1.1 Babylonian system 1.2 Palestinian system 1.3 Tiberian system
3 Different systems for different sets of books 4 Traditional roots
4.1 Different naming according to rites
5 Functions of cantillation signs in explanation of text
5.1 Syntax 5.2 Phonetics 5.3 Music
5.3.1 Reconstructed melody
6 Traditional melodies
7 Names and shapes of the te'amim
7.1 Names in different traditions 7.2 Zarqa tables
7.2.1 Ashkenazic 7.2.2 Sephardic
7.3 Meanings of the names
8.1.1 First level phrases 8.1.2 Second level phrases 8.1.3 Third level phrases 8.1.4 Fourth level phrases
9 Psalms, Proverbs and Job 10 Mishnah 11 In Christian missionary uses 12 Notes 13 References
13.1.1 Grammar and masorah 13.1.2 Music (general and comparative) 13.1.3 Polish/Lithuanian melody 13.1.4 Other melodies
14 See also 15 External links
15.1 Textual resources 15.2 Wikimedia cantillation projects (recordings)
Three systems of
Hebrew punctuation (including vowels and cantillation
symbols) have been used: the Babylonian, the Palestinian and the
Tiberian, only the last of which is used today.
Babylonian Biblical manuscripts from the Geonic period contain no
cantillation marks in the current sense, but small Hebrew letters are
used to mark significant divisions within a verse. Up to eight
different letters are found, depending on the importance of the break
and where it occurs in the verse: these correspond roughly to the
disjunctives of the Tiberian system. For example, in some manuscripts
the letter tav, for tevir (break), does duty for both Tiberian tevir
and zaqef. In general there are no symbols for the conjunctives,
though some late manuscripts use the Tiberian symbols for these. There
is also no equivalent for low-grade disjunctives such as telishah
gedolah: these are generally replaced by the equivalent of zaqef or
Nothing is known of the musical realization of these marks, but it
seems likely that they represent breaks or variations in a set melody
applied to each verse. (A somewhat similar system is used in
manuscripts of the
Syntax They divide biblical verses into smaller units of meaning, a function which also gives them a limited but sometimes important role as a source for exegesis. This function is accomplished through the use of various conjunctive signs (which indicate that words should be connected in a single phrase) and especially a hierarchy of dividing signs of various strength which divide each verse into smaller phrases. The function of the disjunctive cantillation signs may be roughly compared to modern punctuation signs such as periods, commas, semicolons, etc.
Phonetics Most of the cantillation signs indicate the specific syllable where the stress (accent) falls in the pronunciation of a word.
Music The cantillation signs have musical value: reading the Hebrew Bible with cantillation becomes a musical chant, where the music itself serves as a tool to emphasise the proper accentuation and syntax (as mentioned previously).
Syntax In general, each word in the Tanach has one cantillation sign. This may be either a disjunctive, showing a division between that and the following word, or a conjunctive, joining the two words (like a slur in music). Thus, disjunctives divide a verse into phrases, and within each phrase all the words except the last carry conjunctives. (There are two types of exception to the rule about words having only one sign. A group of words joined by hyphens is regarded as one word so they only have one accent between them. Conversely, a long word may have two—e.g., a disjunctive on the stressed syllable and the related conjunctive two syllables before in place of meteg.) The disjunctives are traditionally divided into four levels, with lower level disjunctives marking less important breaks.
The first level, known as "Emperors", includes sof pasuq / siluq, marking the end of the verse, and atnach / etnachta, marking the middle. The second level is known as "Kings". The usual second level disjunctive is zaqef qaton (when on its own, this becomes zaqef gadol). This is replaced by tifcha when in the immediate neighbourhood of sof pasuq or atnach. A stronger second level disjunctive, used in very long verses, is segol: when it occurs on its own, this may be replaced by shalshelet. The third level is known as "Dukes". The usual third level disjunctive is revia. For musical reasons, this is replaced by zarqa when in the vicinity of segol, by pashta or yetiv when in the vicinity of zakef, and by tevir when in the vicinity of tifcha. The fourth level is known as "Counts". These are found mainly in longer verses, and tend to cluster near the beginning of a half-verse: for this reason their musical realisation is usually more elaborate than that of higher level disjunctives. They are pazer, geresh, gershayim, telisha gedolah, munach legarmeh and qarne farah.
The general conjunctive is munach. Depending on which disjunctive
follows, this may be replaced by mercha, mahpach, darga, qadma,
telisha qetannah or yerach ben yomo.
One other symbol is mercha kefulah, double mercha. There is some
argument about whether this is another conjunctive or an occasional
replacement for tevir.
Disjunctives have a function somewhat similar to punctuation in
Sof pasuq could be thought of as a full stop,
atnach as a semi-colon, second level disjunctives as commas and third
level disjunctives as commas or unmarked. Where two words are written
in the construct state (for example, pene ha-mayim, "the face of the
waters"), the first noun (nomen regens) invariably carries a
The cantillation signs are often an important aid in the
interpretation of a passage. For example, the words qol qore bamidbar
Among Ashkenazi Jews:
The Polish-Lithuanian melody, used by
Among Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews:
The "Jerusalem Sephardic" (Sepharadi-Yerushalmi) melody is now the most widely used Sephardic melody in Israel, and is also used in some Sephardic communities in the diaspora. The Greek/Turkish/Balkan, Syrian and Egyptian melodies are related to the Jerusalem Sephardic melody. They are more sparingly used in Israel today, but are still heard in the Diaspora, especially in America. There are two Iraqi melodies, one close to the Syrian melody and traditionally used in Baghdad (and sometimes in Israel), and another more distinctive melody originating in Mosul and generally used in the Iraqi Jewish diaspora. The Moroccan melody is used widely by Jews of Moroccan descent, both in Israel and in the diaspora, especially France. It subdivides into a Spanish-Moroccan melody, used in the northern coastal strip, and an Arab-Moroccan melody, used in the interior of the country, with some local variations. The Algerian, Tunisian and Libyan melodies are similar. The Spanish and Portuguese melody is in common use in the Spanish and Portuguese Sephardi communities of Livorno, Gibraltar, the Netherlands, England, Canada, the United States and other places in the Americas. It is closely related to the Spanish-Moroccan melody and has some resemblance to the Iraqi (Mosul and diaspora) melody.
Italian melodies are still used in Italy, as well as in one Italian synagogue in Jerusalem, one in Istanbul, and one in New York City. These vary greatly locally: for example the melody used in Rome resembles the Spanish and Portuguese melody rather than those used in northern Italy. Romaniote style of cantillation is used today in Greece, New York and Israel and is rooted in the Byzantine tradition The Yemenite melody can be heard in Israel primarily, but also in some American cities.
There has been an attempted reconstruction of the original melody by
Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura, on the basis of the shapes and positions of
the marks and without any reference to existing melodies, as described
in her book La musique de la Bible révélée and her records. That
reconstruction assumes the signs represent the degrees of various
musical scales, that is individual notes, which puts it at odds with
all existing traditions where the signs invariably represent melodic
motives; it also takes no account of the existence of older systems of
notation, such as the Babylonian and Palestinian systems.
Musicologists have rejected her results as dubious and her methodology
This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Media help.
There are a number of variants employed for special sections, such as
those for the
3. Haftarot Example
In the haftarah mode, there is also a "coda" motif. In the Western
4. Esther – a mostly light and joyous tune with elements of drama
and foreboding used for the Megillat Esther on Purim. The coda at the
end of each pasuk (verse) modulates from major to minor to produce a
more serious effect. Certain short passages pertaining to the
destruction of the temple are customarily read in the tune of
Lamentations. There are also additional musical customs, such as
saying the word סוס (horse) with a neighing sound, not indicated
by the cantillation.
5. Lamentations – a mournful tune. Echoes of it can also be heard
for certain verses in Esther and in the
molikh ('moving') used for the conjunctives and some minor disjunctives mafsiq ('pausing') for most third level disjunctives ma'amid ('elongating') for most second level disjunctives; and the patterns of etnaḥa and silluq (sof pasuq).
This is true equally of the system used for the
Times New Roman, Arial, Gisha, Microsoft Sans Serif, Code2000, Courier New, Ezra SIL, SBL BibLit, SBL Hebrew
The following default Hebrew fonts do not display these marks :
David, Miriam, Rod, FrankRuehl (as well as serif, sans-serif, monospaced unless they are configured manually)
The mark for U+05AA (yerach ben yomo or galgal) should not be drawn with the bottom vertical tick used in the mark drawn for U+05A2 (atnach hafukh), however some fonts draw these marks identically.
Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian
ב ׃ U+05C3 סוֹף פָּסֽוּק Sof pasuq/ silluq סוֹף פָּסֽוּק Sof pasuq סוֹף פָּסֽוּק Sof pasuq
ב֑ U+0591 אֶתְנַחְתָּ֑א Etnaḥta אַתְנָ֑ח Atnaḥ אַתְנָ֑ח Atnaḥ
ב֒ U+0592 סֶגּוֹל֒ Segol סְגוֹלְתָּא֒ Segolta שְׁרֵי֒ Shere
ב֓ U+0593 שַׁלְשֶׁ֓לֶת Shalshelet שַׁלְשֶׁ֓לֶת Shalshelet שַׁלְשֶׁ֓לֶת Shalshelet
ב֔ U+0594 זָקֵף קָטָ֔ן Zaqef qatan זָקֵף קָט֔וֹן Zaqef qaton זָקֵף קָט֔וֹן Zaqef qaton
ב֕ U+0595 זָקֵף גָּד֕וֹל Zaqef gadol זָקֵף גָּד֕וֹל Zaqef gadol זָקֵף גָּד֕וֹל Zaqef gadol
ב֖ U+0596 טִפְחָ֖א Tifcha טַרְחָ֖א Tarḥa טַרְחָ֖א Tarḥa
ב֗ U+0597 רְבִ֗יע Revia/revi’i רְבִ֗יע Revia רְבִ֗יע Revia
ב֮ U+05AE זַרְקָא֮ Zarqa זַרְקָא֮ Zarqa זַרְקָא֮ Zarqa
ב֙ U+0599 פַּשְׁטָא֙ Pashta קַדְמָא֙ Qadma פַּשְׁטָא֙ Pashta
ב֨ב֙ U+0599 U+05A8 שְׁנֵ֨י פַּשְׁטִין֙ Shene pashtin/pashtayim תְּרֵ֨י קַדְמִין֙ Tere qadmin שְׁנֵ֨י פַּשְׁטִין֙ (Shene) pashtin
ב֚ U+059A יְ֚תִיב Yetiv יְ֚תִיב Yetiv שׁ֚וֹפָר יְתִיב Shofar yetiv
ב֛ U+059B תְּבִ֛יר Tevir תְּבִ֛יר Tevir תְּבִ֛יר Tevir
ב֟ U+059F קַרְנֵי פָרָ֟ה Qarne farah/ pazer gadol קַרְנֵי פָרָ֟ה Qarne farah קַרְנֵי פָרָ֟ה Qarne farah
ב֠ U+05A0 תְּ֠לִישָא גְדוֹלָה Telisha gedolah תִּ֠רְצָה Tirtzah תַּ֠לְשָׁא Talsha
ב֜ U+059C אַזְלָא-גֵּ֜רֵשׁ Azla Geresh גְּרִ֜ישׁ Gerish גֵּ֜רֵשׁ Geresh/azla
ב֞ U+059E גֵּרְשַׁ֞יִם Gershayim שְׁנֵי גְרִישִׁ֞ין Shene gerishin שְׁנֵי גְרִישִׁ֞ין Shene gerishin
ב׀ U+05A3 מֻנַּח לְגַרְמֵ֣הּ׀ Munach legarmeh פָּסֵ֣ק׀ Paseq לְגַרְמֵ֣הּ׀ Legarmeh
ב֥ U+05A5 מֵרְכָ֥א Mercha מַאֲרִ֥יךְ Maarich מַאֲרִ֥יךְ Maarich
ב֣ U+05A3 מֻנַּ֣ח Munach שׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵ֣ךְ Shofar holech שׁוֹפָר עִלּ֣וּי Shofar illui
ב֤ U+05A4 מַהְפַּ֤ך Mahpach (שׁוֹפָר) מְהֻפָּ֤ךְ (Shofar) mehuppach שׁוֹפָר הָפ֤וּךְ Shofar hafuch
ב֧ U+05A7 דַּרְגָּ֧א Darga דַּרְגָּ֧א Darga דַּרְגָּ֧א Darga
ב֨ U+05A8 קַדְמָ֨א Qadma אַזְלָ֨א or קַדְמָ֨א Azla or Qadma קַדְמָ֨א Qadma
ב֩ U+05A9 תְּלִישָא קְטַנָּה֩ Telisha qetannah תַּלְשָׁא֩ Talsha תַּרְסָא֩ Tarsa
ב֦ U+05A6 מֵרְכָא כְּפוּלָ֦ה Mercha kefula תְּרֵי טַעֲמֵ֦י Tere ta’ame תְּרֵין חוּטְרִ֦ין Teren ḥutrin
ב֪ U+05AA יֵרֶח בֶּן יוֹמ֪וֹ Yerach ben yomo/ galgal יֵרֶח בֶּן יוֹמ֪וֹ Yeraḥ ben yomo יֵרֶח בֶּן יוֹמ֪וֹ Yerach ben yomo
The following additional symbols are found in the three poetical books: their names do not differ among the various traditions.
Symbol in Unicode Hebrew name in Unicode
Anglicized name (Israeli Hebrew)
ב֝ U+059D גֵּרֵשׁ מֻקְדָּם֝
ב֢ U+05A2 אתנח הפוך֢
ב֫ U+05AB עוֹלֶה֫
ב֬ U+05AC עִלּוּי֬
ב֭ U+05AD דחי֭
ב֘ U+0598 צִנּוֹרִת֘
Zarqa tables For learning purposes, the t'amim are arranged in a traditional order of recitation called a "zarqa table", showing both the names and the symbols themselves. These tables are often printed at the end of a Chumash (Hebrew Pentateuch). The order of recitation bears some relation to the groups in which the signs are likely to occur in a typical Biblical verse, but differs in detail between different communities. Below are traditional Ashkenazi and Sephardi orders, though variations are found in both communities. Ashkenazic
Meanings of the names
Azla "Going away", because it is often the end of the phrase 'Qadma ve'Azla'. Darga "Trill" from its sound, or "step" from its shape. Etnachta/Atnach "Pause, rest" because it is the pause in the middle of a verse. Geresh "Expulsion, driving out". So called because it is often "partnered" with the Qadma (as an Azla) but here appears on its own, "separated." Gershayim Double Geresh, from its appearance. Mahpach "Turning round". In old manuscripts, it was written like a U on its side, hence like someone doing a U turn. In printed books, it has a V shape, possibly because that was easier for the early printers to make. In Eastern communities it is called shofar mehuppach, "reversed horn", because it faces the other way from shofar holech (munach) Mercha "Lengthener", because it prolongs the melody of the word that follows. In modern usage it sometimes means "comma", but this usage is taken from the cantillation sign. Mercha-kefulah Kefulah means "double", because it looks like two merchas together. There are only five in the whole Torah: Gen. 27:25, Ex. 5:15, Lev. 10:1, Num. 14:3, Num. 32:42. Munach "Resting", because the shape is a horn lying on its side. (In Eastern communities it is called shofar holech, horn going forward.) Munach legarmeh (munach on its own) is a disjunctive, used mainly before revia, but occasionally before a pazer. It may be distinguished from ordinary munach by the dividing line (pesiq) following the word. Pashta "Stretching out", because its shape is leaning forward (or in reference to a hand signal). Pazer "Lavish" or "strew", because it has so many notes. Qadma "To progress, advance." It always occurs at the beginning of a phrase (often before other conjunctives) and its shape is leaning forward. In particular it is the first member of the Qadma ve-Azla pair. Revia "Quarter" or "fourth", probably because it splits the half verse from the start to etnachta (or etnachta to the end) into quarters (as it ranks below zaqef, the main division within the half verse). Other possibilities are that it came fourth in the zarqa table (in the current Ashkenazi table it comes fifth) or that it was regarded as occupying the fourth level in the hierarchy. Its apparent appropriateness to the square or diamond shape of the symbol is coincidence: in most manuscripts, it is simply a point. Segol "Bunch of grapes" (from its shape, which looks like a bunch of grapes). Shalshelet "Chain", either from its appearance or because it is a long chain of notes. There are only four in the whole Torah: Gen. 19:16, 24:12, 39:8; Lev. 8:23. Sof Pasuq "End of verse": it is the last note of every verse. It is sometimes called silluq (taking leave). Telisha Qetannah/Gedolah "Detached" because they are never linked to the following note as one musical phrase; Qetannah = small (short); Gedolah = big (long). Tevir "Broken", because it represents a break in reading (in some traditions there is a big jump down in pitch between the first and second notes). Tifcha "Diagonal", or "hand-breadth". In old manuscripts, it was written as a straight diagonal line. In printed books, it is curved, apparently to make it a mirror image of Mercha, with which it is usually paired (the two together could be regarded as forming a slur). The name "tifcha" may be an allusion to a hand signal. Yetiv "Resting" or "sitting", because it may be followed by a short pause, or more probably because the shape is like a horn sitting up. (In the Italian tradition, it is called shofar yetiv, sitting horn.) Zaqef Qaton/Gadol "Upright" (from their shape, or in allusion to a hand signal); Qaton = small (short); Gadol = big (long). Zarqa "Scatterer", because it is like a scattering of notes.
Numbers 35:5 (in Parshat Mas'ei) has two notes found nowhere else in the Torah:
Qarne Farah "Horns of a cow" (from its shape), sometimes called pazer gadol. Yerach ben Yomo "Moon one day old" (because it looks like a crescent moon), sometimes called galgal (circle).
Sequences The rules governing the sequence of cantillation marks are as follows.
A verse is divided into two half verses, the first ending with, and governed by, etnachta, and the second ending with, and governed by, sof pasuq. A very short verse may have no etnachta and be governed by sof pasuq alone. A half verse may be divided into two or more phrases marked off by second-level disjunctives. A second-level phrase may be divided into two or more sub-phrases marked off by third-level disjunctives. A third-level phrase may be divided into two or more sub-phrases marked off by fourth-level disjunctives. The last subdivision within a phrase must always be constituted by a disjunctive one level down, chosen to fit the disjunctive governing the phrase and called (in the Table below) its "near companion". Thus, a disjunctive may be preceded by a disjunctive of its own or a higher level, or by its near companion, but not by any other disjunctive of a lower level than its own. The other subdivisions within a phrase are constituted by the "default" disjunctive for the next lower level (the "remote companion"). Any disjunctive may or may not be preceded by one or more conjunctives, varying with the disjunctive in question. A disjunctive constituting a phrase on its own (i.e. not preceded by either a near companion or a conjunctive) may be substituted by a stronger disjunctive of the same level, called in the Table the "equivalent isolated disjunctive".
Main disjunctive Preceding conjunctive(s) Nearest preceding lower level disjunctive ("near companion") Other lower level disjunctives ("remote companion") Equivalent isolated disjunctive
First level disjunctives
Sof pasuq Mercha Tifcha Zaqef qaton
Etnachta Munach Tifcha Zaqef qaton
Second level disjunctives
Segol Munach Zarqa Revia Shalshelet
Zaqef qaton Munach Pashta Revia Zaqef gadol
Tifcha Mercha; Darga Mercha-kefulah Tevir Revia
Third level disjunctives
Zarqa Munach (occasionally Mercha) Geresh/Azla/Gershayim Telisha gedolah, Pazer
Fourth level disjunctives
Geresh/Azla Qadma; Telishah qetannah Qadma
Telisha gedolah Munach
Qarne farah Yerach ben yomo
Groups The following sequences are commonly found: First level phrases
(Mercha) Tifcha (Mercha) Sof-Pasuq (Sephardic Maarikh Tarkha Maarikh Sof Pasuq) The group that occurs at the end of each pasuq (verse), and always includes the Sof-Pasuq at the very minimum. Either or both of the Mercha's may be omitted. (Mercha) Tifcha (Munach) Etnachta (Sephardic Maarikh Tarkha Shofar Holekh Atna) one of the most common groups, but can only appear once in each pasuq. Tifcha can appear without a Mercha, but Mercha cannot appear without a Tifcha (or other following disjunctive). Etnachta can appear without a Munach, but Munach cannot appear without an Etnachta (or other following disjunctive). Munach- Etnachta can appear without a Mercha-Tifcha, but a Mercha- Tifcha cannot appear without a Munach- Etnachta (or Etnachta on its own).
Second level phrases
(Mahpach) Pashta (Munach) Zaqef Qaton (Sephardic Mehuppakh Qadma Shofar Holekh Zaqef Qaton) one of the most common groups. Pashta can appear without a Mahpach, but a Mahpach cannot appear without a Pashta. Alternatively, Yetiv can appear on its own in place of Pashta. Zaqef Qaton can appear without a Munach, but a Munach cannot appear without a Qaton (or other following disjunctive). Zaqef Gadol Not a part of a group, as it replaces a Zaqef Qaton sequence. (Munach) Zarqa (Munach) Segol (Sephardic Mehuppakh Zarqa Mehuppakh Segolta) Zarqa is only ever found before Segol; a Munach may precede either one. Shalshelet Not a part of a group, as it replaces a Segol sequence. Occurs only four times in the Torah, and always at the beginning of a verse.
Third level phrases
Munach Munach Revia (Sephardic Shofar Holekh Shofar Holekh Revia) The following combinations occur: Revia on its own; Munach Revia; Darga Munach Revia; Munach-with-Pesiq Revia; Munach-with-Pesiq Munach Revia. ( Munach with Pesiq is a disjunctive, separate from Munach proper, and also known as Munach legarmeh, munach on its own.) Darga Tevir Tevir is found either alone or preceded by Darga or Mercha. Darga occasionally precedes other combinations (e.g. Darga Munach Revia). Mercha-Kefula (Sephardic Tere ta’ame) Occasionally preceded by Darga, but usually on its own. Occurs only five times in the Torah, and once in Haftarah. Its function appears to be similar to Tevir.
Fourth level phrases
Qadma v'Azla This pair is known as such when found together, and may precede a Mahpach, a Revia group or a Tevir group. A Qadma can also be found without an Azla before a Mahpach, and an Azla without a Qadma is known as Azla- Geresh or simply Geresh. Gershayim on its own fulfils the same function as Qadma v'Azla, in that it can precede either a Mahpach, a Revia group or a Tevir group. Pazer Not considered part of a group, but usually followed by a Telisha Qetannah or a Telisha Gedolah. It may be preceded by one or more Munachs. Telisha Qetannah/Gedolah (Sephardic Talsha/Tirtsa) Not considered a part of a group, usually appears individually, sometimes after a Pazer. It often precedes Qadma. Yerach ben Yomo Qarnei Farah The rarest group of all. Occurs only once in the whole Torah, in the parashah Masey, on the words alpayim b'ammah (two thousand cubits). It is equivalent to Munach Pazer.
Psalms, Proverbs and Job
The system of cantillation signs used throughout the
^ In more than one tradition, the melodic outline of darga tevir is
similar to that of (mahpach) pashta zaqef qaton, though their
syntactical functions are not quite the same.
^ Segal, J. B., The Diacritical Point and the Accents in Syriac:
Oxford 1953, repr. 2003 ISBN 1-59333-032-4,
^ Masoreten des Westens.
^ Specimens of both may be found on
dead link]. It is possible that the Mosul melody represents the older
Iraqi tradition and that the Baghdad melody was imported from Syria
following the appointment of Chief Rabbi Sadka Bekhor Hussein in 1743.
^ Ross, M. S., Europäisches Zentrum für Jüdische Musik, CD-Projekt:
„Synagogale Musik der romaniotischen Juden Griechenlands“
^ Yemenite Synagogues in America
^ Dalia Cohen and Daniel Weill. "Progress in Deductive Research on the
Original Performance of Tiberian Accents (Te'amim)." Proceedings of
the Ninth World Conference of Jewish Studies, Division D, Vol. II
(Jerusalem, 1986): 265–80; cf. also, e.g., the review by P.T.
Daniels, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 112, No. 3
(Jul.–Sep., 1992), p. 499.
^ The tables in the 1905
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ha-Naqdan, Moshe (1822) , Darche ha-
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"Jewish Music", Grove Dictionary of Music .
Idelsohn, Abraham Zevi (1917), Phonographierte Gesänge und
Aussprachsproben des Hebräischen der jemenitischen, persischen und
syrischen Juden, Vienna .
———————— (1923), "Thesaurus of Oriental Hebrew
Melodies", II: Songs of the Babylonian Jews, Jerusalem, Berlin and
Missing or empty title= (help)[permanent dead link] also in
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Khazdan E. (2015) "The Study of
Neeman, JL (1955), The Tunes of the Bible — Musical Principles of
the Biblical Accentuation (in Hebrew), Tel Aviv .
Binder, AW (1959), Biblical Chant, New York .
Jacobson, Joshua (2002), Chanting the Hebrew Bible: the art of
Portnoy, Marshall; Wolff, Josée (2008) , The Art of Torah
Ridler, Vivian, ed. (1965) , Book of Prayer of the Spanish and
Portuguese Jews’ Congregation, London, 1, Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Press (since reprinted): the parashah and haftarah melodies are
set out at the end of the volume.
Sharvit, Uri (1982), The Musical Realization of Biblical Cantillation
Symbols in the Jewish Yemenite Tradition (Yuval: Studies of the Jewish
Music Research Centre) (4), pp. 179–210 .
Alvarez-Pereyre, Frank (1990), La Transmission Orale de la Mishnah.
Une méthode d'analyse appliquée à la tradition d'Alep (in French),
Rodrigues Pereira, Martin (1994), Hochmat Shelomoh (Wisdom of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cantillation.
Wikimedia cantillation projects (recordings)
Hebrew (currently lists thousands of recordings of aliyot, haftarot, and megillot) English
v t e
Books that are read
Torah Haftarah Book of Esther Song of Songs Book of Ruth Ecclesiastes Lamentations
Weekly Yom Tov Triennial cycle
Aliyah Maftir Shnayim mikra ve-echad targum
Ark Bimah Sefer Torah Tikkun Yad Ner Tamid
Mahpach Pashta Munach Zakef katan Kadma Yetiv
Mercha Tipcha Munach Etnachta
Sof Passuk group
Mercha Tipcha Mercha Sof passuk
Munach Zarka Munach Segol
Munach Pazer Telisha Ketana/Gedola
Zakef gadol Rivia Gershayim Darga Tevir Kadma (V'Azla) Geresh
Shalshelet Mercha kefula Yerach ben yomo Karne parah
v t e
Language Alphabet History Transliteration to English / from English Numerology
Biblical (northern dialect) Mishnaic Medieval Modern
Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian Mizrahi (Syrian) Yemenite Samaritan Tiberian (extinct) Palestinian (extinct) Babylonian (extinct)
Rashi Braille Ashuri Cursive Crowning Paleo-Hebrew
Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Het Tet Yud Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pei Tsadi Kuf Reish Shin Taw
Tiberian Babylonian Palestinian Samaritan
Shva Hiriq Tzere Segol Patach Kamatz Holam Kubutz and Shuruk Dagesh Mappiq Maqaf Rafe Sin/Shin Dot
Diacritics Meteg Cantillation Geresh Gershayim Inverted nun Shekel sign Numerals
Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Philippi's law
Law of attenuation
Verbal morphology Semitic roots Prefixes Suffixes Segolate Waw-consecutive
Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature
Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of