HOME
The Info List - Caravanserai



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

A CARAVANSERAI (/kærəˈvænsəˌraɪ/ ) was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners ) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa and Southeast Europe
Southeast Europe
, especially along the Silk Road
Silk Road
.

These were found frequently along the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
's Royal Road , a 2,500-kilometre-long (1,600 mi) ancient highway that stretched from Sardis
Sardis
to Susa
Susa
according to Herodotus
Herodotus
: "Now the true account of the road in question is the following: Royal stations exist along its whole length, and excellent caravanserais; and throughout, it traverses an inhabited tract, and is free from danger." Major urban caravanserais were also built along the Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
in the Indian subcontinent , especially in the region of Mughal Delhi
Delhi
. Garghabazar Caravanserai
Garghabazar Caravanserai
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
( 1681
1681
)

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Caravanserai
Caravanserai
* 1.2 Khan

* 2 Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Arab literature * 3 Architecture * 4 Notable caravanserais * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Look up CARAVANSERAI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

CARAVANSERAI

Izadkhvast
Izadkhvast
caravanserai, Fars Province
Fars Province
, Iran
Iran

The word is also rendered as caravansary, caravansaray, caravanseray and caravansara. The Persian word کاروانسرای kārvānsarāy is a compound word combining kārvān "caravan " with sarāy "palace", "building with enclosed courts", to which the Persian suffix -yi is added. Here "caravan" means a group of traders, pilgrims or other travellers, engaged in long distance travel. The word serai is sometimes used with the implication of caravanserai.

A number of place-names based on the word sarai have grown up: Mughal Serai , Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
and the Delhi
Delhi
Sarai Rohilla railway station for example, and a great many other places are also based on the original meaning of "palace".

KHAN

Illustration of a caravanserai in Kashan
Kashan
, Iran
Iran
by Jean Chardin in 1723

The Persian caravanserai was built as a large road station, outside of towns. An inn built inside a town would be smaller and was known in Persian as a khan (خان) (from Middle Persian hʾn' (xān, “house”)). In the Middle-East the term "khan" covers both meanings, of roadside inn as well as of inner-town inn. In Turkish the word is rendered as han. The same word was used in Bosnian , having arrived through Ottoman conquest . The Greek pandocheion, lit.: "welcoming all", thus meaning 'inn', led to funduq in Arabic (فندق), pundak in Hebrew (פונדק), fundaco in Venice, fondaco in Genoa and alhóndiga in Spanish.

CARAVANSERAI IN ARAB LITERATURE

Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
the Arab geographer wrote in 985 CE about the hostelries, or wayfarers' inns, in the Province of Palestine, a country at that time listed under the topography of Syria, saying: "Taxes are not heavy in Syria, with the exception of those levied on the Caravanserais (Fanduk); Here, however, the duties are oppressive..." The reference here being to the imposts and duties charged by government officials on the importation of goods and merchandise, the importers of which and their beasts of burden usually stopping to take rest in these places. Guards were stationed at every gate to ensure that taxes for these goods be paid in full, while the revenues therefrom accruing to the Fatimid kingdom of Egypt.

ARCHITECTURE

A sample floor plan of a Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
-era caravanserai

Most typically a caravanserai was a building with a square or rectangular walled exterior, with a single portal wide enough to permit large or heavily laden beasts such as camels to enter. The courtyard was almost always open to the sky, and the inside walls of the enclosure were outfitted with a number of identical animal stalls , bays, niches or chambers to accommodate merchants and their servants, animals, and merchandise.

Caravanserais provided water for human and animal consumption, washing and ritual purification such as wudu and ghusl . Sometimes they had elaborate baths. They also kept fodder for animals and had shops for travellers where they could acquire new supplies. In addition, some shops bought goods from the travelling merchants.

NOTABLE CARAVANSERAIS

Further information: List of caravanserais

* Akbari Sarai , Lahore
Lahore
* Garghabazar Caravanserai
Garghabazar Caravanserai
, Kharabakh, Azerbaijan * Büyük Han
Büyük Han
* Caravanserai
Caravanserai
of Sa\'d al-Saltaneh * Manuc\'s Inn
Inn
, Bucharest, Romania * Khan al-Tujjar (Mount Tabor) * Khan al-Tujjar (Nablus) * Khan al-Umdan * Khan As\'ad Pasha * Khan Jaqmaq * Khan el-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili
* Khan Sulayman Pasha * Khan Tuman * Rabati Malik
Rabati Malik
, Uzbekistan * Orbelian\'s Caravanserai
Caravanserai
, Armenia * Nampally Sarai , Nampally, Hyderabad, India * Zeinodin Caravanserai
Zeinodin Caravanserai
, Zein-o-din, Yazd, Iran

GALLERY

*

Interior of the Caravanserai
Caravanserai
of Sa\'d al-Saltaneh in Qazvin
Qazvin
, Iran
Iran
*

Caravanserai
Caravanserai
of Shah Abbas, now Abbasi Hotel
Abbasi Hotel
, in Isfahan
Isfahan
, Iran
Iran
. View is from the courtyard (sahn). *

Fallujah
Fallujah
's Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in use, ca. 1914 *

Inside the Orbelian\'s Caravanserai
Caravanserai
, Armenia
Armenia
*

Caravansara Sangi in Zanjan, Iran
Iran
*

A caravansara in Karaj
Karaj
, Iran
Iran
of the Safavid era *

18th century caravanserai in Sheki , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
*

Abandoned caravansara in Neyestānak , Iran
Iran
*

Khan al-Umdan in Acre , Israel
Israel
*

Khan As\'ad Pasha in Damascus
Damascus
, Syria
Syria
*

Khan al-Wazir, Aleppo
Aleppo
, Syria
Syria
*

Sultan Han
Sultan Han
caravanserai. *

Ruins of Bara Katra , or Great Caravanserai, in Dhaka
Dhaka
, Bangladesh; built by the Mughal Prince Shah Shuja *

Caravenserai Mosque
Mosque
in Murshidabad
Murshidabad
, India; built by Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal *

Ruins of the Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
caravanserai in Dhaka, Bangladesh; built by the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
*

Entrance to Anderkilla in Chittagong
Chittagong
, Bangladesh *

1870s drawing of the khan and old bridge at Lajjun
Lajjun
, Palestine (now in Israel
Israel
)

SEE ALSO

* Caravan city * Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
* Shaki Caravanserai , a historical monument in the Shaki Khanate , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Architecture of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Turkish architecture * Persian architecture
Persian architecture
* Persian gardens
Persian gardens
and bagh * List of caravanserais * List of caravanserais in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* List of Seljuk hans and kervansarays in Turkey * List of streets, hans and gates in Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

REFERENCES

* ^ "Dictionary.com – caravansary". Retrieved 31 Jan 2016. ) * ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Caravanserai". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * ^ "The History - Herodotus" - http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.mb.txt * ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/316248/khan * ^ http://biblehub.com/greek/3829.htm * ^ alhóndiga in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española
Diccionario de la Real Academia Española
* ^ Mukaddasi, Description of Syria, Including Palestine, ed. Guy Le Strange, London 1886, pp. 91, 37 * ^ Sims, Eleanor. 1978. Trade and Travel: Markets and Caravansary.' In: Michell, George. (ed.). 1978. Architecture of the Islamic World - Its History and Social Meaning. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 101. * ^ Ciolek, T. Matthew. 2004-present. Catalogue of Georeferenced Caravansaras/Khans Archived 2005-02-07 at the Wayback Machine .. Old World Trade Routes (OWTRAD) Project. Canberra: www.ciolek.com - Asia Pacific Research Online.

* ^ Vladimir Braginskiy. Tourist Attractions in the USSR: A Guide. Raduga Publishers, 1982. 254 pages. Page 104.

The whole of the centre of Sheki has been proclaimed a reserve protected by the state. To take you back to the time of the caravans, two large eighteenth-century caravanserais have been preserved with spacious courtyards where the camels used to rest, cellars where goods were stored, and rooms for travellers.

FURTHER READING

* Branning, Katharine. 2002. turkishhan.org, The Seljuk Han in Anatolia. New York, USA. * Cytryn-Silverman, Katia. 2010. The Road Inns (Khans) in Bilad al-Sham. BAR ( British Archaeological Reports ), Oxford. ISBN 9781407306711 * Encyclopædia Iranica , p. 798-802 * Erdmann, Kurt, Erdmann, Hanna. 1961. Das anatolische Karavansaray des 13. Jahrhunderts, 3 vols. Berlin: Mann, 1976, ISBN 3-7861-2241-5 * Hillenbrand, Robert. 1994. Islamic Architecture: Form, function and meaning. NY: Columbia University Press. (see Chapter VI for an in depth overview of the caravanserai). * Kiani, Mohammad Yusef. 1976. Caravansaries in Khorasan Road. Reprinted from: Traditions Architecturales en Iran, Tehran, No. 2 ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Iranian architecture
Iranian architecture

STYLES

PARSIAN

* Achaemenid * pre-Parsian

PARTHIAN

* Khorasani * Sasanian

OTHER

* Azeri * Isfahani * Razi

TYPES

* Bazaars * Caravanserais * Khaneqah * Mosques * Tekyeh
Tekyeh

ELEMENTS

* Ab anbar
Ab anbar
* Andaruni
Andaruni
* Biruni * Burj * Chahartaq * Dalan e Vorudi * Gonbad
Gonbad
* Hashti * Howz
Howz
* Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
* Iwan
Iwan
* Kariz * Kucheh
Kucheh
* Panjdari * Persian Garden (hayāt) * Qanat
Qanat
* Robats * Sahn
Sahn
* Shabestan
Shabestan
* Talar
Talar
* Windcatchers * Yakhchal
Yakhchal

TRADITIONAL CITIES

* Amol
Amol
* Andijan
Andijan
* Baku
Baku
* Bam * Bukhara
Bukhara
* Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
* Derbent
Derbent
* Ganja * Gur-e-Amir * Hatra
Hatra
* Herat
Herat
* Isfahan
Isfahan
* Kashan
Kashan
* Khiva
Khiva
* Khorramabad * Mashhad
Mashhad
* Merv
Merv
* Nakhchivan * Nishapur
Nishapur
* Persepolis
Persepolis
* Qazvin
Qazvin
* Qom
Qom
* Samarkand
Samarkand
* Shahrisabz
Shahrisabz
* Shiraz
Shiraz
* Susa
Susa
* Tabriz
Tabriz
* Takht-e Soleymān * Tehran * Yazd
Yazd

THEORY AND ANALYSIS

* Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
* Traditional Persian residential architecture
Traditional Persian residential architecture
* Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity

LISTS

* Architects of Iran
Iran
* Args, castles, and ghal\'ehs * List of ab anbars of Qazvin
Qazvin
* List of mosques * List of ziyarat-gahs

* v * t * e

Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture

CATEGORY

* Arabic architecture * Berber architecture * Iranian architecture
Iranian architecture
* Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
* Mughal architecture * Ottoman architecture

STYLES

* Abbasid * Anatolia Beyliks * Ayyubid * Azeri * Bengali * Chinese * Fatimid * Indo-Islamic * Indonesian-Malaysian * Isfahani * Khorasani * Mamluk * Modern * Moorish * Moroccan * Mudéjar * Mughal * Ottoman * Razi * Seljuk * Somali * Sudano-Sahelian * Tatar * Timurid * Umayyad * Vernacular Persian * Yemenite

ELEMENTS

ROOF STYLES

* Dome
Dome
(Arabic dome / Onion dome
Onion dome
/ Persian dome / South Asian dome ) * Guldasta * Tajug
Tajug

Dome
Dome
of the Rock in Jerusalem
Jerusalem

STRUCTURAL

* Ablaq
Ablaq
* Chahartaq * Chhajja
Chhajja
* Discharging arch
Discharging arch
* Four-centred arch
Four-centred arch
* Hasht-Bihisht * Horseshoe arch
Horseshoe arch
* Hypostyle
Hypostyle
* Iwan
Iwan
* Jharokha
Jharokha
* Kucheh
Kucheh
* Liwan * Mashrabiya
Mashrabiya
* Moroccan riad
Moroccan riad
* Multifoil arch
Multifoil arch
* Ogee arch * Pointed arch * Qadad
Qadad
* Riwaq * Sahn
Sahn
* Semi-dome
Semi-dome
* Shabestan
Shabestan
* Squinch
Squinch
* Tadelakt
Tadelakt
* Vaulting * Voussoir
Voussoir
* Windcatcher
Windcatcher

RELIGIOUS OBJECTS

* Bedug
Bedug
* Dikka
Dikka
* Gonbad
Gonbad
* Hussainiya
Hussainiya
* Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
* Kiswah
Kiswah
* Loudspeakers * Maqsurah
Maqsurah
* Mihrab
Mihrab
* Minaret
Minaret
* Minbar
Minbar
* Müezzin mahfili * Qibla
Qibla
* Zarih
Zarih

DECORATIONS

* Arabesque * Banna\'i * Girih
Girih
* Girih
Girih
tiles * Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
* Islamic geometric patterns
Islamic geometric patterns
* Islamic interlace patterns
Islamic interlace patterns
* Jali
Jali
* Mocárabe
Mocárabe
* Mosque
Mosque
lamp * Muqarnas
Muqarnas
* Nagash painting
Nagash painting
* Qashani
Qashani
* Shabaka * Socarrat * Yeseria
Yeseria
* Zellige
Zellige

ROOMS

* Andaruni
Andaruni
* Harem
Harem
* Mudhif
Mudhif
* Qa’a * Zenana
Zenana

GARDEN

* Bagh * Charbagh
Charbagh
* Islamic garden
Islamic garden
* Mughal gardens
Mughal gardens
* Ottoman gardens * Paradise garden
Paradise garden
* Persian gardens
Persian gardens
* Reflecting pool
Reflecting pool

OUTDOOR OBJECTS

* Chhatri
Chhatri
* Eidgah
Eidgah
* Howz
Howz
* Shading Umbrellas * Mechouar
Mechouar
* Sebil * Shadirvan
Shadirvan

TYPES

* Alcázar
Alcázar
* Amsar
Amsar
* Bab * Baradari * Bazaar
Bazaar
* Caravanserai * Dar al-Shifa
Dar al-Shifa
* Dargah
Dargah
* Gongbei * Jama Masjid
Jama Masjid
* Jama\'at Khana * Kasbah
Kasbah
* Khanqah
Khanqah
* Ksar
Ksar
* Külliye
Külliye
* Madrasa
Madrasa
* Mahal * Maqam * Maqbara
Maqbara
* Mazar * Medina quarter
Medina quarter
* Mosque
Mosque
* Musalla
Musalla
* Qalat * Qasr * Qubba
Qubba
* Rauza * Ribat
Ribat
* Souq
Souq
* Surau
Surau
* Tekyeh
Tekyeh
* Türbe
Türbe
* Turkish bath
Turkish bath
* Well house
Well house
* Zawiya

RESOURCES

* Aga Khan Award for Architecture
Aga Khan Award for Architecture
* ArchNet
ArchNet

INFLUENCES

* Indo-Saracenic Revival * Influences on Western architecture * Moorish Revival

Part of Islamic arts

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Caravanserai
Caravanserai
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Help:IPA/English /#cite_note-1