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Governments and private organizations have developed CAR CLASSIFICATION schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide.

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification methods * 2 Size and usage-based vehicle classification systems worldwide

* 3 Economy car
Economy car

* 3.1 Microcar
Microcar

* 3.2 Hatchbacks

* 3.2.1 Ultracompact car * 3.2.2 City car
City car
* 3.2.3 Supermini/subcompact car

* 4 Family car
Family car

* 4.1 Small family car/compact car * 4.2 Large family / mid-size

* 5 Saloons / sedans

* 5.1 Large family / mid-size * 5.2 Full size / large * 5.3 Crossover SUV
SUV
* 5.4 Minivans / MPVs

* 6 Luxury vehicle
Luxury vehicle

* 6.1 Compact executive * 6.2 Executive/mid-luxury * 6.3 Full-size luxury / Grand saloon * 6.4 Estate cars / station wagons

* 7 Sports cars

* 7.1 Hot hatch
Hot hatch
* 7.2 Sports saloon / sports sedan * 7.3 Sports car
Sports car
* 7.4 Grand tourer
Grand tourer
* 7.5 Supercar
Supercar
* 7.6 Muscle car
Muscle car
* 7.7 Pony car
Pony car
* 7.8 Convertible
Convertible

* 8 Off-roaders

* 8.1 Sport utility vehicle
Sport utility vehicle

* 9 Commercial vehicle
Commercial vehicle

* 9.1 Van
Van

* 10 Other car classification terms

* 10.1 Non-English terms

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

CLASSIFICATION METHODS

Vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. For example, by means of the body style and the "level of commonality in vehicle construction as defined by number of doors and roof treatment (e.g., sedan, convertible, fastback, hatchback) and number of seats" that require seat belts to meet safety regulations.

Regulatory agencies may also establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount. In the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicle's construction, engine, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle. In another example, certain cities in the United States in the 1920s chose to exempt electric-powered vehicles because officials believed those vehicles did not cause "substantial wear upon the pavements."

Another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally (except for Australia, India, and the U.S.), is ISO 3833-1977.

In an example from private enterprise, many car rental companies use the ACRISS Car Classification Code to describe the size, type and equipment of vehicles to ensure that rental agents can match customer needs to available vehicles, regardless of distance between the agent and the rental company or the languages spoken by either party. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway
Highway
Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both vehicle shadow (length times width) and weight.

US HIGHWAY LOSS DATA INSTITUTE CLASSIFICATION DEFINITION

Regular Two Door Two door sedans and hatchbacks

Regular Four Door Four door sedans and hatchbacks

Station Wagons Four doors, a rear hatch and four pillars

Minivans Vans with sliding rear doors

Sports Two seaters and cars with significant high performance features

Luxury Relatively expensive cars that are not classified as sports (price in USD to curb weight in pounds more than 9.0 in 2010) (small cars over $27,000, midsize cars over $31,500, large cars over $36,000, etc.)

US INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY HIGHWAY LOSS DATA INSTITUTE \'GUIDE TO CAR SIZE GROUPS\' (INCLUDES MINIVANS)

Shadow (square footage of exterior length × width)

Curb Weight 70 to 80 sq ft (6.5–7.4 m2) 81 to 90 sq ft (7.5–8.4 m2) 91 to 100 sq ft (8.5–9.3 m2) 101 to 110 sq ft (9.4–10.2 m2) >110 sq ft (10.2 m2)

2,001 to 2,500 lb (900–1,150 kg) Mini Small Small Small Midsize

2,501 to 3,000 lb (1,150–1,350 kg) Small Small Midsize Midsize Midsize

3,001 to 3,500 lb (1,350–1,600 kg) Small Midsize Midsize Large Large

3,501 to 4,000 lb (1,600–1,800 kg) Small Midsize Large Large Very Large

>4,000 lb (1,800 kg) Midsize Midsize Large Very Large Very Large

US IIHSHLDI GUIDE TO SUV
SUV
SIZE GROUPS

curb weight

Mini 115 sq ft (10.7 m2)

The United States National Highway
Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) separates vehicles into classes by the curb weight of the vehicle with standard equipment including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil, coolant, and air conditioning , if so equipped.

US NHTSA CLASSIFICATION CODE CURB WEIGHT

Passenger cars: mini PC/Mi 1,500 to 1,999 lb (700–900 kg)

Passenger cars: light PC/L 2,000 to 2,499 lb (900–1,150 kg)

Passenger cars: compact PC/C 2,500 to 2,999 lb (1,150–1,350 kg)

Passenger cars: medium PC/Me 3,000 to 3,499 lb (1,350–1,600 kg)

Passenger cars: heavy PC/H 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) and over

Sport utility vehicles SUV –

Pickup trucks PU –

Vans VAN –

The United States Federal Highway Administration
Federal Highway Administration
has developed a classification scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls . There are two broad categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, including both power and trailer units.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
(US EPA) has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a vehicle's total interior passenger and cargo volumes. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme.

US EPA CAR CLASS TOTAL PASSENGER AND CARGO VOLUME (CU. FT.)

Two-seaters Any (designed to seat only two adults)

Minicompact Less than 85 cu ft (2,400 l)

Subcompact 85 to 99 cu ft (2,400–2,800 l)

Compact 100 to 109 cu ft (2,850–3,100 l)

Mid-size 110 to 119 cu ft (3,100–3,350 l)

Large 120 cu ft (3,400 l) or more

Small station wagons Less than 130 cu ft (3,700 l)

Mid-size station wagons 130 to 159 cu ft (3,700–4,500 l)

Large station wagons 160 cu ft (4,550 l) or more

A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA. The Canadian National Collision Database (NCDB) system defines "passenger car" as a unique class, but also identifies two other categories involving passenger vehicles—the "passenger van" and "light utility vehicle"—and these categories are inconsistently handled across the country with the boundaries between the vehicles increasingly blurred.

In Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications.

SIZE AND USAGE-BASED VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE

This is a summary table listing several different methods of vehicle classification.

_ The examples and perspective in this article MAY NOT REPRESENT A WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page . (September 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION

* view * talk * edit

NOT WELL DEFINED / VERNACULAR DEFINED BY LAW OR REGULATION EXAMPLES

MARKET SEGMENT (AMERICAN ENGLISH ) MARKET SEGMENT (BRITISH ENGLISH ) MARKET SEGMENT (AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ) US EPA SIZE CLASS EURO NCAP STRUCTURAL CATEGORY EURO NCAP CLASS (1997 - 2009) EURO MARKET SEGMENT

Microcar
Microcar
Microcar, Bubble car
Bubble car
N/A N/A — Quadricycle A-segment
A-segment
mini cars Bond Bug , Isetta
Isetta
, Mega City , Renault Twizy

Subcompact car
Subcompact car
Economy Car
Economy Car
City car
City car
Microcar
Microcar
Minicompact Passenger car Supermini Citroën C1 , Fiat 500
Fiat 500
, Hyundai Eon , Mitsubishi i-MiEV , Renault Twingo

Supermini
Supermini
Light Car
Light Car
Subcompact B-segment
B-segment
small cars Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
, Kia Rio
Kia Rio
, Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
, Peugeot 208
Peugeot 208
, Volkswagen Polo
Volkswagen Polo

Compact car
Compact car
Small family car Small Car Compact Small family car C-segment
C-segment
medium cars Honda Civic
Honda Civic
, Mazda3
Mazda3
, Peugeot 308
Peugeot 308
, Renault Mégane
Renault Mégane
, Toyota Corolla

Mid-size car
Mid-size car
Large family car
Large family car
Medium Car Mid-size Large family car D-segment
D-segment
large cars Chevrolet Malibu
Chevrolet Malibu
, Ford Fusion , Peugeot 508
Peugeot 508
, Subaru Legacy
Subaru Legacy
, Volkswagen Passat
Volkswagen Passat

Entry-level luxury car Compact executive car Medium Car above $60,000 N/A Acura ILX
Acura ILX
, Alfa Romeo Giulia , Audi A4
Audi A4
, Lexus ES
Lexus ES
, Mercedes-Benz C-Class

Full-size car
Full-size car
Executive car
Executive car
Large Car Large Executive E-segment
E-segment
executive cars Chevrolet Impala
Chevrolet Impala
, Ford Taurus , Mazda Xedos 9 , Hyundai Grandeur
Hyundai Grandeur
, Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
, first and second generation

Mid-size luxury car Large Car above $70,000 N/A Audi A6
Audi A6
, Cadillac CTS
Cadillac CTS
, Chrysler 300
Chrysler 300
, Tesla Model S
Tesla Model S
, Acura TLX
Acura TLX

Full-size luxury car Luxury car Upper Large Car above $100,000 N/A — F-segment luxury cars BMW 7 Series
BMW 7 Series
, Lincoln Town Car
Lincoln Town Car
, Mercedes-Benz S-Class
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
, Porsche Panamera , Audi A8
Audi A8

Grand tourer
Grand tourer
Grand tourer Sports Car
Sports Car
N/A — S-segment
S-segment
sports coupés Aston Martin DB9
Aston Martin DB9
, Bentley Continental GT
Bentley Continental GT
, Ferrari GTC4Lusso , Jaguar XK
Jaguar XK
, Maserati GranTurismo
Maserati GranTurismo

Supercar
Supercar
Supercar N/A — Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti Veyron
, LaFerrari
LaFerrari
, Lamborghini Aventador
Lamborghini Aventador
, Pagani Zonda
Pagani Zonda
, Porsche 918 Spyder
Porsche 918 Spyder

Convertible
Convertible
Convertible N/A — BMW 6 Series
BMW 6 Series
, Chevrolet Camaro
Chevrolet Camaro
, Mercedes CLK , Volvo C70
Volvo C70
, Volkswagen Eos

Roadster Roadster Two-seater Roadster sports BMW Z4 , Lotus Elise , Mazda MX-5
Mazda MX-5
, Porsche Boxster
Porsche Boxster
, Mercedes-Benz SLK

Mini MPV
Mini MPV
N/A Minivan MPV Small MPV M-segment
M-segment
multi purpose cars Citroen C3 Picasso , Ford B-Max
Ford B-Max
, Opel Meriva , Fiat 500L
Fiat 500L

MPV Compact MPV
Compact MPV
People Mover Chevrolet Orlando
Chevrolet Orlando
, Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max
, Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
, Renault Scenic
Renault Scenic
, Volkswagen Touran

Minivan
Minivan
Large MPV
Large MPV
Large MPV Chrysler Town and Country
Chrysler Town and Country
, Kia Carnival
Kia Carnival
, Citroën C4 Grand Picasso , Renault Espace
Renault Espace
, Toyota Sienna
Toyota Sienna

Cargo
Cargo
van Van Van
Van
Cargo
Cargo
van — Chevrolet Express 1500 Cargo
Cargo
, Fiat Ducato/Ram ProMaster , Ford Transit , Renault Master
Renault Master
, Volkswagen Transporter
Volkswagen Transporter

Passenger van Minibus People Mover Passenger van — Chevrolet Express 1500 Passenger , Ford E350 Wagon , Mercedes-Benz Viano

Mini SUV
Mini SUV
Mini
Mini
4x4 Small SUV Small Sport Utility Vehicle Off-roader Small Off-Road 4x4 J-segment
J-segment
sport utility cars (including off-road vehicles) Daihatsu Terios
Daihatsu Terios
, Ford Ecosport
Ford Ecosport
, Jeep Renegade , Peugeot 2008 , Suzuki Jimny
Suzuki Jimny

Compact SUV
Compact SUV
Compact SUV Medium SUV Alfa Romeo Stelvio , Chevrolet Equinox
Chevrolet Equinox
, Ford Escape
Ford Escape
, Honda CR-V
Honda CR-V
, Jeep Cherokee
Jeep Cherokee
, Kia Sportage
Kia Sportage

Mid-size SUV
SUV
Large 4x4 Large SUV
SUV
Standard Sport Utility Vehicle Large Off-Road 4x4 Ford Expedition
Ford Expedition
, Hyundai Santa Fe
Hyundai Santa Fe
, Jeep Grand Cherokee
Jeep Grand Cherokee
, Volkswagen Touareg
Volkswagen Touareg
, Volvo XC90
Volvo XC90

Full-size SUV
SUV
Upper Large SUV
SUV
Range Rover
Range Rover
, Cadillac Escalade
Cadillac Escalade
, Toyota Land Cruiser
Toyota Land Cruiser

Mini
Mini
pickup truck Pick-up Ute Small Pickup Truck Pickup Pick-up — Chevrolet Montana
Chevrolet Montana
, Fiat Strada , Renault Duster Oroch , Volkswagen Saveiro

Mid-size pickup truck Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
, Chevrolet Colorado
Chevrolet Colorado
, Mitsubishi Triton/L200 , Nissan Navara , Toyota Hilux
Toyota Hilux

Full-size pickup truck Pickup Standard pickup truck Dodge Ram
Dodge Ram
, Ford F-150
Ford F-150
, GMC Sierra
GMC Sierra
, Nissan Titan
Nissan Titan
, Toyota Tundra
Toyota Tundra

Heavy Duty pickup truck Chevrolet Silverado
Chevrolet Silverado
HD , Ram Heavy Duty , Ford Super Duty
Ford Super Duty

Special
Special
purpose vehicle — Limousine
Limousine
Special
Special
purpose vehicle — — — Lincoln MKT Livery

ECONOMY CAR

Main article: economy car

MICROCAR

Microcar
Microcar
Abaca Main articles: Microcar
Microcar
and Bubble car
Bubble car

Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically seat only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels. Microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called "Bubble cars ". More recent microcars are often electric powered.

Examples of microcars:

* Isetta
Isetta
* Smart Fortwo
Smart Fortwo
* Tata Nano
Tata Nano

HATCHBACKS

Main article: Hatchback
Hatchback

Ultracompact Car

_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2013)_

In 2012, Japan's Transport and Tourism
Tourism
Ministry allowed local government to use ultracompact cars as transport for residents and tourists in their limiting areas. The size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use minicars standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of ultracompact cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are cars smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less and only one seat for the driver.

City Car

Citroën C1 Main articles: City car
City car
and Kei car
Kei car

A city car is a small automobile intended for use in urban areas. Unlike microcars, a city car's greater speed, capacity and (in perception at least) occupant protection are safer in mixed traffic environments and weather conditions. While city cars can reach highway speeds, that is not their intended use. In Japan, city cars are called kei cars . Kei cars have to meet strict size and engine requirements: engines have a maximum displacement of 660 cc and the car's length must be under 3400 mm.

Examples of kei cars:

* Daihatsu Move
Daihatsu Move
* Honda Life * Suzuki Cervo
Suzuki Cervo

Examples of city cars:

* Fiat Panda
Fiat Panda
* Maruti 800
Maruti 800
* Mini
Mini
(Original 1959 model)

Other small cars:

* Carver One * Citroën Type C * Smith Flyer
Smith Flyer

Supermini/subcompact Car

Renault Clio
Renault Clio
IV Main articles: Supermini
Supermini
car and Subcompact car

This class is known as supermini in the UK, subcompact in North America. Superminis have three, four or five doors, and even as an estate shape. They are designed to seat four passengers comfortably. Current supermini hatchbacks are approximately 3900 mm long, while saloons and estate cars are around 4200 mm long. Currently (2013) sedan variants are generally not available in Europe and are marketed at a lower price than hatchback models in North America.

In Europe, the first superminis were the Fiat 500
Fiat 500
of 1957 and the Austin Mini
Mini
of 1959. Superminis can be premium cars, such as the Citroën DS3 , named 2010 Car
Car
of the Year by Top Gear Magazine . Superminis are some of the best selling vehicles in Europe with 25% of the market shares (2013). In 2007, the Peugeot 207 has been the most sold car in Europe, whereas the best seller is almost systematically a car from the _compact_ segment.

In Australia, the motoring press tends to distinguish between a LIGHT CAR such as the Daihatsu Charade or early models of the Holden Barina , and slightly larger models such as the Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
which is considered to be a SMALL CAR. As the general size of vehicles in this class has gradually increased, the category of LIGHT CAR has almost disappeared.

Examples of superminis/subcompact cars:

* Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
* Peugeot 208
Peugeot 208
* Volkswagen Polo
Volkswagen Polo

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Superminis".

FAMILY CAR

Main article: family car

SMALL FAMILY CAR/COMPACT CAR

Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
Main article: Compact car
Compact car

Small family/compact cars refer to the hatchbacks and shortest saloons and estate cars with similar size. They are approximately 4,250 mm (167 in) long in case of hatchbacks and 4,500 mm (177 in) in the case of saloons and estate cars. Compact cars have room for five adults and usually have engines between 1.4 and 2.2 litres, but some have engines of up to 2.5 litres. Some early "muscle" compacts had optional V8 engines of up to 6.6 liters. These are the most popular vehicles in most developed countries.

Examples of hatchback small family cars/compact cars:

* Peugeot 308
Peugeot 308
* Toyota Auris
Toyota Auris
* Renault Megane
Renault Megane

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Small Family Cars". In Australia, this class is generally referred to as being SMALL-MEDIUM sized cars.

LARGE FAMILY / MID-SIZE

Citroën DS5
Citroën DS5
Main article: Mid-size car
Mid-size car

Traditionally, mid-size cars are sedans, but recently cars such as the Citroën DS5
Citroën DS5
, which is a large hatchback family car, have introduced other body styles.

SALOONS / SEDANS

Main article: Sedan (automobile)
Sedan (automobile)

LARGE FAMILY / MID-SIZE

Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry
Main article: Mid-size car
Mid-size car

A class described as "large family" in Europe and "mid-size" in the USA, these cars have room for five adults and a large trunk (boot). Engines are more powerful than small family/compact cars and six-cylinder engines are more common than in smaller cars. Car
Car
sizes vary from region to region; in Europe, large family cars are rarely over 4,700 mm (15.4 ft) long, while in North America, Middle East and Australasia
Australasia
they may be well over 4,800 mm (15.7 ft).

Examples of large family cars/mid-size cars:

* Chevrolet Malibu
Chevrolet Malibu
* Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
* Kia Optima
Kia Optima

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Large Family Cars". These are known in Australia as MEDIUM sized cars.

FULL SIZE / LARGE

Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
Main article: Full-size car
Full-size car

This term is used most in North America, Middle East and Australia where it refers to the largest affordable sedans on the market. Full-size cars may be well over 4,900 mm (16.1 ft) long.

Examples of full-size cars:

* Dodge Charger
Dodge Charger
* Ford Falcon * Toyota Avalon
Toyota Avalon

CROSSOVER SUV

Mitsubishi Outlander
Mitsubishi Outlander
Main article: Crossover (automobile)
Crossover (automobile)

Crossover SUVs are derived from an automobile platform using a monocoque construction with light off-road capability and lower ground clearance than SUVs. They may be styled similar to conventional "off-roaders", or may be look similar to an estate car or station wagon .

Examples of crossover SUVs:

* Chevrolet Equinox
Chevrolet Equinox
* Nissan Qashqai * Tata Aria

MINIVANS / MPVS

Renault Espace
Renault Espace
, one of the first true minivans Ford C-Max , a compact MPV Opel Meriva a mini MPV Main article: Minivan
Minivan

Also known as "people carriers", this class of cars resembles tall estate cars. Larger MPVs may have seating for up to eight passengers. (Beyond that size, similar vehicles tend to be derived from vans (see below) and in Europe are called minibuses .)

Being taller than a family car improves visibility for the driver (while reducing visibility for other road users) and may help access for the elderly or disabled . They also offer more seats and increased load capacity than hatchbacks or estate cars.

Examples of mini MPVs:

* Citroën C3 Picasso
Citroën C3 Picasso
* Ford B-Max
Ford B-Max
* Nissan Note
Nissan Note

Examples of compact MPVs:

* Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
Tourer * Peugeot 5008
Peugeot 5008
* Renault Scénic
Renault Scénic

Both categories are equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Small MPVs".

Examples of large MPVs / minivans:

* Dodge Caravan
Dodge Caravan
* Ford S-Max * Mazda5
Mazda5

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "MPVs".

LUXURY VEHICLE

Main article: Luxury vehicle
Luxury vehicle

COMPACT EXECUTIVE

Lexus IS Main articles: Compact executive car and D-segment
D-segment

These are luxurious equivalents to mid-size and compact cars. Rear seat room and trunk space are smaller than executive cars simply because of their smaller overall size.

Examples of compact premium cars/entry-level luxury cars:

* Audi A4
Audi A4
* BMW 3 Series * Buick Regal
Buick Regal

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Large Family Cars".

EXECUTIVE/MID-LUXURY

BMW 5 Series
BMW 5 Series
Main articles: Executive car
Executive car
and E-segment
E-segment

These are luxurious equivalents to full-size cars. This also refers to the largest hatchbacks within the similar length in this class, such as the Porsche Panamera
Porsche Panamera
.

Examples of executive cars/mid-luxury cars:

* Peugeot 607 * Jaguar XF
Jaguar XF
* MG Magnette

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Executive Cars".

FULL-SIZE LUXURY / GRAND SALOON

Mercedes-Benz S-Class
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
See also: Luxury vehicle
Luxury vehicle
and F-segment

Also known as full-size luxury cars, grand saloons, or premium large cars, while "Oberklasse" is used in Germany. Typically a four-door saloon (sedan). These are the most powerful saloons, with six, eight and twelve-cylinder engines and have more equipment than smaller models. Vehicles in this category include some of the models from the flagship lines of luxury car brands, such as Cadillac CT6, Lincoln Town Car
Car
and Maserati Quattroporte.

Examples of grand saloons:

* Audi A8
Audi A8
* Lexus LS
Lexus LS
* BMW 7-Series

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Executive Cars".

ESTATE CARS / STATION WAGONS

Audi A6
Audi A6
avant Main article: Station Wagon
Station Wagon

A STATION WAGON (also known as an ESTATE or ESTATE CAR) is an automobile with a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate ), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design—to include an A, B, and C-pillar , as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.

Examples of estates/station wagons:

* Hyundai i40
Hyundai i40
Tourer * Jaguar XF
Jaguar XF
Sportbrake * Mercedes-Benz CLS Shooting Brake

SPORTS CARS

Main article: Sports car
Sports car

HOT HATCH

Peugeot 205 GTI crowned "The Greatest Ever Hot Hatch" Main article: Hot hatch
Hot hatch

A HOT HATCH is a high-performance hatchback, based on standard superminis or small family cars with improved performance, handling and styling. Hot hatches are very popular in Europe, where hatchbacks are by far the most common body style for this size of car. In North America, sport compacts are usually sold as saloons or coupés rather than hatchbacks.

Examples of hot hatches:

* Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
GTi * Peugeot 205 GTi * Fiat 500
Fiat 500
Abarth

SPORTS SALOON / SPORTS SEDAN

Pontiac G8
Pontiac G8
GT Main article: Sports sedan
Sports sedan

These are high-performance versions of saloons. Sometimes originally homologated for production based motorsports (touring cars or rally cars ) and like regular saloons, seats four or five people.

Examples of sports saloons/sedans:

* BMW M5 * Mazdaspeed6 /Mazda 6 MPS * Dodge Charger
Dodge Charger

Examples of sport compact saloons/sedans:

* Dodge SRT-4 * Lotus Cortina * Mitsubishi EVO

SPORTS CAR

Jaguar E-Type Main article: Sports car
Sports car

The term "sports car" does not appear to have a clear definition. It is commonly used to describe vehicles which prioritise acceleration and handling; however, some people claim it is also defined as a vehicle with two seats. A SPORTS CAR (sportscar or sport car) is a small, usually two-seat, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite.

Examples of sports cars:

* Chevrolet Corvette
Chevrolet Corvette
* Mazda MX-5
Mazda MX-5
* Porsche 911
Porsche 911

GRAND TOURER

Maserati GranTurismo
Maserati GranTurismo
Main article: Grand tourer
Grand tourer

Larger, more powerful and heavier than sports cars, these vehicles typically have a FR layout
FR layout
and seating for four passengers (2+2 ). These are more expensive than sports cars but not as expensive as supercars. Grand Tourers encompass both luxury and high-performance. Some grand tourers are hand-built.

Examples of grand tourers:

* Aston Martin V8
Aston Martin V8
* Lexus SC300/400 * Ferrari 612 Scaglietti

SUPERCAR

Lamborghini Countach Main article: Supercar
Supercar

Supercar
Supercar
is a term generally used for ultra-high-end exotic cars, whose performance is superior to that of its contemporaries. The proper application of the term is subjective and disputed, especially among enthusiasts.

Examples of supercars:

* McLaren P1
McLaren P1
* Koenigsegg Agera R * Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti Veyron
16.4

MUSCLE CAR

1970 The Machine Main article: Muscle car
Muscle car

The MUSCLE CAR term generally refers to rear wheel drive mid-size cars with powerful V8 engines , typically manufactured in the U.S. Some definitions limit it to two-door vehicles; however, others include four-door body style versions. Although opinions vary, it is generally accepted that classic muscle cars were produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Muscle cars were also produced in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
South Africa
and other nations.

Examples of American muscle cars from the 1960s and 1970s:

* Ford Torino
Ford Torino
* Plymouth Road Runner
Plymouth Road Runner
* Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO

Examples of Australian muscle cars:

* Ford Falcon * Holden Monaro
Holden Monaro
* Valiant Charger
Valiant Charger

PONY CAR

1966 Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
Main article: Pony car
Pony car

The pony car is a class of American Muscle car
Muscle car
automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
in 1964. It describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image.

Examples of pony cars:

* AMC Javelin
AMC Javelin
* Chevrolet Camaro
Chevrolet Camaro
* Dodge Challenger
Dodge Challenger

CONVERTIBLE

Full-sized convertible with its fabric covered top folded behind the rear seat Main articles: Convertible
Convertible
and Retractable hardtop
Retractable hardtop

A body design that features a flexibly operating roof for open or enclosed mode driving. Also known as a CABRIOLET or ROADSTER (if a 2-seater). Historically, convertibles used folding roof structures with fabric or other flexible materials. Some designs have roofs made of metal or other stiff materials that retract into the body.

Examples of cabriolets:

* Mazda MX-5
Mazda MX-5
* Honda S2000
Honda S2000
* Volvo C70
Volvo C70

OFF-ROADERS

Main article: four-wheel drive

Off-road vehicles, or "off-roaders" are sometimes referred to as "four-wheel drives ", "four by fours", or 4x4s — this can happen colloquially in cases where certain models or even an entire range does not possess four-wheel drive .

SPORT UTILITY VEHICLE

Jeep Commander
Jeep Commander
Ford Kuga
Ford Kuga
Main articles: Sport utility vehicle and compact sport utility vehicle

Sport utility vehicles are off-road vehicles with four-wheel drive and true off-road capability. They most often feature high ground clearance and an upright, boxy body design. Sport Utilities are typically defined by a body on frame construction which offers more off-road capability but reduced on-road ride comfort and handling compared to a cross-over or car based utility vehicle.

Examples of compact SUVs:

* Land Rover Freelander
Land Rover Freelander
* Jeep Patriot * Toyota FJ Cruiser
Toyota FJ Cruiser

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Small Off-Roaders".

Examples of SUVs:

* Land Rover Discovery
Land Rover Discovery
* Mitsubishi Pajero
Mitsubishi Pajero
* Mahindra Scorpio
Mahindra Scorpio

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
class "Large Off-Roaders".

COMMERCIAL VEHICLE

Main article: Commercial vehicle
Commercial vehicle

VAN

American conversion van Main article: Van
Van

In some countries, the term "van" can refer to a small _panel van_ based on a passenger car design (often the estate model / station wagon); it also refers to light trucks, which themselves are sometimes based on SUVs or MPVs. (But note that those retaining seats and windows, while being larger and more utilitarian than MPVs, may be called "minibuses ".) The term is also used in the term "camper van" (or just "camper") — equivalent to a North American recreational vehicle (RV).

In the United States, the term "van" refers to vehicles that, like European minibuses, are even larger than large MPVs and are rarely seen being driven for domestic purposes — except for "conversion vans". These possess extremely large interior space and are often more intended for hauling cargo than people. Most vans use body-on-frame construction and are thus suitable for extensive modification and coachwork, known as conversion. Conversion vans are often quite luxurious, boasting comfortable seats, soft rides, built-in support for electronics such as television sets, and other amenities. The more elaborate conversion vans straddle the line between cars and recreational vehicles.

Examples of North American "vans":

* Dodge Ram
Dodge Ram
Van
Van
* Ford E-Series
Ford E-Series
* GMC Savana
GMC Savana

Examples of European "vans":

* Ford Transit
Ford Transit
* Volkswagen Transporter
Volkswagen Transporter
* Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
Mercedes-Benz Sprinter

Examples of Japanese "vans"

* Toyota Hiace
Toyota Hiace
* Nissan NV

OTHER CAR CLASSIFICATION TERMS

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Bakkie A generic South African term for light pickup truck. Baquet refers to cars made in the early 1900s in Europe. Baquet means bath tub. These cars had two rows of raised seats similar to horse-drawn carriages. Baquets usually did not have front doors, a top, or windshield. Buggy A Buggy is an automobile with wheels that project beyond the vehicle body. Cabrio coach
Cabrio coach
Normally a two-door body design with special form of car roof, where a retractable textile cover amounts to a large sunroof . Coupé
Coupé
A 2-door, 2- or 4-seat car with a fixed roof. Its doors are often longer than those of an equivalent sedan and the rear passenger area smaller; the roof may also be low. In cases where the rear seats are very small and not intended for regular use it is called a 2+2 (pronounced _"two plus two"_). Originally, a coupé was required to have only one side window per side, but this consideration has not been used for many years. Combi Coupé
Coupé
A 2-door, 4-seat car with hatchback door at rear and, collapsible rear seats, resembling a fastback . The idea is to maximize the carrying capacity without bargaining on the performance. Coupé
Coupé
utility A passenger-car derived vehicle with an integral exterior cargo area. Crossover (or CUV) A loose marketing term to describe a vehicle that blends features of a SUV
SUV
with features of a car — especially forgoing the body on frame construction of the SUV
SUV
in favor of the car's unibody or monocoque construction. Crossovers usually borrow drivetrains and other parts from traditional cars in the same manufacturer's line. Crossovers typically employ an FF layout or an FF-based four-wheel drive layout with a transverse engine , rather than an FR layout
FR layout
or an FR-based 4WD layout with a longitudinal engine as is typically used on traditional truck-based SUVs. Drop Head Coupe Generally a European term referring to a 2-door, 4 place automobile with a retractable canvas / cloth top with _both_ a padded headliner and rollup windows (as opposed to side curtains). Estate British name for a _station wagon_. Fastback
Fastback
A design where the roof slopes at a smooth angle to the tail of the car, but the rear window does not open as a separate "door". Flower Car in US, similar to ute in Australia, i.e. generic for Chevy El Camino, Ford Ranchero, GMC Sprint/Diablo, etc. Hatchback
Hatchback
Incorporates a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate —and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box design , the body style typically includes A, B and C-pillars , and may include a D-pillar . Hardtop
Hardtop
Originally a removable solid roof on a _convertible_; later, also a fixed-roof car whose doors have no fixed window frames, which is designed to resemble such a convertible. Hearse
Hearse
A converted car (often a station wagon), light truck or minivan usually used to transport the dead. Often longer and heavier than the vehicle on which they are usually based. Can sometimes double up as an ambulance in some countries, such as the United States, especially in rural areas. Kammback
Kammback
Originally, a car with a tapered rear that cuts off abruptly. Landaulet
Landaulet
A limousine with the passenger section covered by a convertible top. Leisure activity vehicle
Leisure activity vehicle
A small van , generally related to a supermini , with a second or even a third seat row, and a large, tall boot . Liftback
Liftback
A broad marketing term for a hatchback, which incorporates a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a top-hinged liftgate . Limousine
Limousine
By definition, a chauffeur -driven car with a (normally glass-windowed) division between the front seats and the rear. In German, the term simply means a sedan . Microvan
Microvan
Term for a boxy wagon-type of car that is smaller than a conventional minivan; often without rear sliding door(s). Examples are Citroën Picasso , Renault Scénic , Toyota Yaris Verso or Mercedes-Benz A-Class . In Japan, this term is used for Kei car
Kei car
based vans. Minibus
Minibus
Designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus, generally up to 16 people in multiple rows of seats. Passenger access in normally via a sliding door on one side of the vehicle. One example of a van with a minibus version available is the Ford Transit. MPV Multi-purpose vehicle, a large car or small bus designed to be used on and off-road and easily convertible to facilitate loading of goods from facilitating carrying people. Notchback
Notchback
A configuration where the third box of a three-box styling configuration is less pronounced — especially where the rear deck (third box) is short or where the rear window is upright. People carrier or people mover European name to describe what is usually referred to in North America
North America
as a Minivan
Minivan
. Phaeton A Phaeton is a style of open car or carriage without proper weather protection for passengers. Pickup truck
Pickup truck
(or _pickup_) A light-duty, open-bed truck. Pillarless Usually a prefix to _coupé_, _fastback_, or _hardtop_; completely open at the sides when the windows are down, without a central pillar , e.g. the Sunbeam Rapier fastback coupé. Ragtop Originally an open car like a _roadster_, but with a soft top (cloth top) that can be raised or lowered. Unlike a convertible , it had no roll-up side windows. Now often used as slang for a convertible. Retractable Hardtop
Hardtop
aka Coupé
Coupé
convertible or Coupé Cabriolet. A type of convertible forgoing a foldable textile roof in favor of a multi-segment rigid roof retracts into the lower bodywork. Roadster Originally a two-seat open car with minimal weather protection — without top or side glass — though possibly with optional hard or soft top and side curtains (i.e., without roll-up glass windows). In modern usage, the term means simply a two-seat sports car _convertible_, a variation of _spyder_. Sedan A car seating four or more with a fixed roof that is full-height up to the rear window. Known in British English
British English
as a saloon. Sedans can have 2 or 4-doors. This is the most common body style. In the U.S., this term has been used to denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the _hardtop_ style wherein the sash, if any, winds down with the glass. Sedan delivery
Sedan delivery
North American term for a vehicle similar to a _wagon_ but without side windows, similar to a panel truck but with two doors (one on each side), and one or two rear doors Sport utility vehicle (SUV) Derivative of a pickup truck or 4-wheel-drive vehicle, but with fully enclosed passenger cabin interior and carlike levels of interior equipment. Spyder (or Spider) Similar to a _roadster_ but originally with less weather protection.Nowadays it simply means a convertible with two seater only. The name comes from the old carriages with two seats and no roof, whose small central cabin and big wheels at the corners are reminiscent of a spider. Shooting-brake
Shooting-brake
Initially a vehicle used to carry shooting parties with their equipment and game ; later used to describe custom-built wagons by high-end coachbuilders, subsequently synonymous with _station wagon _ or _estate _; and in contemporary usage a three or five-door wagons combining features of a wagon and a coupé . Station wagon
Station wagon
A variant of a sedan /saloon , (also known as estate or estate car) or with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume; access at the back via a third or fifth door instead of a trunk lid; flexible configurations to vary passenger or cargo volume; and two or three rows of seating — in a two-box design with a A, B as opposed to a pickup whose cargo tray is not integrated with the passenger body. Wagon delivery North American term (mainly U.S. and Canada). Similar to a _sedan delivery_, with four doors. Van
Van
In North America
North America
"van" refers to a truck-based commercial vehicle of the wagon style, whether used for passenger or commercial use. Usually a van has no windows at the side rear (panel van), although for passenger use, side windows are included. In other parts of the world, 'van' denotes a passenger-based wagon with no rear side windows.

NON-ENGLISH TERMS

Some non- English language
English language
terms are familiar from their use on imported vehicles in English-speaking nations even though the terms have not been adopted into English. Barchetta
Barchetta
Italian term for a roadster with no roof. The name, roughly "small boat", comes from an exclamation when the Ferrari 166MM Touring was shown. Berlina Italian term for a sedan . Berline French term for a sedan . Berlinetta
Berlinetta
Italian term for a sport coupé . Break French term for a station wagon . Camioneta Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
term for a station wagon (specially in the state of Rio de Janeiro). Spanish term also used in Argentina and Uruguay. Carrinha Portuguese term for a station wagon . Not used in Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
. Espada
Espada
Portuguese nickname for a limousine (the same word for _Sword_ – long piece of metal). Not used in Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
. Furgoneta Spanish and Polish term for a van , in the latter language almost always used in its diminutive form _furgonetka_. Furgão Portuguese alternative term (less used) for a van . Used in Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
, most often for vans but sometimes for panel van variants of passenger cars. Kombi is a German abbreviation of "Kombinationswagen" (Combination Car) and it is German name for station wagon . Since Germany
Germany
is a major producer of cars for many European countries, the term Kombi in this meaning is also used in Swedish , Czech , Slovak , Polish , Slovenian , Serbian , Bosnian , Croatian , Hungarian , Spanish , Portuguese , Bulgarian . In Afrikaans and in Australia, Kombi is also used to refer to a Volkswagen Microbus . In Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay the word specifically refers to the VW Microbus. Perua Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
term either designating a van (especially as spoken in the city of São Paulo) or a station wagon (in the city of Rio de Janeiro). Turismo Spanish term for a sedan . Literally means tourism , used mostly in Latin American countries and Spain. Ijapa Yoruba term for a two door car . Literally modeled after a Tortoise
Tortoise
animal . Also refers to Volkswagen Beetle
Volkswagen Beetle
. Vagoneta Bolivian Spanish Colloquial term for a station wagon (with o without SUV
SUV
capabilities).

SEE ALSO

* ACRISS Car Classification Code * Car color * Car safety
Car safety
and road safety * Production vehicle * Three-wheeler
Three-wheeler
* Truck classification
Truck classification
* Vehicle category * Vehicle size class

REFERENCES

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* ^ Berry, Claude Perrin (1921). _The law of automobiles_. Callaghan. p. 137. Retrieved 12 August 2014. * ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 3833:1977 Road vehicles – Types – Terms and definitions" (PDF). autoparts-standard.org. Retrieved 12 August 2014. * ^ _Technical Appendix_, Arlington, Virginia: Insurance Institute for Highway
Highway
Safety, Highway
Highway
Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2010 * ^ "Vehicle size and weight: Bigger heavier vehicles protect their occupants better.". _Fatality Facts_. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Retrieved May 29, 2017. * ^ "Technical Appendix" (PDF), _IIHS.org_, Arlington, VA: Highway Loss Data Institute, p. 4, December 2006, retrieved May 29, 2017 * ^ "NHTSA 5-Star Ratings FAQ". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 August 2014. * ^ "FHWA Vehicle Types". U.S. Federal Highway
Highway
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Car
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Sports car
– Definition from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 12 August 2014. * ^ " Sports car
Sports car
– Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 12 August 2014. * ^ Csere, Csaba; Swan, Tony (January 2005). "10 Best Cars: Best Luxury Sports Car". Car
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* ^ "Pony Car
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EXTERNAL LINKS

* EuroNCAP
EuroNCAP
classifications (unexplained)

* v * t * e

Car
Car
design

CAR CLASSIFICATION

* By