynasty History of Lithuania Statutes of Nieszawa List of Poles

References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Casimir IV.

^ Frost 2015, p. 327. ^ pl:Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/concise/casimir%20iv ^ " Poland
Poland
- history - geography". Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Marian Biskup, Karol Górski: Kazimierz Jagiellończyk: Zbiór studiów o Polsce drugiej połowy XV wieku. Warszawa: 1987. ISBN 83-01-07291-1. ^ a b "Casimir IV - king of Poland". Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ a b c J. Kiaupienė Valdžios krizės pabaiga ir Kazimieras Jogailaitis. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. ^ Lietuvių kalba ir literatūros istorija Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Curse of the Open Tomb". Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Paweł Jasienica, Jagiellonian Poland

Sources[edit]

Frost, Robert (2015). The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0191017872. 

Preceded by Sigismund Kestutian Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440–1492 Succeeded by Alexander I

Preceded by Władysław III King of Poland 1447–1492 Succeeded by John I Albert

v t e

Monarchs of Lithuania

Early Grand Dukes

Mindaugas
Mindaugas
(dynasty) Treniota Vaišvilkas Shvarn Traidenis Daumantas

Gediminids

Butigeidis Butvydas Vytenis Gediminas
Gediminas
(family) Jaunutis Algirdas
Algirdas
(family) Jogaila
Jogaila
(family) Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(family) Skirgaila Vytautas Švitrigaila Sigismund Kęstutaitis Casimir Jagellon Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elected

Henry III of Valois Anna the Jagiellonian Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Ladislaus IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski Augustus II the Strong Stanisław Leszczyński August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

v t e

Monarchs of Poland

Piast dynasty

Siemowit Lestek Siemomysł Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave Bezprym Mieszko II Lambert (Bolesław the Forgotten) Casimir I the Restorer Bolesław II the Generous Władysław I Herman Zbigniew Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

Władysław II the Exile Bolesław IV the Curly Mieszko III the Old Casimir II the Just Leszek the White Władysław III Spindleshanks Władysław Odonic Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Konrad I Henry the Bearded Henry II the Pious Bolesław V the Chaste Leszek II the Black Henryk IV Probus Przemysł II

See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or entirely legendary.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50568612 LCCN: n82058615 ISNI: 0000 0001 0814 5982 GND: 118990217 SUDOC: 066912113 BNF: cb13505235v (data) NKC: j

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