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Canterbury
Canterbury
(/ˈkæntərbri/ ( listen), /-bəri/, or /-bɛri/)[3] is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour. The Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
is the primate of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
owing to the importance of St Augustine, who served as the apostle to the pagan Kingdom of Kent around the turn of the 7th century. The city's cathedral became a major focus of pilgrimage following the 1170 martyrdom of Thomas Becket, although it had already been a well-trodden pilgrim destination since the murder of St Alphege
Alphege
by the men of King Canute in 1012. A journey of pilgrims to Becket's shrine served as the frame for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century classic The Canterbury
Canterbury
Tales. Canterbury
Canterbury
is a popular tourist destination: consistently one of the most-visited cities in the United Kingdom,[4] the city's economy is heavily reliant upon tourism. The city has been occupied since Paleolithic times and served as the capital of the Celtic Cantiaci
Cantiaci
and Jute Kingdom of Kent. Many historical structures fill the area, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey
St Augustine's Abbey
and a Norman castle, and the oldest extant school in the world, the King's School. Modern additions include the Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
and the St Lawrence Ground, home of the Kent
Kent
County Cricket Club. There is also a substantial student population, brought about by the presence of the University of Kent, Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts, and the Girne American University  Canterbury
Canterbury
campus.[5] Canterbury
Canterbury
remains, however, a small city in terms of geographical size and population, when compared with other British cities.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 14th–17th centuries 2.3 18th century–present

3 Governance 4 Geography 5 Climate 6 Demography 7 Economy 8 Culture

8.1 Landmarks 8.2 Theatres

8.2.1 Marlowe Theatre

8.3 Music

8.3.1 The cathedral

8.3.1.1 Medieval 8.3.1.2 Post-Reformation

8.3.2 The city

8.3.2.1 Early modern 8.3.2.2 Contemporary

8.3.3 Composers

8.4 Sport

9 Public transport

9.1 Railway 9.2 Road

10 Education

10.1 Universities and colleges 10.2 Primary and secondary schools 10.3 Weekend education

11 Local media

11.1 Newspapers 11.2 Radio and television

12 Notable people 13 International relations 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

Name[edit] The Roman settlement of Durovernum Cantiacorum
Durovernum Cantiacorum
("Kentish Durovernum") occupied the location of an earlier British town whose ancient British name has been reconstructed as *Durou̯ernon ("Stronghold by the Alder Grove"),[6] although the name is sometimes supposed to have derived from various British names for the Stour.[7] (Medieval variants of the Roman name include Dorobernia and Dorovernia.)[7] In Sub-Roman Britain, it was known in Old Welsh as Cair Ceint ("Fortress of Kent").[8][9] Occupied by the Jutes, it became known in Old English
Old English
as Cantwareburh ("Kentish Stronghold"),[10] which developed into its present name. History[edit] "History of Canterbury" redirects here. For the history of the regional area of this name in New Zealand, see History of the Canterbury
Canterbury
Region. Early history[edit]

St. Augustine's Abbey, which forms part of the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, was where Christianity was brought to England.

Main article: Durovernum Cantiacorum The Canterbury
Canterbury
area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, and Neolithic
Neolithic
and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
pots have been found in the area.[11] Canterbury
Canterbury
was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe of the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern-day Kent. In the 1st century AD, the Romans captured the settlement and named it Durovernum Cantiacorum.[6] The Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum, and public baths.[12] Although they did not maintain a major military garrison, its position on Watling Street
Watling Street
relative to the major Kentish ports of Rutupiae
Rutupiae
(Richborough), Dubrae
Dubrae
(Dover), and Lemanae
Lemanae
(Lymne) gave it considerable strategic importance.[13] In the late 3rd century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built an earth bank around the city and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of 130 acres (53 ha).[12]

St. Augustine's Abbey gateway

Despite being counted as one of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain,[8][9] it seems that after the Romans left Britain in 410 Durovernum Cantiacorum
Durovernum Cantiacorum
was abandoned except by a few farmers and gradually decayed.[14] Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived, possibly intermarrying with the locals.[15] In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert its King Æthelberht to Christianity. After the conversion, Canterbury, being a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for his episcopal see in Kent, and an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury.[16] The town's new importance led to its revival, and trades developed in pottery, textiles, and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury
Canterbury
mint.[17] In 672, the Synod of Hertford gave the see of Canterbury
Canterbury
authority over the entire English Church.[10] In 842 and 851, Canterbury
Canterbury
suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan
Dunstan
refounded the abbey built by Augustine, and named it St Augustine's Abbey.[18] A second wave of Danish attacks began in 991, and in 1011 the cathedral was burnt and Archbishop Alphege
Alphege
was killed in 1012. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury
Canterbury
did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.[10] William immediately ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone.[19] After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury
Canterbury
became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine.[20] This pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury
Canterbury
Tales.[21] Canterbury Castle
Canterbury Castle
was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III.[13] Canterbury
Canterbury
is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury:

Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Thomas Becket Saint Mellitus Saint Theodore of Tarsus Saint Dunstan Saint Adrian of Canterbury Saint Alphege Saint Æthelberht of Kent

14th–17th centuries[edit]

Huguenot
Huguenot
weavers' houses near the High Street

The Black Death
Black Death
hit Canterbury
Canterbury
in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury
Canterbury
had the 10th largest population in England; by the early 16th century, the population had fallen to 3,000. In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepair, stone-robbing and ditch-filling had led to the Roman wall becoming eroded. Between 1378 and 1402, the wall was virtually rebuilt, and new wall towers were added.[22] In 1381, during Wat Tyler's Peasants' Revolt, the castle and Archbishop's Palace were sacked, and Archbishop Sudbury was beheaded in London. Sudbury is still remembered annually by the Christmas mayoral procession to his tomb at Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral. In 1413 Henry IV became the only sovereign to be buried at the cathedral. In 1448 Canterbury
Canterbury
was granted a City Charter, which gave it a mayor and a high sheriff; the city still has a Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
and Sheriff.[23] In 1504 the cathedral's main tower, the Bell Harry Tower, was completed, ending 400 years of building.

The Westgate is the largest surviving city gate in England. It survived a demolition attempt for a road-widening scheme in Victorian times.

During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the city's priory, nunnery and three friaries were closed. St Augustine's Abbey, the 14th richest in England
England
at the time, was surrendered to the Crown, and its church and cloister were levelled. The rest of the abbey was dismantled over the next 15 years, although part of the site was converted to a palace.[24] Thomas Becket's shrine in the Cathedral was demolished and all the gold, silver and jewels were removed to the Tower of London, and Becket's images, name and feasts were obliterated throughout the kingdom, ending the pilgrimages. By the 17th century, Canterbury's population was 5,000; of whom 2,000 were French-speaking Protestant Huguenots, who had begun fleeing persecution and war in the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
in the mid-16th century. The Huguenots
Huguenots
introduced silk weaving into the city, which by 1676 had outstripped wool weaving.[25] In 1620 Robert Cushman negotiated the lease of the Mayflower
Mayflower
at 59 Palace Street for the purpose of transporting the Pilgrims
Pilgrims
to America. In 1647, during the English Civil War, riots broke out when Canterbury's puritan mayor banned church services on Christmas Day. The rioters' trial the following year led to a Kent
Kent
revolt against the Parliamentarian forces, contributing to the start of the second phase of the war. However, Canterbury
Canterbury
surrendered peacefully to the Parliamentarians after their victory at the Battle of Maidstone.[26]

Canterbury Castle
Canterbury Castle
fell into disrepair.

18th century–present[edit]

The Buttermarket, Canterbury

The city's first newspaper, the Kentish Post, was founded in 1717.[27] It merged with the newly founded Kentish Gazette
Kentish Gazette
in 1768.[28] By 1770, the castle had fallen into disrepair, and many parts of it were demolished during the late 18th century and early 19th century.[29] In 1787 all the gates in the city wall, except for Westgate—the city jail—were demolished as a result of a commission that found them impeding to new coach travel.[30] Canterbury
Canterbury
Prison was opened in 1808 just outside the city boundary.[31] By 1820 the city's silk industry had been killed by imported Indian muslins;[25] its trade was thereafter mostly limited to hops and wheat.[13] The Canterbury
Canterbury
and Whitstable
Whitstable
Railway, the world's first passenger railway,[32] was opened in 1830;[33] bankrupt by 1844, it was purchased by the South Eastern Railway, which connected the town to its larger network in 1846.[34] The London, Chatham, and Dover
Dover
arrived in 1860;[35] the competition and cost-cutting between the lines was resolved by merging them as the South Eastern and Chatham in 1899.[36] In 1848, St Augustine's Abbey
St Augustine's Abbey
was refurbished for use as a missionary college for the Church of England's representatives in the British colonies.[13] Between 1830 and 1900, the city's population grew from 15,000 to 24,000.[32] During the First World War, a number of barracks and voluntary hospitals were set up around the city, and in 1917 a German bomber crash-landed near Broad Oak Road.[37] During the Second World War, 10,445 bombs dropped during 135 separate raids destroyed 731 homes and 296 other buildings in the city, including the missionary college and Simon Langton Girls' Grammar Schools, and 115 people were killed.[38] The most devastating raid was on 1 June 1942 during the Baedeker Blitz.[37] Before the end of the war, architect Charles Holden
Charles Holden
drew up plans to redevelop the city centre, but locals were so opposed that the Citizens' Defence Association was formed and swept to power in the 1945 municipal elections. Rebuilding of the city centre eventually began 10 years after the war.[39] A ring road was constructed in stages outside the city walls some time afterwards to alleviate growing traffic problems in the city centre, which was later pedestrianised. The biggest expansion of the city occurred in the 1960s, with the arrival of the University of Kent
Kent
at Canterbury
Canterbury
and Christ Church College.[39] The 1980s saw visits from Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
and Queen Elizabeth II, and the beginning of the annual Canterbury
Canterbury
Festival.[40] Canterbury received its own radio station in CTFM, now KMFM Canterbury, in 1997. Between 1999 and 2005, the Whitefriars Shopping Centre underwent major redevelopment. In 2000, during the redevelopment, a major archaeological project was undertaken by the Canterbury
Canterbury
Archaeological Trust, known as the Big Dig,[41] which was supported by Channel Four's Time Team.[42] Another famous visitor was Mahatma Gandhi, who came to the city[43] in October 1931; he met[44] Hewlett Johnson, then Dean of Canterbury. Governance[edit] The Member of Parliament for the Canterbury
Canterbury
constituency, which includes Whitstable, is Rosie Duffield
Rosie Duffield
of the Labour Party. Canterbury, along with Whitstable
Whitstable
and Herne Bay, is in the City of Canterbury
Canterbury
local government district. The city's urban area consists of the six electoral wards of Barton, Blean
Blean
Forest, Northgate, St Stephens, Westgate, and Wincheap. These wards have eleven of the fifty seats on the Canterbury
Canterbury
City Council. Six of these seats are held by the Liberal Democrats, four by the Conservatives and one by Labour. The city became a county corporate in 1461, and later a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. In 1974 it lost its status as the smallest county borough in England, after the Local Government Act 1972, and came under the control of Kent
Kent
County Council. Geography[edit]

Canterbury
Canterbury
city walls

Canterbury
Canterbury
is located at 51°16′30″N 1°05′13″E / 51.27500°N 1.08694°E / 51.27500; 1.08694 (51.275, 1.087) in east Kent, about 55 miles (89 km) east-southeast of London. The coastal towns of Herne Bay and Whitstable
Whitstable
are 6 miles (10 km) to the north, and Faversham
Faversham
is 8 miles (13 km) to the northwest. Nearby villages include Rough Common, Sturry
Sturry
and Tyler Hill. The civil parish of Thanington Without
Thanington Without
is to the southwest; the rest of the city is unparished. Harbledown, Wincheap
Wincheap
and Hales Place are suburbs of the city. The city is on the River Stour or Great Stour, flowing from its source at Lenham
Lenham
north-east through Ashford to the English Channel
English Channel
at Sandwich. The river divides south east of the city, one branch flowing though the city, the other around the position of the former walls. The two branches rejoin or are linked several times, but finally recombine around the town of Fordwich, on the edge of the marshland north east of the city. The Stour is navigable on the tidal section to Fordwich, although above this point canoes and other small craft can be used. Punts and rowed river boats are available for hire in Canterbury.[45] The geology of the area consists mainly of brickearth overlying chalk. Tertiary sands overlain by London
London
clay form St. Thomas's Hill and St. Stephen's Hill about a mile northwest of the city centre.[46] Climate[edit] Canterbury
Canterbury
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. Canterbury
Canterbury
enjoys mild temperatures all year round, being between 1.8 °C (35.2 °F) and 22.8 °C (73 °F). There is relatively little rainfall throughout the year.

Climate data for Canterbury

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 7.8 (46) 10.7 (51.3) 13.4 (56.1) 16.8 (62.2) 20.0 (68) 22.8 (73) 22.8 (73) 19.4 (66.9) 15.3 (59.5) 10.9 (51.6) 8.1 (46.6) 14.7 (58.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 4.3 (39.7) 6.4 (43.5) 8.2 (46.8) 11.6 (52.9) 14.3 (57.7) 16.8 (62.2) 16.9 (62.4) 14.3 (57.7) 10.9 (51.6) 7.1 (44.8) 5.3 (41.5) 10.0 (50)

Average low °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 1.8 (35.2) 3.5 (38.3) 4.9 (40.8) 7.7 (45.9) 10.5 (50.9) 12.9 (55.2) 12.8 (55) 10.8 (51.4) 8.0 (46.4) 4.8 (40.6) 2.5 (36.5) 6.9 (44.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.2 (2.449) 42.2 (1.661) 41.3 (1.626) 42.9 (1.689) 50.0 (1.969) 39.0 (1.535) 40.0 (1.575) 51.2 (2.016) 61.6 (2.425) 83.2 (3.276) 68.8 (2.709) 63.4 (2.496) 645.8 (25.425)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.9 80.7 116.5 174.2 206.0 206.4 221.8 214.9 155.2 125.0 73.3 48.6 1,683.3

Source #1: [47]

Source #2: [48]

Demography[edit]

Canterbury
Canterbury
compared

2001 UK Census Canterbury
Canterbury
city Canterbury
Canterbury
district England

Total population 43,432 135,278 49,138,831

Foreign born 11.6% 5.1% 9.2%

White 95% 97% 91%

Asian 1.8% 1.6% 4.6%

Black 0.7% 0.5% 2.3%

Christian 68% 73% 72%

Muslim 1.1% 0.6% 3.1%

Hindu 0.8% 0.4% 1.1%

No religion 20% 17% 15%

Unemployed 3.0% 2.7% 3.3%

At the 2001 UK census,[49][50][51][52][53][54] C the total population of the city's urban area wards was 43,432, with 135,278 within the Canterbury
Canterbury
district. In 2011, the total district population was counted as 151,200, with an 11.7% increase from 2001.[55] For 2001, residents of the city had an average age of 37.1 years, younger than the 40.2 average of the district and the 38.6 average for England. Of the 17,536 households, 35% were one-person households, 39% were couples, 10% were lone parents, and 15% other. Of those aged 16–74 in the city, 27% had a higher education qualification, higher than the 20% national average. Compared with the rest of England, the city had an above-average proportion of foreign-born residents, at around 12%. Ninety-five percent of residents were recorded as white; the largest minority group was recorded as Asian, at 1.8% of the population. Religion was recorded as 68.2% Christian, 1.1% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.8% Hindu, 0.2% Jewish, and 0.1% Sikh. The rest either had no religion, an alternative religion, or did not state their religion.

Population growth
Population growth
in Canterbury
Canterbury
since 1901

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961 1971 2001

Population 24,899 24,626 23,737 24,446 26,999 27,795 30,415 33,155 43,432

Source: A Vision of Britain through Time

Economy[edit]

Shops in Butchery Lane. Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
seen in the background.

Canterbury
Canterbury
district retains approximately 4,761 businesses, up to 60,000 full and part-time employees and was worth £1.3 billion in 2001.[56] This makes the district the second largest economy in Kent.[56] Unemployment in the city has dropped significantly since 2001 owing to the opening of the Whitefriars shopping complex which introduced thousands of job opportunities.[57] In April 2008, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Rowan Williams, controversially made a strong speech arguing that salary caps should be implemented to curb the pay of the rich in an attempt to manage the growth of the economy.[58] The city's economy benefits mainly from significant economic projects such as the Canterbury
Canterbury
Enterprise Hub, Lakesview International Business Park and the Whitefriars retail development.[56] Tourism contributes £258m to the Canterbury
Canterbury
economy and has been a "cornerstone of the local economy" for a number of years; Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
alone generates over one million visitors a year.[56] Canterbury
Canterbury
has a high GDP per capita, it is higher than the Kent
Kent
average of $42,500 at $51,900 making it one of the wealthiest places in the South East. The registered unemployment rate as of September 2011 stands at 5.7%. Culture[edit] Landmarks[edit]

Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
is the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion and seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Founded in 597 AD by Augustine, it forms a World Heritage Site, along with the Saxon St. Martin's Church and the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey. With one million visitors per year, it is one of the most visited places in the country. Services are held at the cathedral three or more times a day.[59][60] The Roman Museum
Roman Museum
houses an in situ mosaic pavement dating from around 300 AD.[61] Surviving structures from the Roman times include Queningate, a blocked gate in the city wall, and the Dane John Mound, once part of a Roman cemetery.[62] The Dane John Gardens were built beside the mound in the 18th century, and a memorial was placed on the mound's summit.[63] A windmill was on the mound between 1731 and 1839. The ruins of the Norman Canterbury Castle
Canterbury Castle
and St Augustine's Abbey
St Augustine's Abbey
are both open to the public. The medieval St Margaret's Church now houses "The Canterbury
Canterbury
Tales", in which life-sized character models reconstruct Geoffrey Chaucer's stories. The Westgate is now a museum relating to its history as a jail. The medieval church of St Alphege became redundant in 1982 but had a new lease of life as the Canterbury Urban Studies Centre, later renamed the Canterbury
Canterbury
Environment Centre; the building is used by the King's School. The Old Synagogue, now the King's School Music Room, is one of only two Egyptian Revival synagogues still standing. The city centre contains many timber-framed 16th and 17th century houses, however there are far fewer than there were before the Second World War, as many were damaged during the Baedecker Blitz. Many are still standing, including the "Old Weaver's House" used by the Huguenots.[64] St Martin's Mill is the only surviving mill out of the six known to have stood in Canterbury. It was built in 1817 and worked until 1890; it is now a house conversion.[65] St Thomas of Canterbury
Canterbury
Church is the only Roman Catholic church in the city and contains relics of Thomas Becket.[66] Canterbury Heritage Museum
Canterbury Heritage Museum
houses many exhibits - including the Rupert Bear Museum. The Herne Bay Times has reported that the Heritage at Risk Register includes 19 listed buildings in Canterbury
Canterbury
which need urgent repair but for which the council has insufficient funds.[67] Theatres[edit] The city's theatre and concert hall is the Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
named after Christopher Marlowe, who was born in the city in Elizabethan times. He was baptised in the city's St George's Church, which was destroyed during the Second World War.[68] The old Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
was located in St Margaret's Street and housed a repertory theatre. The Gulbenkian Theatre, at the University of Kent, also serves the city, housing also a cinema and café.[69] The Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
was completely rebuilt and reopened in October 2011. Besides the two theatres, theatrical performances take place at several areas of the city, for instance the cathedral and St Augustine's Abbey. The premiere of Murder in the Cathedral
Murder in the Cathedral
by T. S. Eliot took place at Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral.[70] The oldest surviving Tudor theatre in Canterbury
Canterbury
is now the Shakespeare,[71] formerly known as Casey's. There are several theatre groups based in Canterbury, including the University of Kent
Kent
Students' Union's T24 Drama Society, The Canterbury
Canterbury
Players[72] and Kent
Kent
Youth Theatre. Marlowe Theatre[edit] The redeveloped Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
is (at the time of writing) the largest theatre in the region, offering touring productions and concerts. The programme includes musicals, drama, ballet, contemporary dance, classical orchestras, opera, children's shows, pantomime, stand-up comedy and concerts. There is also a second performance space called the Marlowe Studio, dedicated to creative activity and the programming of new work. The Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
can be seen from many points throughout the city centre, considering it is the only modern and tall structure. Music[edit] The cathedral[edit] Medieval[edit] Polyphonic music written for the monks of Christ Church Priory
Priory
(the cathedral) survives from the 13th century. The cathedral may have had an organ as early as the 12th century,[73] though the names of organists are only recorded from the early 15th century.[74] One of the earliest named composers associated with Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
was Leonel Power, who was appointed master of the new Lady Chapel choir formed in 1438. Post-Reformation[edit] The Reformation brought a period of decline in the cathedral's music which was revived under Dean Thomas Neville in the early 17th century. Neville introduced instrumentalists into the cathedral's music who played cornett and sackbut, probably members of the city's band of waits. The cathedral acquired sets of recorders, lutes and viols for the use of the choir boys and lay-clerks.[73] The city[edit] Early modern[edit] As was common in English cities in the Middle Ages, Canterbury employed a town band known as the Waits. There are records of payments to the Waits starting from 1402, though they probably existed earlier than this. The Waits were disbanded by the city authorities in 1641 for 'misdemeanors' but were reinstated in 1660 when they played for the visit of King Charles II on his return from exile.[75] Waits were eventually abolished nationally by the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835. A modern early music group called The Canterbury
Canterbury
Waits has revived the name.[76] The Canterbury
Canterbury
Catch Club was a musical and social club which met in the city between 1779 and 1865. The club (male only) met weekly in the winter. It employed an orchestra to assist in performances in the first half of the evening. After the interval, the members sang catches and glees from the club's extensive music library (now deposited at the Cathedral Archives in Canterbury).[77] Contemporary[edit] The city gave its name to a musical genre known as the Canterbury Sound or Canterbury
Canterbury
Scene, a group of progressive rock, avant-garde and jazz musicians established within the city during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Some very notable Canterbury
Canterbury
bands were Soft Machine, Caravan, Matching Mole, Egg, Hatfield and the North, National Health, Gilgamesh, Soft Heap, Khan, Camel and In Cahoots. Over the years, with band membership changes and new bands evolving, the term has been used to describe a musical style or subgenre, rather than a regional group of musicians.[78] During the 1970-80's the Canterbury
Canterbury
'Odeon' now the site of the 'New Marlow' played host to many of the Punk and new wave bands of the era including, The Clash, The Ramones, Blondie, Sham69, Magazine, XTC, Dr Feelgood, Elvis Costello and The Attractions, and The Stranglers. The University of Kent
Kent
has hosted concerts by bands including Led Zeppelin[79] and The Who.[80] During the late seventies and early eighties the Canterbury
Canterbury
Odeon hosted a number of major acts, including The Cure[81] and Joy Division.[82] The Marlowe Theatre
Marlowe Theatre
is also used for many musical performances, such as Don McLean
Don McLean
in 2007,[83] and Fairport Convention
Fairport Convention
in 2008.[84] A regular music and dance venue is the Westgate Hall. The Canterbury
Canterbury
Choral Society gives regular concerts in Canterbury Cathedral, specialising in the large-scale choral works of the classical repertory.[85] The Canterbury
Canterbury
Orchestra, founded in 1953, is a thriving group of enthusiastic players who regularly tackle major works from the symphonic repertoire.[86] Other musical groups include the Canterbury
Canterbury
Singers (also founded in 1953), Cantemus, and the City of Canterbury
Canterbury
Chamber Choir.[87] The University of Kent
Kent
has a Symphony Orchestra, a University Choir, a Chamber Choir, and a University Concert Band and Big Band.[88] The Canterbury Festival takes place over two weeks in October each year in Canterbury
Canterbury
and the surrounding towns. It includes a wide range of musical events ranging from opera and symphony concerts to world music, jazz, folk, etc., with a Festival Club, a Fringe and Umbrella events.[89] Canterbury
Canterbury
also hosts the annual Lounge On The Farm festival in July, which mainly sees performances from rock, indie and dance artists. The reggae/ska musician Judge Dread
Judge Dread
played his last gig at the Penny Theatre. His final words were "Let's hear it for the band." He then went offstage, suffered a major heart attack and died, despite help from both ambulance crews and the audience. Composers[edit] Composers with an association with Canterbury
Canterbury
include

Thomas Tallis
Thomas Tallis
(c. 1505–1585), became a lay clerk (singing man) at Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
c. 1540 and was subsequently appointed a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal
Chapel Royal
in 1543.[73] John Ward (1571–1638), born in Canterbury, a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral, composed madrigals, works for viol consort, services, and anthems. Orlando Gibbons
Orlando Gibbons
(1583–1625), organist, composer and Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, who died in Canterbury
Canterbury
and was buried in the cathedral. William Flackton (1709–1798), born in Canterbury, a chorister at Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral, was an organist, viola player and composer. John Marsh (1752–1828), lawyer, amateur composer and concert organiser, wrote two symphonies for the Canterbury
Canterbury
Orchestra before moving to Chichester in 1784. Thomas Clark (1775–1859), shoemaker and organist at the Methodist church in Canterbury, composer of 'West Gallery' hymns and psalm tunes.[90] Sir George Job Elvey (1816–1893), organist and composer, was born in Canterbury
Canterbury
and trained as a chorister at the cathedral. Alan Ridout (1934–1996) educator and broadcaster, composer of church, orchestral and chamber music. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies
Peter Maxwell Davies
was appointed an Honorary Fellow of Canterbury Christ Church University
Canterbury Christ Church University
at a ceremony in Canterbury Cathedral. Many Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
organists composed services, anthems, hymns, etc.

Sport[edit]

St Lawrence Ground

St Lawrence Ground
St Lawrence Ground
is notable as one of the two grounds used regularly for first-class cricket that have a tree within the boundary (the other is the City Oval in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa). It is the home ground of Kent
Kent
County Cricket Club and has hosted several One Day Internationals, including one England
England
match during the 1999 Cricket World Cup.[91] Canterbury City F.C.
Canterbury City F.C.
reformed in 2007 as a community interest company and currently compete in the Southern Counties East Football League. The previous incarnation of the club folded in 2001.[92] Canterbury RFC were founded in 1926 and became the first East Kent
Kent
club to achieve National League status and currently play in the fourth tier, National League 2 South.[93] The Tour de France
Tour de France
has visited the city twice. In 1994 the tour passed through, and in 2007 it held the finish for Stage 1.[94] Canterbury Hockey Club
Canterbury Hockey Club
is one of the largest clubs in the country and both men's 1st XI and women's 1st XI compete in the England
England
Hockey League.[95] Former Olympic gold medal winner Sean Kerly also a member of the club.[96] Sporting activities for the public are provided at the Kingsmead Leisure Centre, which has a 33-metre (108 ft) swimming pool and a sports hall for football, basketball, and badminton.[97] Public transport[edit] Railway[edit]

Canterbury
Canterbury
West railway station. The world's first regular passenger railway ran from this site, and it was here that the world's first season ticket was issued. Today, the railway station connects with "High Speed 1", on which trains run to London
London
at up to 140 miles per hour (225 km/h).

Canterbury
Canterbury
was the terminus of the Canterbury
Canterbury
and Whitstable
Whitstable
Railway (known locally as the Crab and Winkle line) which was a pioneer line, opened on 3 May 1830, and closed in 1953. The Canterbury
Canterbury
and Whitstable
Whitstable
was the first regular passenger steam railway in the world.[98] The first station in Canterbury
Canterbury
was at North Lane. Canterbury
Canterbury
has two railway stations, called Canterbury
Canterbury
West and Canterbury
Canterbury
East (despite both stations being west of the city centre: Canterbury
Canterbury
West is to the northwest and Canterbury
Canterbury
East is to the southwest). Both stations are operated by Southeastern. Canterbury West station, on the South Eastern Railway from Ashford, was opened on 6 February 1846, and on 13 April the line to Ramsgate
Ramsgate
was completed. Canterbury
Canterbury
West is served by high speed (56 minutes) trains to London St. Pancras, slower stopping services to London
London
Charing Cross and London
London
Victoria as well as by trains to Ramsgate
Ramsgate
and Margate. Canterbury
Canterbury
East, the more central of the two stations, was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover
Dover
Railway on 9 July 1860. Services from London
London
Victoria stop at Canterbury
Canterbury
East (journey time around 88 minutes) and continue to Dover. Canterbury
Canterbury
used to be served by two other stations. North Lane Station was the southern terminus of the Canterbury
Canterbury
and Whitstable
Whitstable
Railway between 1830 and 1846. Canterbury
Canterbury
South was on the Elham Valley Railway, which opened in 1890 and closed in 1947. A high-speed train service to London
London
St Pancras via Ashford International started on 13 December 2009. Road[edit]

Central Bus station

Canterbury
Canterbury
is by-passed by the A2 London
London
to Dover
Dover
Road. It is about 45 miles (72 km) from the M25 London
London
orbital motorway, and 61 miles (98 km) from central London
London
by road. The other main road through Canterbury
Canterbury
is the A28 from Ashford to Ramsgate
Ramsgate
and Margate. The City Council has invested heavily in Park and Ride systems around the City's outskirts and there are three sites: at Wincheap, New Dover Road and Sturry
Sturry
Road. There are plans to build direct access sliproads to and from the London
London
directions of the A2 where it meets the congested Wincheap
Wincheap
(at present there are only slips from the A28 to and from the direction of Dover) to allow more direct access to Canterbury
Canterbury
from the A2, but these are currently subject to local discussion. In 2011 a third junction was constructed, linking the A28 to the northbound A2; this leaves just the A2 southbound exit missing, but since this would cut across the Park & Ride car park and meet the A28 at an already complicated junction, it is not expected to be added in the near term.[99] The hourly National Express 007 coach service to and from Victoria Coach Station, which leaves from the main bus station, is typically scheduled to take two hours. Eurolines
Eurolines
coaches run from the bus station to London
London
and Paris. Stagecoach in East Kent
Kent
runs most local bus routes in Canterbury
Canterbury
as well as long distance services. The group runs a special 'Unibus' service, with the buses running on 100% bio fuel from the city centre to the University of Kent.[100] Education[edit] Universities and colleges[edit] The city has an estimated 31,000 students (the highest student/permanent resident ratio in the UK) [101] as it is home to three universities, together with several other higher education institutions and colleges; at the 2001 census, 22% of the population aged 16–74 were full-time students, compared with 7% throughout England.[102]

Norman staircase, King's School, Canterbury

The city is host to three universities: The University of Kent, Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts. The University of Kent's main campus is situated over 600 acres (243 ha) on St. Stephen's Hill, a mile north of Canterbury
Canterbury
city centre. Formerly called the University of Kent
Kent
at Canterbury, it was founded in 1965, with a smaller campus opened in 2000 in the town of Chatham. As of 2014[update], it had around 20,000 students.[103]

Darwin College, part of the University of Kent
Kent
campus

Canterbury Christ Church University
Canterbury Christ Church University
was founded as a teacher training college in 1962 by the Church of England. In 1978 its range of courses began to expand into other subjects, and in 1995 it was given the power to become a University college. In 2005 it was granted full university status, and as of 2007[update] it had around 15,000 students.[104] The University for the Creative Arts
University for the Creative Arts
is the oldest higher education institution in the city, having been founded in 1882 by Thomas Sidney Cooper as the Sidney Cooper School of Art. Near the University of Kent is the Franciscan International Study Centre,[105] a place of study for the worldwide Franciscan Order. Chaucer College
Chaucer College
is an independent college for Japanese and other students within the campus of the University of Kent. Canterbury
Canterbury
College, formerly Canterbury
Canterbury
College of Technology, offers a mixture of vocation, further and higher education courses for school leavers and adults. Primary and secondary schools[edit] Independent secondary schools include Kent
Kent
College, St Edmund's School and the King's School, the oldest in the United Kingdom. St. Augustine established a school shortly after his arrival in Canterbury
Canterbury
in 597, and it is from this that the King’s School grew. The documented history of the school only began after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, when the school acquired its present name, referring to Henry VIII.[106] The Kings School in Canterbury
Canterbury
is one of the top public schools in the United Kingdom, regularly featuring in the top ten most expensive school fees lists. The city's secondary grammar schools are Barton Court Grammar School, Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys
Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys
and Simon Langton Girls' Grammar School; all of which in 2008 had over 93% of their pupils gain five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C, including English and maths.[107] The non-selective state secondary schools are The Canterbury
Canterbury
High School, St Anselm's Catholic School and the Church of England's Archbishop's School; all of which in 2008 had more than 30% of their pupils gain five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C including English and maths. Weekend education[edit] The Kent
Kent
Japanese School (ケント日本語補習校 Kento Nihongo Hoshū Kō), a weekend Japanese educational programme, is held on Saturday mornings on the campus of St. Edmund's School, Canterbury
Canterbury
CT2 8HU.[108] Local media[edit] Newspapers[edit] Canterbury's first newspaper was the Kentish Post, founded in 1717.[27] It changed its name to the Kentish Gazette
Kentish Gazette
in 1768[109] and is still being published, claiming to be the country's second oldest surviving newspaper.[110] It is currently produced as a paid-for newspaper produced by the KM Group, based in nearby Whitstable. This newspaper covers the East Kent
Kent
area and has a circulation of about 25,000.[111] Three free weekly newspapers provide news on the Canterbury
Canterbury
district: yourcanterbury, the Canterbury
Canterbury
Times and Canterbury
Canterbury
Extra. The Canterbury
Canterbury
Times is owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust
Daily Mail and General Trust
and has a circulation of about 55,000.[112][113] The Canterbury
Canterbury
Extra is owned by the KM Group and also has a circulation of about 55,000.[114] yourcanterbury is published by KOS Media, which also prints the popular county paper Kent
Kent
on Sunday. It also runs a website giving daily updated news and events for the city.[115] Radio and television[edit] Canterbury
Canterbury
is served by 2 local radio stations, KMFM Canterbury
KMFM Canterbury
and CSR 97.4FM. KMFM Canterbury
KMFM Canterbury
broadcasts on 106FM. It was formerly known as KMFM106, and before the KM Group took control it was known as CTFM, based on the local postcode being CT.[116] Previously based in the city, the station's studios and presenters were moved to Ashford in 2008.[117] CSR 97.4FM, an acronym for "Community Student Radio", broadcasts on 97.4FM from studios at both the University of Kent
Kent
and Canterbury Christ Church University. The station is run by a collaboration of education establishments in the city including the two universities. The transmitter is based at the University of Kent, offering a good coverage of the city.[118] CSR replaced two existing radio stations: C4 Radio, which served Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University, and UKC Radio, which served the University of Kent. There are 2 other stations that cover parts of the city. Canterbury Hospital Radio (CHR) serves the patients of the Kent
Kent
and Canterbury Hospital,[119] and Simon Langton Boys School has a radio station, SLBSLive, which can only be picked up on the school grounds.[120] The City receives BBC One South East and ITV Meridian from the main transmitter at Dover, and a local relay situated at Chartham. Notable people[edit] People born in Canterbury
Canterbury
include the detective Edmund Reid, Christopher Marlowe,[121] TV presenter Fiona Phillips,[122] actor Thomas James Longley, BBC Radio 6 Music
BBC Radio 6 Music
presenter Gideon Coe, former ITV News
ITV News
journalist, television presenter and BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 3
presenter Katie Derham, airline entrepreneur Sir Freddie Laker,[123] boy singer and actor Joseph McManners,[124] comic book artist Jack Lawrence, and actor Orlando Bloom.[125] Mary Tourtel, the creator of Rupert Bear,[126] and the Victorian animal painter who taught her, Thomas Sidney Cooper.[127] were both born and lived in the city. The cricketer David Gower,[128] physician William Harvey,[129] actress and singer Aruhan Galieva, writer W. Somerset Maugham[129] and film director Michael Powell[129] are among the former pupils of The King's School, Canterbury. Nelson Wellesley Fogarty (1871–1933) was the first Bishop of Damaraland (Namibia) from 1924 to 1933. The 17th/18th-century astronomer, and electricity pioneer Stephen Gray was born in Canterbury
Canterbury
in 1666. Notable alumni of the University of Kent
Kent
include comedian Alan Davies, singer Ellie Goulding, newspaper editor Rosie Boycott, actor Tom Wilkinson, and Booker Prize
Booker Prize
winning novelist Kazuo Ishiguro,[130] and actor Chris Simmons. In November 2012, Rowan Williams
Rowan Williams
was awarded Freedom of the City
Freedom of the City
for his work as Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
between 2003 and 2012.[131] The grave of author Joseph Conrad, in Canterbury
Canterbury
Cemetery at 32 Clifton Gardens, is a Grade II listed building.[132] International relations[edit] Canterbury
Canterbury
is twinned with the following cities:

Reims, France[133]

City to city partnership

Esztergom, Hungary

Protocol d'accord[134]

Saint-Omer, France, since 1995 Wimereux, France, since 1995 Certaldo, Italy, since 1997 Vladimir, Russia, since 1997 Mölndal, Sweden, since 1997 Tournai, Belgium, since 1999

See also[edit]

Mayors and Sheriffs of Canterbury Archdiocese and Archbishops of Canterbury Mills in Canterbury University of Kent Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University University for the Creative Arts Catching Lives – local charity supporting the homeless and destitute

Notes[edit]

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Canterbury
The Southeast Guide". Rough Guides. 1 June 1942. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ " Girne American University
Girne American University
Canterbury". www.gauc.org.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ a b Lyle 2002, p. 29. ^ a b Hasted, Edward (1800). The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. XI. Canterbury: W. Bristow. pp. 135–139. Retrieved 13 February 2015.  ^ a b Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen
Theodor Mommsen
(ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource. ^ a b Ford, David Nash. "[www.britannia.com/history/ebk/articles/nenniuscities.html The 28 Cities of Britain]" at Britannia. 2000. ^ a b c " Canterbury
Canterbury
Timeline". Channel 4. Retrieved 28 May 2008.  ^ Lyle 2002, p. 16. ^ a b Lyle 2002, pp. 43–44. ^ a b c d Godfrey-Faussett 1878, p. 29. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 42. ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 42, 47. ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 47–48. ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 48–50. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 53. ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 64, 66. ^ "Descriptive Gazetteer entry for Canterbury". Vision of Britain. Retrieved 28 May 2008.  ^ " The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
by Geoffrey Chaucer". British Library.  ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 86–87. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 91. ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 97–100. ^ a b Lyle 2002, p. 107. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 109. ^ a b RM Wiles, Freshest advices: early provincial newspapers in England, Ohio State University Press, 1965, p. 397. ^ David J. Shaw and Sarah Gray, ‘James Abree (1691?–1768): Canterbury’s first "modern" printer’, in: The Reach of print: Making, selling and reading books, ed. P. Isaac and B. McKay, Winchester, St Paul’s Bibliographies, 1998. Pp. 21–36. ISBN 1-873040-51-2 ^ Tatton-Brown, Tim. " Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle". Canterbury
Canterbury
Archaeological Trust. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2008.  ^ Lyle 2002, p. 110. ^ Canterbury, UK: HM Prison Service, archived from the original on 16 February 2008, retrieved 24 September 2008  ^ a b Butler 2002, p. 11. ^ Ratcliffe, R.L. (1980), Canterbury
Canterbury
& Whitstable
Whitstable
Railway 1830-1980, Locomotive Club of Great Britain, ISBN 0-905270-11-8  ^ White, H.P. (1961), A Regional History of the Railways of Southern England, Vol. II, London: Phoenix House, pp. 16–8  ^ Godfrey-Faussett 1878, p. 28. ^ Awdry, Christopher (1990), Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies, Sparkford: Patrick Stephens, p. 199, ISBN 1-8526-0049-7  ^ a b Butler 2002, p. 13. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 127. ^ a b Butler 2002, p. 14. ^ Butler 2002, p. 15. ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
Archaeological Trust: Previous articles: Big Dig Archived 15 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Butler 2002, p. 16. ^ Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi's life/ England
England
1931 – Wikilivres. wikilivres.ca. Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Special
Special
Collections – Library Services – University of Kent. Library.kent.ac.uk. Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Kent
Kent
& Canterbury
Canterbury
Tourist Attraction Canterbury
Canterbury
Historic River Tours. Canterburyrivertours.co.uk. Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Lyle 2002, p. 15. ^ " Canterbury
Canterbury
climate".  ^ "Weather statistics for Canterbury, England
England
(United Kingdom)".  ^ "Barton (Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ " Harbledown
Harbledown
(Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ "Northgate (Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ "St Stephens (Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ "Westgate (Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ " Wincheap
Wincheap
(Ward)". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160105160709/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/mro/news-release/census-2011-result-shows-increase-in-population-of-the-south-east/censussoutheastnr0712.html ^ a b c d Proposals to the Casino Advisory Panel Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Culture.gov.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008 ^ Economic Profile 2007 – Canterbury
Canterbury
Kent
Kent
County Council. Retrieved on 25 May 2008 Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
demands salary cap for super-rich in scathing attack on Britain's 'spiralling debt economy'. The Daily Mail. Retrieved on 25 May 2008) ^ " Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral". Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.  ^ "Crumbling cathedral 'needs £50m'". BBC News. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.  ^ Scheduled monument
Scheduled monument
listing held at Kent
Kent
County Council ^ Lyle 2002, p. 142. ^ Tellem 2002, p. 37 ^ Lyle 2002, pp. 142–147. ^ Coles Finch, William (1933). Watermills and Windmills. London: C W Daniel Company. pp. 177–78.  ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
- St Thomas of Canterbury
Canterbury
from English Heritage, retrieved 29 January 2016 ^ Blower, Nerissa (20 January 2011). "Historic Sites Crumbling". Herne Bay Times. This is Kent. Retrieved 22 January 2011.  ^ Tellem 2002, p. 38. ^ The Gulbenkian Theatre, UK: University of Kent, 25 May 2008  ^ The Marlowe Theatre, Canterbury, Kent, UK, retrieved 25 May 2008  ^ "The Shakespeare". shakespearecanterbury.co.uk.  ^ The Canterbury
Canterbury
Players: Canterbury's leading amateur dramatics group  ^ a b c Roger Bowers, 'The Liturgy of the Cathedral and its music, c. 1075–1642', In: A History of Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral, ed. P. Collinson, N. Ramsay, M. Sparks. (OUP 1995, revised edition 2002), pp. 408–450. ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral: organs and organists. ^ James M. Gibson, 'The Canterbury
Canterbury
Waits', in: Records of Early English Drama. Kent: Diocese of Canterbury. University of Toronto Press and The British Library, 2002. ^ The Canterbury
Canterbury
Waits Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Themusickcabinet.co.uk (30 July 2011). Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
Library Archived 14 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Canterbury-cathedral.org. Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ " Canterbury
Canterbury
Scene". Allmusic. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "University of Kent". Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
– Official Website. Archived from the original on 20 December 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "Year 1970". The Who
The Who
Concert Guide. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "27.04.1981 Canterbury
Canterbury
– Odeon". The Cure
The Cure
Concerts Guide. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ " Joy Division
Joy Division
setlist, 16.06.1979". Manchester District Music Archive. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "An Evening with Don McLean". Marlowe Theatre. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "Fairport Convention". Marlowe Theatre. Retrieved 29 May 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
Choral Society Archived 15 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Mdesignsolutions.co.uk (18 June 2011). Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ The Canterbury
Canterbury
Orchestra. The Canterbury
Canterbury
Orchestra (8 January 2010). Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ " City of Canterbury
City of Canterbury
Chamber Choir".  ^ University of Kent
Kent
Music – Making Music. Kent.ac.uk. Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Welcome to the Canterbury
Canterbury
Festival, Kent's International Arts Festival Home. Canterburyfestival.co.uk (13 August 2011). Retrieved on 25 August 2011. ^ Article on Thomas Clark on West Gallery Music Association web site. ^ "St Lawrence Ground". Cricinfo. Retrieved 26 August 2009.  ^ " Canterbury
Canterbury
City F.C." Canterbury
Canterbury
City F.C.  ^ "A Brief History of Canterbury
Canterbury
RFC". Canterbury
Canterbury
RFC. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ " Tour de France
Tour de France
Canterbury". Canterbury
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City Council. Archived from the original on 26 April 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ About Canterbury Hockey Club
Canterbury Hockey Club
Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Canterbury
Canterbury
Hockey Club. Retrieved on 25 May 2008 ^ Canterbury. Tourist Guide & Directory. Retrieved on 25 May 2008 ^ "Kingsmead Leisure Centre – Our Facilities". Active Life. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ Graham Martin, From Vision to Reality: the Making of the University of Kent
Kent
at Canterbury
Canterbury
(University of Kent
Kent
at Canterbury, 1990) pages 225–231 ISBN 0-904938-03-4 ^ How to Get Here. www.canterbury.co.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008) ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
Times (September 26, 2013). Retrieved May 9, 2016. ^ Kentish Gazette
Kentish Gazette
14 May 2015) ^ Source [1], retrieved on 27 May 2008 ^ "University profile". University of Kent. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2008.  ^ "History of Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University". Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University. Retrieved 28 May 2008.  ^ Franciscans Franciscans.ac.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008) ^ "A Brief History of the King's School, Canterbury". The King’s School. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2008.  ^ "Secondary schools in Kent: GCSE-level". BBC News. 15 January 2000. Retrieved 31 July 2009.  ^ "欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)" (). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
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Christopher Marlowe
– Some biographical facts Archived 23 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. at Prestel.co.uk. Retrieved on 29 May 2008) ^ Fiona Phillips
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Archived 2 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Lycos.com. Retrieved on 29 May 2008 ^ Sir Freddie Laker
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– British entrepreneur who pioneered low-cost air travel. The Guardian. Retrieved on 29 May 2008 ^ Joseph McManners
Joseph McManners
Biography. JoeMcManners.com Retrieved on 25 May 2008) ^ Pilger, Sam (27 May 2007). "Va-Va Bloom". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 26 May 2007. [dead link] ^ MARY TOURTEL (1879–1940) Archived 7 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. ChrisBeetles.com. Retrieved on 29 May 2008 ^ Tate Gallery Archive, ref. TG 4 February 1126 ^ " David Gower
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References[edit]

 Godfrey-Faussett, Thomas Godfrey (1878), " Canterbury
Canterbury
(1.)", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 28–30  Butler, Derek (2002), A Century of Canterbury, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-3243-0  Lyle, Marjorie (2002), Canterbury: 2000 Years of History, Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-1948-X  Tellem, Geraint (2002), Canterbury
Canterbury
and Kent, Jarrold Publishing, ISBN 0-7117-2079-7 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canterbury.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Canterbury.

 "Canterbury", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (11th ed.), 1911, pp. 210–212  Canterbury
Canterbury
City Council Canterbury
Canterbury
Buildings website – Archaeological and heritage site of Canterbury's buildings. Canterbury Archaeological Trust
Canterbury Archaeological Trust
– Whitefriars excavations TimeTeam: Canterbury
Canterbury
Big Dig UNESCO World Heritage Centre – World Heritage profile for Canterbury.

v t e

Towns and villages in the Canterbury
Canterbury
district of Kent, England

Adisham Barham Bekesbourne Beltinge Bishopsbourne Blean Boyden Gate Bramling Bridge Broad Oak Broomfield Chartham Chestfield Chislet Eddington Fordwich Grays Hackington Harbledown Hawthorn Corner Herne Herne Bay Hersden Hillborough Hoath Ickham Kingston Littlebourne Lower Hardres Marshside Nackington Patrixbourne Petham Pett Bottom Reculver Rough Common Stuppington Sturry Swalecliffe Tankerton Thanington Without Tyler Hill Upper Harbledown Upper Hardres Upstreet Waltham Westbere Whitstable Wickhambreaux Wincheap Womenswold Woolage Green Woolage Village Yorkletts

The city of Canterbury List of places in Kent

v t e

Ceremonial county of Kent

Kent
Kent
Portal

Unitary authorities

Borough of Medway

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Ashford Borough of Dartford Borough of Gravesham Borough of Maidstone Borough of Swale Borough of Tonbridge
Tonbridge
and Malling Borough of Tunbridge Wells City of Canterbury District of Dover District of Folkestone
Folkestone
& Hythe District of Sevenoaks District of Thanet

Major settlements

Ashford Broadstairs Canterbury Chatham Cranbrook Dartford Deal Dover Edenbridge Faversham Folkestone Fordwich Gillingham Gravesend Hawkinge Herne Bay Hythe Lydd Maidstone Margate New Romney Northfleet Paddock Wood Queenborough Rainham Ramsgate Rochester Royal Tunbridge Wells Sandwich Sevenoaks Sheerness Sittingbourne Snodland Southborough Strood Swanley Swanscombe Tenterden Tonbridge Walmer West Malling Westerham Westgate-on-Sea Whitstable See also: List of civil parishes in Kent

Rivers

See: Rivers of Kent

Topics

Flag Parliamentary constituencies Geography Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Schools Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs People Transport Windmills Culture London
London
Paramount

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235007

.