HOME
The Info List - Canidae



--- Advertisement ---


See text

The biological family CANIDAE /ˈkænᵻdiː/ is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs , wolves , foxes , jackals , dingoes , and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a CANID (/ˈkænᵻd/ , /ˈkeɪnᵻd/ ).

The cat-like feliforms and dog-like caniforms emerged within the Carnivoramorpha 43 million years before present. The caniforms included the fox-like genus _ Leptocyon _ whose various species existed from 34 million years before present before branching 11.9 million YBP into Vulpini (foxes) and Canini (canines). :174–5

Canids are found on all continents except Antarctica , having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size from the 2-m-long (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 24-cm-long (9.4 in) fennec fox . The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. They are mostly social animals , living together in family units or small groups and behaving cooperatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and by vocalizations. They are very intelligent. One canid, the domestic dog, long ago entered into a partnership with humans and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

CONTENTS

* 1 Taxonomy

* 1.1 Phylogenetic relationships

* 2 Evolution

* 2.1 Eocene epoch * 2.2 Oligocene epoch * 2.3 Miocene epoch * 2.4 Pliocene epoch * 2.5 Pleistocene epoch

* 3 Characteristics

* 3.1 Dentition

* 4 Life history

* 4.1 Social behavior * 4.2 Reproduction

* 5 Canids and humans

* 6 Extant and recently extinct species

* 6.1 Subfamily Caninae

* 7 Prehistoric Canidae

* 7.1 Subfamily Caninae * 7.2 Subfamily Borophaginae * 7.3 Subfamily Hesperocyoninae

* 8 References * 9 External links

TAXONOMY

In the history of the carnivores, the family Canidae is represented by the two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae , and the extant subfamily Caninae . This subfamily includes all living canids and their most recent fossil relatives. All living canids as a group form a dental monophyletic relationship with the extinct borophagines with both groups having a bicuspid (two points) on the lower carnassial talonid , which gives this tooth an additional ability in mastication . This together with the development of a distinct entoconid cusp and the broadening of the talonid of the first lower molar , and the corresponding enlargement of the talon of the upper first molar and reduction of its parastyle distinguish these late Cenozoic canids and are the essential differences that identify their clade. :p6

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

_ Skulls of various canid genera; Vulpes _ (corsac fox ), _ Nyctereutes _ (raccoon dog ), _ Cuon _ (dhole ) and _ Canis _ (golden jackal )

Within the Canidae, the results of allozyme and chromosome analyses have previously suggested several phylogenetic divisions:

* The wolf-like canids, (genus _Canis_, _Cuon_ and _Lycaon_) including the dog _( Canis lupus familiaris)_, gray wolf (_Canis lupus_), red wolf (_ Canis rufus_), eastern wolf (_ Canis lycaon_), coyote (_ Canis latrans_), golden jackal (_ Canis aureus_), Ethiopian wolf (_ Canis simensis_), black-backed jackal (_ Canis mesomelas_), side-striped jackal (_ Canis adustus_), dhole (_ Cuon alpinus_), and African wild dog (_Lycaon pictus_). * The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox (_ Vulpes velox_), red fox (_ Vulpes vulpes_), Cape fox (_ Vulpes chama_), Arctic fox (_ Vulpes lagopus_), and fennec fox (_ Vulpes zerda_). * The South American canids, including the bush dog (_Speothos venaticus_), hoary fox (_ Lycalopex uetulus_), crab-eating fox (_ Cerdocyon thous_) and maned wolf . * Various monotypic taxa , including the bat-eared fox (_Otocyon megalotis_), gray fox (_ Urocyon cinereoargenteus_), and raccoon dog (_ Nyctereutes procyonoides_).

DNA analysis shows that the first three form monophyletic clades . The wolf-like canids and the South American canids together form the tribe Canini. Molecular data imply a North American origin of living Canidae some ten million years ago and an African origin of wolf-like canines (_Canis_, _Cuon_, and _Lycaon_), with the jackals being the most basal of this group. The South American clade is rooted by the maned wolf and bush dog, and the fox-like canids by the fennec fox and Blanford's fox. The grey fox and island fox are basal to the other clades; however, this topological difference is not strongly supported.

The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh et al. (2005), modified to incorporate recent findings on _Canis_ and _Vulpes_ species.

Canidae

Canini

Canina

_ Canis familiaris _ (domestic dog )

_ Canis lupus _ (gray wolf )

_ Canis latrans _ (coyote )

_ Canis anthus _ ( African golden wolf )

_ Canis simensis _ ( Ethiopian wolf )

_ Canis aureus _ (golden jackal )

_ Cuon alpinus _ (dhole or Asiatic wild dog)

_ Lycaon pictus _ ( African wild dog )

_ Canis mesomelas _ (black-backed jackal )

_ Canis adustus _ (side-striped jackal )

Cerdocyonina

_ Speothos venaticus _ (bush dog )

_ Chrysocyon brachyurus _ (maned wolf )

_ Lycalopex _

_ Lycalopex vetulus _ (hoary fox )

_ Lycalopex fulvipes _ (Darwin\'s fox )

_ Lycalopex griseus _ ( South American gray fox or chilla)

_ Lycalopex gymnocercus _ (pampas fox )

_ Lycalopex culpaeus _ (culpeo or Andean fox)

_ Lycalopex sechurae _ ( Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox)

_ Cerdocyon thous _ (crab-eating fox )

_ Atelocynus microtis _ (short-eared dog )

Vulpini

_ Otocyon megalotis _ (bat-eared fox )

_ Nyctereutes procyonoides _ (raccoon dog )

_ Vulpes _

_ Vulpes zerda _ (fennec fox )

_ Vulpes cana _ (Blanford\'s fox )

_ Vulpes chama ( Cape fox ) _

_ Vulpes vulpes _ (red fox )

_ Vulpes rueppellii _ (Ruppell\'s fox )

_ Vulpes corsac _ (corsac fox )

_ Vulpes ferrilata _ ( Tibetan sand fox )

_ Vulpes macrotis _ ( Kit fox )

_ Vulpes lagopus _ ( Arctic fox )

_ Urocyon _

_ Urocyon littoralis _ (island fox )

_ Urocyon cinereoargenteus _ (gray fox )

EVOLUTION

The Canidae today includes a diverse group of some 34 species ranging in size from the maned wolf with its long limbs to the short-legged bush dog . Modern canids inhabit forests, tundra, savannahs and deserts throughout tropical and temperate parts of the world. The evolutionary relationships between the species have been studied in the past using morphological approaches but more recently, molecular studies have enabled the investigation of phylogenetic relationships . In some species, genetic divergence has been suppressed by the high level of gene flow between different populations and where the species have hybridized, large hybrid zones exist.

EOCENE EPOCH

Carnivorans evolved from miacoids about 55 million years ago (Mya ) during the late Paleocene . Some five million years later, the carnivorans split into two main divisions: caniforms (dog-like) and feliforms (cat-like). By 40 Mya, the first member of the dog family proper had arisen. Called _ Prohesperocyon wilsoni _, its fossilized remains have been found in what is now the southwestern part of Texas. The chief features which identify it as a canid include the loss of the upper third molar (part of a trend toward a more shearing bite), and the structure of the middle ear which has an enlarged bulla (the hollow bony structure protecting the delicate parts of the ear). _Prohesperocyon_ probably had slightly longer limbs than its predecessors, and also had parallel and closely touching toes which differ markedly from the splayed arrangements of the digits in bears.

The canid family soon subdivided into three subfamilies, each of which diverged during the Eocene: Hesperocyoninae (about 39.74–15 Mya), Borophaginae (about 34–2 Mya), and Caninae (about 34–0 Mya). Caninae is the only surviving subfamily and all present-day canids including wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals, and domestic dogs belong to it. Members of each subfamily showed an increase in body mass with time , and some exhibited specialized hypercarnivorous diets that made them prone to extinction. :Fig. 1 Evolution of the canids view • discuss • edit -65 — – -60 — – -55 — – -50 — – -45 — – -40 — – -35 — – -30 — – -25 — – -20 — – -15 — – -10 — – -5 — – 0 — CRETACEOUS QUATERNARY Palæocene Eocene Oligocene Pliocene Miocene ← K-P mass extinction ← First Hesperocyoninae ← First Borophaginae Caninae ← Modern-looking dogs ← Canine radiation P a l æ o g e n e N e o g e n e   Cenozoic Mesozoic An approximate timescale of key events in canid evolution. For precise dates, see text. Axis scale: millions of years ago. PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N ↓

OLIGOCENE EPOCH

By the Oligocene , all three subfamilies of canids (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae, and Caninae) had appeared in the fossil records of North America. The earliest and most primitive branch of the Canidae was the Hesperocyoninae lineage, which included the coyote-sized _ Mesocyon _ of the Oligocene (38–24 Mya). These early canids probably evolved for the fast pursuit of prey in a grassland habitat; they resembled modern civets in appearance. Hesperocyonines eventually became extinct in the middle Miocene. One of the early members of the Hesperocyonines, the genus _ Hesperocyon _, gave rise to _ Archaeocyon _ and _ Leptocyon _. These branches led to the borophagine and canine radiations .

MIOCENE EPOCH

Around 9–10 Mya during the Late Miocene , _ Canis _, _ Urocyon _, and _ Vulpes _ genera expanded from southwestern North America , where the canine radiation began. The success of these canines was related to the development of lower carnassials that were capable of both mastication and shearing. Around 8 Mya, the Beringian land bridge allowed members of the genus _ Eucyon _ a means to enter Asia and they continued on to colonize Europe.

PLIOCENE EPOCH

During the Pliocene , around 4–5 Mya, _ Canis lepophagus _ appeared in North America. This was small and sometimes coyote-like. Others were wolf-like in characteristics. _ Canis latrans_ (the coyote) is theorized to have descended from _ Canis lepophagus_.

The formation of the Isthmus of Panama , about 3 Mya, joined South America to North America, allowing canids to invade South America , where they diversified. However, the most recent common ancestor of the South American canids lived in North America some 4 Mya and the likelihood is that there were more than one incursion across the new land bridge. One of the resulting lineages consisted of the gray fox (_ Urocyon cinereoargentus_) and the now extinct dire wolf (_Canis dirus_). The other lineage consisted of the so-called South American endemic species; the maned wolf (_ Chrysocyon brachyurus_), the short-eared dog (_Atelocynus microtis_), the bush dog (_Speothos venaticus_), the crab-eating fox (_ Cerdocyon thous_) and the South American foxes (_Lycalopex_ spp.). The monophyly of this group has been established by molecular means.

PLEISTOCENE EPOCH

During the Pleistocene , the North American wolf line appeared, with _ Canis edwardii _, clearly identifiable as a wolf, and _ Canis rufus _ appeared, possibly a direct descendent of _ Canis edwardii_. Around 0.8 Mya, _ Canis ambrusteri _ emerged in North America. A large wolf, it was found all over North and Central America, and was eventually supplanted by its descendant, the dire wolf, which then spread into South America during the late Pleistocene.

By 0.3 Mya, a number of subspecies of the gray wolf (_ Canis lupus_) had developed and had spread throughout Europe and northern Asia. The gray wolf colonized North America during the late Rancholabrean era across the Bering land bridge, there being at least three separate invasions, with each one consisting of one or more different Eurasian gray wolf clades . Mt DNA studies have shown that there are at least four extant _C. lupus_ lineages. The dire wolf shared its habitat with the gray wolf but became extinct in a large-scale extinction event that occurred around 11,500 years ago. It may have been more of a scavenger than a hunter; its molars appear to be adapted for crushing bones and it may have died out as a result of the extinction of the large herbivorous animals on whose carcasses it relied.

In 2015, a study of mitochondrial genome sequences and whole genome nuclear sequences of African and Eurasian canids indicated that extant wolf-like canids have colonized Africa from Eurasia at least 5 times throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, which is consistent with fossil evidence suggesting that much of African canid fauna diversity resulted from the immigration of Eurasian ancestors, likely coincident with Plio- Pleistocene climatic oscillations between arid and humid conditions. When comparing the African and Eurasian golden jackals, the study concluded that the African specimens represented a distinct monophyletic lineage that should be recognized as a separate species, _ Canis anthus _ (African golden wolf). According to a phylogeny derived from nuclear sequences, the Eurasian golden jackal (_Canis aureus_) diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage 1.9 million years ago but the African golden wolf separated 1.3 million years ago. Mitochondrial genome sequences indicated the Ethiopian wolf diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage slightly prior to that. :S1

CHARACTERISTICS

Comparative illustration of the paws of grey wolf , golden jackal and dhole by A. N. Komarov

Wild canids are found on every continent except Antarctica, and inhabit a wide range of different habitats, including deserts , mountains , forests , and grasslands . They vary in size from the fennec fox, which may be as little as 24 cm (9.4 in) in length and weigh 0.6 kg (1.3 lb), to the gray wolf , which may be up to 160 cm (5.2 ft) long, and can weigh up to 79 kg (174 lb). Only a few species are arboreal – the North American gray fox, the closely related Channel Island fox, and the raccoon dog habitually climb trees.

All canids have a similar basic form, as exemplified by the grey wolf, although the relative length of muzzle, limbs, ears and tail vary considerably between species. With the exceptions of the bush dog, raccoon dog, and some domestic breeds of _ Canis lupus_ , canids have relatively long legs and lithe bodies, adapted for chasing prey. The tails are bushy and the length and quality of the pelage varies with the season. The muzzle portion of the skull is much more elongated than that of the cat family. The zygomatic arches are wide, there is a transverse lambdoidal ridge at the rear of the cranium and in some species, a sagittal crest running from front to back. The bony orbits around the eye never form a complete ring and the auditory bullae are smooth and rounded.

All canids are digitigrade , meaning they walk on their toes. The tip of the nose is always naked, as are the cushioned pads on the soles of the feet. These latter consist of a single pad behind the tip of each toe and a more-or-less three-lobed central pad under the roots of the digits. Hairs grow between the pads and in the Arctic fox, the sole of the foot is densely covered with hair at some times of year. With the exception of the four-toed African hunting dog (_Lycaon pictus_), there are five toes on the forefeet but the pollex (thumb) is reduced and does not reach the ground. On the hind feet, there are four toes, but in some domestic dogs, a fifth vestigial toe, known as a dewclaw , is sometimes present but has no anatomical connection to the rest of the foot. The slightly curved nails are non-retractile and more-or-less blunt.

The penis in male canids is supported by a bone called the baculum . It also contains a structure at the base called the bulbus glandis which helps to create a copulatory tie during mating, locking the animals together for up to an hour. Young canids are born blind, with their eyes opening a few weeks after birth. All living canids (Caninae) have a ligament analogous to the nuchal ligament of ungulates used to maintain the posture of the head and neck with little active muscle exertion; this ligament allows them to conserve energy while running long distances following scent trails with their nose to the ground. However, based on skeletal details of the neck, at least some Borophaginae (such as _ Aelurodon _) are believed to have lacked this ligament. :97–98

DENTITION

Diagram of a wolf skull with key features labelled Eurasian wolf skull

Dentition relates to the arrangement of teeth in the mouth, with the dental notation for the upper-jaw teeth using the upper-case letters I to denote incisors , C for canines , P for premolars , and M for molars , and the lower-case letters i, c, p and m to denote the mandible teeth . Teeth are numbered using one side of the mouth and from the front of the mouth to the back. In carnivores , the upper premolar P4 and the lower molar m1 form the carnassials that are used together in a scissor-like action to shear the muscle and tendon of prey. :74

Canids use their premolars for cutting and crushing except for the upper fourth premolar P4 (the upper carnassial) that is only used for cutting. They use their molars for grinding except for the lower first molar m1 (the lower carnassial) that has evolved for both cutting and grinding depending on the candid's dietary adaptation. On the lower carnassial the trigonid is used for slicing and the talonid is used for grinding. The ratio between the trigonid and the talonid indicates a carnivore's dietary habits, with a larger trigonid indicating a hypercarnivore and a larger talonid indicating a more omnivorous diet. Because of its low variability, the length of the lower carnassial is used to provide an estimate of a carnivore's body size.

A study of the estimated bite force at the canine teeth of a large sample of living and fossil mammalian predators, when adjusted for their body mass, found that for placental mammals the bite force at the canines (in Newtons /kilogram of body weight) was greatest in the extinct dire wolf (163), followed among the modern canids by the four hypercarnivores that often prey on animals larger than themselves: the African hunting dog (142), the gray wolf (136), the dhole (112), and the dingo (108). The bite force at the carnassials showed a similar trend to the canines. A predator's largest prey size is strongly influenced by its biomechanical limits.

Most canids have 42 teeth , with a dental formula of: 3.1.4.23.1.4.3. The bush dog has only one upper molar with two below, the dhole has two above and two below, and the bat-eared fox has three or four upper molars and four lower ones. The molar teeth are strong in most species, allowing the animals to crack open bone to reach the marrow . The deciduous, or baby teeth, formula in canids is 3.1.33.1.3, molars being completely absent.

LIFE HISTORY

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Dholes attacking a sambar , Bandipur National Park See also: Gray wolf § Behaviour , Dog behavior , Red fox § Behaviour , and African wild dog § Behaviour

Almost all canids are social animals and live together in groups. In general, they are territorial or have a home range and sleep in the open, using their dens only for breeding and sometimes in bad weather. In most foxes, and in many of the true dogs, a male and female pair work together to hunt and to raise their young. Gray wolves and some of the other larger canids live in larger groups called packs . African wild dogs have packs which may consist of twenty to forty animals, and packs of fewer than about seven individuals may be incapable of successful reproduction. Hunting in packs has the advantage that larger prey items can be tackled. Some species form packs or live in small family groups depending on the circumstances, including the type of available food. In most species, some individuals live on their own. Within a canid pack, there is a system of dominance so that the strongest, most experienced animals lead the pack. In most cases, the dominant male and female are the only pack members to breed.

Canids communicate with each other by scent signals , by visual clues and gestures, and by vocalizations such as growls, barks, and howls. In most cases, groups have a home territory from which they drive out other conspecifics . The territory is marked by leaving urine scent marks , which warn trespassing individuals. Social behaviour is also mediated by secretions from glands on the upper surface of the tail near its root and from the anal glands .

REPRODUCTION

Main article: Canine reproduction Gray wolves and red foxes mating A wild dog from Sri Lanka nursing her puppies

Canids as a group exhibit several reproductive traits that are uncommon among mammals as a whole. They are typically monogamous , provide paternal care to their offspring, have reproductive cycles with lengthy proestral and dioestral phases and have a copulatory tie during mating. They also retain adult offspring in the social group, suppressing the ability of these to breed while making use of the alloparental care they can provide to help raise the next generation of offspring.

During the proestral period, increased levels of oestradiol make the female attractive to the male. There is a rise in progesterone during the oestral phase and the female is now receptive. Following this, the level of oestradiol fluctuates and there is a lengthy dioestrous phase during which the female is pregnant. Pseudo-pregnancy frequently occurs in canids that have ovulated but failed to conceive. A period of anoestrus follows pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy , there being only one oestral period during each breeding season. Small and medium-sized canids mostly have a gestation period of fifty to sixty days while larger species average sixty to sixty-five days. The time of year in which the breeding season occurs is related to the length of day, as has been demonstrated in the case of several species that have been translocated across the equator to the other hemisphere and experiences a six-month shift of phase. Domestic dogs and certain small canids in captivity may come into oestrus more frequently, perhaps because the photoperiod stimulus breaks down under conditions of artificial lighting.

The size of a litter varies, with from one to sixteen or more pups being born. The young are born small, blind and helpless and require a long period of parental care. They are kept in a den, most often dug into the ground, for warmth and protection. When the young begin eating solid food, both parents, and often other pack members, bring food back for them from the hunt. This is most often vomited up from the adult's stomach. Where such pack involvement in the feeding of the litter occurs, the breeding success rate is higher than is the case where females split from the group and rear their pups in isolation. Young canids may take a year to mature and learn the skills they need to survive. In some species, such as the African wild dog, male offspring usually remain in the natal pack, while females disperse as a group, and join another small group of the opposite sex to form a new pack.

CANIDS AND HUMANS

Traditional English fox hunt Further information: domestic dog

One canid, the domestic dog , entered into a partnership with humans a long time ago. The archaeological record shows the first undisputed dog remains buried beside humans 14,700 years ago, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago. These dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists . The dog was the first domesticated species. The fact that wolves are pack animals with cooperative social structures may have been the reason that the relationship developed. Humans benefited from the canid's loyalty, cooperation, teamwork, alertness and tracking abilities while the wolf may have benefited from the use of weapons to tackle larger prey and the sharing of food. Humans and dogs may have evolved together.

Among canids, only the gray wolf has widely been known to prey on humans. Nonetheless, at least two records have coyotes killing humans, and two have golden jackals killing children. Human beings have trapped and hunted some canid species for their fur and, especially the gray wolf, coyote and the red fox, for sport. Canids such as the dhole are now endangered in the wild because of persecution, habitat loss, a depletion of ungulate prey species and transmission of diseases from domestic dogs.

EXTANT AND RECENTLY EXTINCT SPECIES

_ The genus Canis _: gray wolf , coyote , African golden wolf , Ethiopian wolf , golden jackal , black-backed jackal and side-striped jackal _ The genus Lycalopex _: culpeo , pampas fox , chilla and Darwin\'s fox _ The genus Vulpes _: red fox , Rüppell\'s fox , corsac fox , Bengal fox , Arctic fox , Blanford\'s fox , Cape fox and fennec fox Dhole African wild dog Short-eared dog Maned wolf Bush dog Gray fox Bat-eared fox Raccoon dog

All extant species of family Canidae are in subfamily Caninae.

SUBFAMILY CANINAE

* TRUE DOGS – Tribe Canini

* Genus _ Canis _ (see also List of Canis species and subspecies which also includes some varieties)

* Gray wolf , _ Canis lupus_ (2.723 Mya to present)

* Domestic dog , _ Canis lupus familiaris_ * Dingo , most often classified as _ Canis lupus dingo_ * many other subspecies

* Red wolf , _ Canis rufus_ (sometimes considered a subspecies of gray wolf, but including several subtaxa of its own including the Florida black wolf ) * Coyote , _ Canis latrans_ (also called prairie wolf) * _ Canis dirus _ (dire wolf), (0.25 mya) † * African golden wolf , _ Canis anthus_ * Golden jackal , _ Canis aureus_ * Ethiopian wolf , _ Canis simensis_ (also called Abyssinian wolf, simien fox and simien jackal) * Side-striped jackal , _ Canis adustus_ * Black-backed jackal , _ Canis mesomelas_

* Genus _Cuon_

* Dhole , _ Cuon alpinus_ or _ Canis alpinus_ (also called Asian or Indian wild dog)

* Genus _ Cynotherium _ †

* Sardinian dhole , _ Cynotherium sardous_ †

* Genus _Lycaon _

* African wild dog , _Lycaon pictus_ (also called African hunting dog)

* Genus _Atelocynus_

* Short-eared dog , _Atelocynus microtis_

* Genus _Cerdocyon_

* Crab-eating fox , _ Cerdocyon thous_

* Genus _Dusicyon_ †

* Falklands wolf , _Dusicyon australis_ † * _Dusicyon avus_ †

* Genus _ Lycalopex (Pseudalopex)_

* Culpeo , _ Lycalopex culpaeus_ * Darwin\'s fox , _ Lycalopex fulvipes_ * South American gray fox , _ Lycalopex griseus_ * Pampas fox , _ Lycalopex gymnocercus_ * Sechura fox , _ Lycalopex sechurae_ * Hoary fox , _ Lycalopex vetulus_

* Genus _Chrysocyon_

* Maned wolf , _ Chrysocyon brachyurus_

* Genus _Speothos_

* Bush dog , _ Speothos venaticus_

* TRUE FOXES – Tribe Vulpini

* Genus _ Vulpes _

* Arctic fox , _ Vulpes lagopus_ * Red fox , _ Vulpes vulpes_ (1 Mya to present) including a domesticated silver fox * Swift fox , _ Vulpes velox_ * Kit fox , _ Vulpes macrotis_ * Corsac fox , _ Vulpes corsac_ * Cape fox , _ Vulpes chama_ * Pale fox , _ Vulpes pallida_ * Bengal fox , _ Vulpes bengalensis_ * Tibetan sand fox , _ Vulpes ferrilata_ * Blanford\'s fox , _ Vulpes cana_ * Rüppell\'s fox , _ Vulpes rueppelli_ * Fennec fox , _ Vulpes zerda_

* Genus _ Urocyon _ (2 Mya to present)

* Gray fox , _ Urocyon cinereoargenteus_ * Island fox , _ Urocyon littoralis_ * Cozumel fox , _Urocyon_ sp.

* BASAL CANINAE

* Genus _Otocyon_ (probably a vulpine close to _Urocyon_)

* Bat-eared fox , _ Otocyon megalotis_

* Genus _ Nyctereutes _

* Raccoon dog , _ Nyctereutes procyonoides_

Fluctuation of species within Canidae over 40 million years

PREHISTORIC CANIDAE

Except where otherwise stated, the following classification is based on a 1994 paper by Xiaoming Wang , curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County on the systematics of the subfamily Hesperocyoninae, a 1999 paper by Wang, together with the zoologists Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor on the subfamily Borophaginae, and a 2009 paper by Tedford, Wang and Taylor on the North American fossil Caninae.

SUBFAMILY CANINAE

* TRIBE CANINI

* Genus _ Canis _

* _ Canis adoxus_ † * _ Canis ameghinoi_ † * _ Canis apolloniensis _ (1.1 mya) † * _ Canis armbrusteri _ (1.5 mya) † * _ Canis arnensis _ (1.9-1.6 Mya) † ) * _ Canis cautleyi_ † * _ Canis cedazoensis _ (4.6 mya) † * _ Canis donnezani_ (4.0–3.1 Ma † * _ Canis edwardii _ (4.6 mya) † * _ Canis (Eucyon) cipio_ (8.2 Mya † * _ Canis etruscus _ ((1.9-1.6 Mya) † * _ Canis ferox _ (5 mya) † * _ Canis gezi _ † * _ Canis lepophagus _ (8 mya)† * _ Canis michauxi_ † * _ Canis mosbachensis _ (0.787 Mya † ) * _ Canis nehringi _ † * _ Canis variabilis _ †

* Genus _ Theriodictis _ (1.19 mya)†

* _ Theriodictis platensis_ (1.8 Mya † ) * _ Theriodictis tarijensis_ (1.8 Mya † ) * _ Theriodictis (Canis) proplatensis_ (2.1 Ma † )

* Genus _ Protocyon _ †

* _ Protocyon orcesi_ † * _ Protocyon scagliarum_ † * _ Protocyon troglodytes_ †

* Genus _ Cerdocyon _

* _ Cerdocyon avius _ † * _ Cerdocyon ensenadensis_ †

* Genus _ Speothos _

* _ Speothos pacivorus _ †

* Genus _ Nurocyon _ †

* _ Nurocyon chonokhariensis_ †

* Genus _ Xenocyon _ †

* _ Xenocyon falconeri _ ((1.9-1.6 Mya) † * _ Xenocyon lycaonoides _ (1.69 mya) †

* TRIBE VULPINI

* Genus _ Vulpes _ (7 Mya to present)

* _ Vulpes alopecoides_ (2.6 Mya † ) * _ Vulpes cf. alopecoides_ (2.6 Mya † ) * _ Vulpes cf. vulpes_ (0.1275 Mya † ) * _ Vulpes galaticus_ (4.2 Mya † ) * _ Vulpes riffautae _ (7 Mya † )

* BASAL CANINAE

* Genus _ Nyctereutes _ (7.1 Mya to present)

* _ Nyctereutes cf. donnezani_ (7.1 Mya † ) * _ Nyctereutes cf. megamastoides_ (3.158 Mya † ) * _ Nyctereutes donnezani _ (3.4 Mya † ) * _ Nyctereutes megamostoides_ (2.6 Mya † ) * _ Nyctereutes sinensis_ (3.4 Mya † )

* FIRST CANINAE

* Genus _ Eucyon _ (8 Mya †)

* _ Eucyon davisi_ (8.3 Mya † , probably ancestor of _Canis_) * _ Eucyon minor_ (8 Mya † ) * _ Eucyon zhoui_ (8 Mya † ) * _ Eucyon monticinensis_ (8 Mya † ) * _ Eucyon odessanus_ †

* Genus _ Leptocyon _ (24–16 Mya †)

* _ Leptocyon vafer_ (16 Mya † ) * _ Leptocyon vulpinus_ (24 Mya † )

SUBFAMILY BOROPHAGINAE

† (Mya = million years ago) (million years = in existence)

*

* Genus _ Archaeocyon _ (7 million years) †

* _ Archaeocyon falkenbachi_ (10.2 million years) † * _ Archaeocyon leptodus_ (7 million years) † * _ Archaeocyon pavidus_ (7 million years) †

* Genus _ Otarocyon _ (7.6 million years) †

* _ Otarocyon cooki_ (4.5 million years) † * _ Otarocyon macdonaldi_ (0.6 million years) †

* Genus _ Oxetocyon _ (2.5 million years) †

* _ Oxetocyon cuspidatus_ (2.5 million years) †

* Genus _ Rhizocyon _ (30 Mya)

* _ Rhizocyon oregonensis_ (30 Mya)

* TRIBE PHLAOCYONINI (27.2 million years) †

* Genus _ Cynarctoides _ (16.7 million years) †

* _ Cynarctoides acridens _ (11 million years) † * _ Cynarctoides emryi _ (4 million years) † * _ Cynarctoides gawnae _ (4 million years) † * _ Cynarctoides harlowi _ (4 million years) † * _ Cynarctoides lemur _ (30 Mya) † * _ Cynarctoides luskensis _ (4.2 million years) † * _ Cynarctoides roii _ (4.5 million years) †

* Genus _ Phlaocyon _ (30–19 Mya)

* _ Phlaocyon achoros _ * _ Phlaocyon annectens _ (22 Mya) * _ Phlaocyon latidens _ (30 Mya) * _ Phlaocyon leucosteus_ (22 Mya) * _ Phlaocyon mariae _ * _ Phlaocyon marslandensis_ (19 Mya) * _ Phlaocyon minor_ (30 Mya) * _ Phlaocyon multicuspus_ * _ Phlaocyon taylori_ * _ Phlaocyon yakolai_ (19 Mya)

* TRIBE BOROPHAGINI (16.7 million years) †

* Genus _ Cormocyon _ (10.2 million years) †

* _ Cormocyon copei_ (10.2 million years) † * _ Cormocyon haydeni_ (4.2 million years) †

* Genus _ Desmocyon _ (9 million years) †

* _ Desmocyon matthewi_ (4.3 million years) † * _ Desmocyon thompsoni_ †

* Genus _ Metatomarctus _ (4.3 million years) †

* _ Metatomarctus canavus_ (4.3 million years) † * _ Metatomarctus sp. A_ (16 Mya) * _ Metatomarctus sp. B_ (16 Mya)

* Genus _Eulopocyon _ (18–16 Mya)

* _Eulopocyon brachygnathus_ (16 Mya) * _Eulopocyon spissidens_ (18 Mya)

* Genus _ Psalidocyon _ (16 Mya)

* _ Psalidocyon marianae_ (16 Mya)

* Genus _ Microtomarctus _ (4 million years) †

* _ Microtomarctus conferta_ (17.67 million years) †

* Genus _ Protomarctus _ (18 Mya)

* _ Protomarctus optatus_ (18 Mya)

* Genus _ Tephrocyon _ (16 Mya)

* _ Tephrocyon rurestris_ (16 Mya)

* Subtribe Cynarctina

* Genus _ Paracynarctus _ (6.7 million years) †

* _ Paracynarctus kelloggi_ (6.7 million years) † * _ Paracynarctus sinclairi_ (7 million years) †

* Genus _ Cynarctus _ (5.6 million years) †

* _ Cynarctus crucidens_ (1.3 million years) † * _ Cynarctus galushai_ (2.7 million years) † * _ Cynarctus marylandica_ (2.3 million years) † * _ Cynarctus saxatilis_ (2.7 million years) † * _ Cynarctus voorhiesi_ (3.3 million years) † * _ Cynarctus wangi_ (1 million years) †

* Subtribe Aelurodontina (15 million years) †

* Genus _ Tomarctus _ (7 million years) †

* _ Tomarctus brevirostris_ (6.8 million years) † * _ Tomarctus hippophaga_ (7 million years) †

* Genus _ Aelurodon _ (15.7 million years) †

* _ Aelurodon asthenostylus_ (7 million years) † * _ Aelurodon ferox_ (6 mya) † * _ Aelurodon mcgrewi_ (2.7 mya) † * _ Aelurodon montanensis_ (2.7 mya) † * _ Aelurodon stirtoni_ (6 million years) † * _ Aelurodon taxoides_ (8.3 million years) †

* Subtribe Borophagina (17 million years) †

* Genus _ Paratomarctus _ (6 million years) †

* _ Paratomarctus euthos_ (13 Mya) * _ Paratomarctus temerarius_ (16 Mya)

* Genus _ Carpocyon _ (19.7 million years) †

* _ Carpocyon compressus_ (2.7 million years) † * _ Carpocyon limosus_ (5 million years) † * _ Carpocyon robustus_ (3.3 million years) † * _ Carpocyon webbi_ (6 million years) †

* Genus _ Protepicyon _ (16 Mya)

* _ Protepicyon raki_ (16 Mya)

* Genus _ Epicyon _ (2 million years) †

* _ Epicyon aelurodontoides_ (5.4 million years) † * _ Epicyon haydeni_ (5.4 million years) † * _ Epicyon saevus_ (11.4 million years) †

* Genus _ Borophagus _ (7 million years) †

* _ Borophagus diversidens _ (5 Mya) † * _ Borophagus dudleyi _ (1.7 million years) † * _ Borophagus hilli _ (6.7 million years) † * _ Borophagus littoralis _ (0.6 million years) † * _ Borophagus orc _ (0.4 million years) † * _ Borophagus parvus _ (5.4 million years) † * _ Borophagus pugnator _ (8.3 million years) † * _ Borophagus secundus _ (8.3 million years) †

SUBFAMILY HESPEROCYONINAE

† (Mya = million years ago)

*

* Genus _ Cynodesmus _ (32–29 Mya)

* _ Cynodesmus martini_ (29 Mya) * _ Cynodesmus thooides_ (32 Mya)

* ?Genus _ Caedocyon _

* _ Caedocyon tedfordi_

* Genus _ Ectopocynus _ (32–19 Mya)

* _ Ectopocynus antiquus_ (32 Ma) * _ Ectopocynus intermedius_ (29 Mya) * _ Ectopocynus siplicidens_ (19 Mya)

* Genus _ Enhydrocyon _ (29–25 Mya)

* _ Enhydrocyon basilatus _ (25 Mya) * _ Enhydrocyon crassidens_ (25 Mya) * _ Enhydrocyon pahinsintewkpa_ (29 Mya) * _ Enhydrocyon stenocephalus_ (29 Mya)

* Genus _ Hesperocyon _ (39.74–34 Mya)

* _ Hesperocyon coloradensis_ * _ Hesperocyon gregarius_ (37 Mya)

* Genus _ Mesocyon _ (34–29 Mya)

* _ Mesocyon brachyops_ (29 Mya) * _ Mesocyon coryphaeus_ (29 Mya) * _Mesocyn temnodon_

* Genus _ Osbornodon _ (32–18 Mya)

* _ Osbornodon brachypus_ * _ Osbornodon fricki_ (18 Mya) * _ Osbornodon iamonensis _ (21 Mya) * _ Osbornodon renjiei_ (33 Mya) * _ Osbornodon scitulus_ * _ Osbornodon sesnoni_ (32 Mya) * _ Osbornodon wangi_

* Genus _ Paraenhydrocyon _ (30–25 Mya)

* _ Paraenhydrocyon josephi _ (30 Mya) * _ Paraenhydrocyon robustus_ (25 Mya)

* Genus _ Philotrox _ (29 Mya)

* _ Philotrox condoni_ (29 Mya)

* Genus _ Prohesperocyon _ (36 Mya)

* _ Prohesperocyon wilsoni_ (36 Mya)

* Genus _ Sunkahetanka _ (29 Mya)

* _ Sunkahetanka geringensis_ (29 Mya)

REFERENCES

* ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. _ Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference_ (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC 62265494 . * ^ Fischer de Waldheim, G. 1817. Adversaria zoological. Memoir Societe Naturelle (Moscow) 5:368–428. p372 * ^ Canidae. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ Canidae (accessed: February 16, 2009). * ^ Canid Merriam-Webster.com. Canid definition Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2014-05-27 * ^ Flynn, John J.; Wesley-Hunt, Gina D. (2005). "Phylogeny of the Carnivora: Basal Relationships Among the Carnivoramorphans, and Assessment of the Position of 'Miacoidea' Relative to Carnivora". _Journal of Systematic Paleontology_. 3: 1–28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tedford, R (2009). "Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)". _Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History _. 325: 1–218. doi :10.1206/574.1 . * ^ Miklosi, Adam (2015). _ Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition_. Oxford Biology (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 103–107. ISBN 978-0199545667 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Wayne, Robert K. (June 1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". _Trends in Genetics_. 9 (6): 218–224. PMID 8337763 . doi :10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-x . * ^ Jensen, Per (2007). _The Behavioural Biology of Dogs_. CABI. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-1-84593-188-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Jaffe, David B.; Kamal, Michael; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean L.; Kulbokas, Edward J.; Zody, Michael C.; Mauceli, Evan; Xie, Xiaohui; Breen, Matthew; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Ponting, Chris P.; Galibert, Francis; Smith, Douglas R.; Dejong, Pieter J.; Kirkness, Ewen; Alvarez, Pablo; Biagi, Tara; Brockman, William; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, Chee-Wye; Cook, April; Cuff, James; Daly, Mark J.; Decaprio, David; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". _Nature_. 438 (7069): 803 in 803–19. PMID 16341006 . doi :10.1038/nature04338 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M.; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A.; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A.; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C.; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Johnson, Warren E.; o'Brien, Stephen J.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K. (2015). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". _Current Biology_. 25 (16): 2158–65. PMID 26234211 . doi :10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060 . * ^ Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Jin (2016). "The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan fox ( Vulpes ferrilata) and implications for the phylogeny of Canidae". _Comptes Rendus Biologies_. 339 (2): 68–77. ISSN 1631-0691 . doi :10.1016/j.crvi.2015.11.005 . * ^ Wayne, Robert K. "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Retrieved 2014-05-27. * ^ "The Paleobiology Database". Paleodb.org. Retrieved 2012-06-12.

* ^ Wang, Xiaoming (2008). "How Dogs Came to Run the World". _Natural History Magazine_. Vol. July/August. Retrieved 2014-05-24. * ^ Van Valkenburgh, B.; Wang, X.; Damuth, J. (Oct 2004). "Cope's Rule, Hypercarnivory, and Extinction in North American Canids". _Science_. 306 (5693): 101–104. Bibcode :2004Sci...306..101V. ISSN 0036-8075 . PMID 15459388 . doi :10.1126/science.1102417 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Martin, L.D. 1989. Fossil history of the terrestrial carnivora. Pages 536–568 in J.L. Gittleman, editor. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Vol. 1. Comstock Publishing Associates: Ithaca. * ^ _A_ _B_ Perini, F. A.; Russo, C. A. M.; Schrago, C. G. (2010). "The evolution of South American endemic canids: a history of rapid diversification and morphological parallelism". _Journal of Evolutionary Biology_. 23 (2): 311–322. PMID 20002250 . doi :10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01901.x . * ^ Nowak, R.M. 1979. North American Quaternary Canis. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 6:1 – 154. * ^ _A_ _B_ Larson, Robert. "Wolves, coyotes and dogs (Genus _Canis_)". _The Midwestern United States 16,000 years ago_. Illinois State Museum. Retrieved 2014-06-07. * ^ Nowak, R. 1992. Wolves: The great travelers of evolution. International Wolf 2(4):3 – 7. * ^ Chambers, S. M.; Fain, S. R.; Fazio, B.; Amaral, M. (2012). "An account of the taxonomy of North American wolves from morphological and genetic analyses". _North American Fauna_. 77: 1–67. doi :10.3996/nafa.77.0001 . * ^ Gaubert, P.; Bloch, C.; Benyacoub, S.; Abdelhamid, A.; Pagani, P.; et al. (2012). "Reviving the African Wolf _ Canis lupus lupaster_ in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide" . _PLoS ONE_. 7 (8): e42740. PMC 3416759  _. PMID 22900047 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0042740 . * ^ Marc Tyler Nobleman (2007). Foxes_. Marshall Cavendish. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7614-2237-2 . * ^ Heptner, V. G.; Naumov, N. P. (1998), Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, Sirenia and Carnivora (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), Science Publishers, Inc. USA., pp. 166–176, ISBN 1-886106-81-9 * ^ "ADW: _ Urocyon littoralis_: Information". Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. 1999-11-28. Retrieved 2012-06-12. * ^ Kauhala, K.; Saeki, M. (2004). Raccoon Dog«. Canid Species Accounts. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Pridobljeno 15 April 2009. * ^ Ikeda, Hiroshi (August 1986). "Old dogs, new tricks: Asia's raccoon dog, a venerable member of the canid family is pushing into new frontiers". _Natural History_. 95 (8): 40, 44. * ^ Raccoon dog – _ Nyctereutes procyonoides_. WAZA – World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Mivart, St George Jackson (1890). _Dogs, Jackals, Wolves, and Foxes: A Monograph of the Canidae_. pp. xiv–xxxvi. * ^ Ewer, R. F. (1973). _The Carnivores_. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8493-3 . * ^ Macdonald, D. (1984). _The Encyclopedia of Mammals_. New York: Facts on File. p. 57. ISBN 0-87196-871-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H. (2008). _Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History_. Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 1–232. ISBN 978-0-231-13529-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Sansalone, Gabriele; Bertè, Davide Federico; Maiorino, Leonardo; Pandolfi, Luca (2015). "Evolutionary trends and stasis in carnassial teeth of European Pleistocene wolf Canis lupus (Mammalia, Canidae)". _ Quaternary Science Reviews_. 110: 36. doi :10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.12.009 . * ^ Cherin, Marco; Bertè, Davide Federico; Sardella, Raffaele; Rook, Lorenzo (2013). " Canis etruscus (Canidae, Mammalia) and its role in the faunal assemblage from Pantalla (Perugia, central Italy): comparison with the Late Villafranchian large carnivore guild of Italy". _Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana_. 52 (1): 11–18. * ^ Wroe, S.; McHenry, C.; Thomason, J. (2005). "Bite club: Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa" . _Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences_. 272 (1563): 619–25. PMC 1564077  _. PMID 15817436 . doi :10.1098/rspb.2004.2986 . * ^ Harris, Stephen; Yalden, Derek (2008). Mammals of the British Isles_ (4th Revised ed.). Mammal Society. p. 413. ISBN 0-906282-65-9 .

* ^ McConnell, Patricia B. (2009-08-31). "Comparative canid behaviour". _The other end of the leash_. Retrieved 2014-06-12. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Canidae: Coyotes, dogs, foxes, jackals, and wolves". _ Animal Diversity Web_. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2014-06-13. * ^ Nowak, R. M.; Paradiso, J. L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2525-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Asa, Cheryl S.; Valdespino, Carolina; Carbyn, Ludwig N.; Sovada, Marsha Ann, eds. (2003). _A review of Small Canid Reproduction: in The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation of Swift Foxes in a Changing World_. University of Regina Press. pp. 117–123. ISBN 978-0-88977-154-3 . * ^ Jensen, Per, ed. (2007). _The Behavioural Biology of Dogs_. CABI. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-1-84593-188-9 . * ^ Voelker, W. 1986. _The Natural History of Living Mammals_. Medford, New Jersey: Plexus Publishing. ISBN 0-937548-08-1 * ^ "_Lycaon pictus_". _ Animal Info: Endangered animals of the world_. 2005-11-26. Retrieved 2014-06-11. * ^ Liane Giemsch, Susanne C. Feine, Kurt W. Alt, Qiaomei Fu, Corina Knipper, Johannes Krause, Sarah Lacy, Olaf Nehlich, Constanze Niess, Svante Pääbo, Alfred Pawlik, Michael P. Richards, Verena Schünemann, Martin Street, Olaf Thalmann, Johann Tinnes, Erik Trinkaus & Ralf W. Schmitz. "Interdisciplinary investigations of the late glacial double burial from Bonn-Oberkassel". Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age: 57th Annual Meeting in Heidenheim, 7th – 11th April 2015, 36-37 * ^ Germonpre, M. (2009). "Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: Osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes". _Journal of Archaeological Science_. 36 (2): 473–490. doi :10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033 . * ^ Thalmann, O. (2013). "Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs". _Science_. 342 (6160): 871–4. PMID 24233726 . doi :10.1126/science.1243650 . * ^ Freedman, A. (2014). "Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs" . _ PLOS Genetics _. 10 (1): e1004016. PMC 3894170  _. PMID 24453982 . doi :10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016 . * ^ Larson G, Bradley DG (2014). "How Much Is That in Dog Years? The Advent of Canine Population Genomics" . PLOS Genetics_. 10 (1): e1004093. PMC 3894154  _. PMID 24453989 . doi :10.1371/journal.pgen.1004093 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Larson G (2012). "Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography" . PNAS_. 109 (23): 8878–8883. PMC 3384140  _. PMID 22615366 . doi :10.1073/pnas.1203005109 . * ^ "Domestication". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016. * ^ Perri, Angela (2016). "A wolf in dog's clothing: Initial dog domestication and Pleistocene wolf variation". Journal of Archaeological Science_. 68: 1–4. doi :10.1016/j.jas.2016.02.003 . * ^ Schleidt, Wolfgang M.; Shalter, Michael D. (2003). "Co-evolution of Humans and Canids: An Alternative View of Dog Domestication: Homo Homini Lupus?" (PDF). _Evolution and Cognition_. 9 (1): 57–72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-11. * ^ Kruuk, H. 2002. Hunter and Hunted: Relationships between Carnivores and People. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81410-3 . * ^ " Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-02-24. Retrieved 2007-08-19. * ^ "_ Canis aureus_". _ Animal Diversity Web_. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2007-07-31. * ^ " Fox hunting worldwide". _BBC News_. 1999-09-16. Retrieved 2014-06-16. * ^ Durbin, L.S.; Hedges, S.; Duckworth, J.W.; Tyson, M.; Lyenga, A.; Venkataraman, A. (2008). "_ Cuon alpinus_". _ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 2014-06-16. * ^ Wang, Xiaoming (1994). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Hesperocyoninae". _Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History_. 221: 1–207. hdl :2246/829 . * ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H.; Taylor, Beryl E. (1999). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". _Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History_. 243: 1–391. hdl :2246/1588 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Tedford, Richard; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)". _Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History_. 325: 1–218. doi :10.1206/574.1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hayes, F.G. (2000). "The Brooksville 2 local fauna (Arikareean, latest Oligocene) Hernando County, Florida". _Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History_. 43 (1): 1–47. * ^ Jasinski, Steven E.; Wallace, Steven C. (2016). "A Borophagine canid (Carnivora: Canidae: Borophaginae) from the middle Miocene Chesapeake Group of eastern North America". _Journal of Paleontology_. 89 (6): 1082–1088. doi :10.1017/jpa.2016.17 . Retrieved 2016-12-19. * ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Wideman, Benjamin C.; Nichols, Ralph; Hanneman, Debra L. (2004). "A new species of _Aelurodon_ (Carnivora, Canidae) from the Barstovian of Montana" (PDF). _Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology_. 24 (2): 445–452. doi :10.1671/2493 . Archived from the original (PDF) on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-08. * ^ Wang, Xiaoming (2003). "New Material of _Osbornodon_ from the Early Hemingfordian of Nebraska and Florida" (PDF). _Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History_. 279: 163–176. doi :10.1206/0003-0090(2003)2792.0.CO;2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikispecies has information related to: CANIDAE _

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CANIDAE _.

* "Canidae". _ National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)_.

* v * t * e

Extinct members of the family Canidae

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Order: Carnivora * Suborder: Caniformia

†HESPEROCYONINAE

* _ Hesperocyon _ * _ Mesocyon _ * _ Cynodesmus _ * _ Sunkahetanka _ * _ Philotrox _