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The biological family Canidae
Canidae
/ˈkænɪdiː/ [3] (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (/ˈkænɪd/, /ˈkeɪnɪd/).[4] The cat-like feliforms and dog-like caniforms emerged within the Carnivoramorpha
Carnivoramorpha
43 million years before present.[5] The caniforms included the fox-like genus Leptocyon
Leptocyon
whose various species existed from 34 million years before present before branching 11.9 million YBP into Vulpini (foxes) and Canini (canines).[6]:174–5 Canids
Canids
are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids
Canids
vary in size from the 2-m-long (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 24-cm-long (9.4 in) fennec fox. The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. They are mostly social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving cooperatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids
Canids
communicate by scent signals and by vocalizations. They are very intelligent. One canid, the domestic dog, long ago entered into a partnership with humans and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

Contents

1 Taxonomy

1.1 Phylogenetic relationships

2 Evolution

2.1 Eocene
Eocene
epoch 2.2 Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch 2.3 Miocene
Miocene
epoch 2.4 Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch 2.5 Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch

3 Characteristics

3.1 Dentition

4 Life history

4.1 Social behavior 4.2 Reproduction

5 Canids
Canids
and humans 6 Extant and recently extinct species

6.1 Subfamily
Subfamily
Caninae

7 Prehistoric Canidae

7.1 Subfamily
Subfamily
Caninae 7.2 Subfamily
Subfamily
Borophaginae 7.3 Subfamily
Subfamily
Hesperocyoninae

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Taxonomy[edit] In the history of the carnivores, the family Canidae
Canidae
is represented by the two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
and Borophaginae, and the extant subfamily Caninae.[7] This subfamily includes all living canids and their most recent fossil relatives.[6] All living canids as a group form a dental monophyletic relationship with the extinct borophagines with both groups having a bicuspid (two points) on the lower carnassial talonid, which gives this tooth an additional ability in mastication. This together with the development of a distinct entoconid cusp and the broadening of the talonid of the first lower molar, and the corresponding enlargement of the talon of the upper first molar and reduction of its parastyle distinguish these late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
canids and are the essential differences that identify their clade.[6]:p6 Phylogenetic relationships[edit]

Indian Wolf at Velavadar (Blackbuck National Park, Gujarat)

Skulls of various canid genera; Vulpes
Vulpes
(corsac fox), Nyctereutes (raccoon dog), Cuon
Cuon
(dhole) and Canis
Canis
(golden jackal)

Within the Canidae, the results of allozyme and chromosome analyses have previously suggested several phylogenetic divisions:

The wolf-like canids, (genus Canis, Cuon
Cuon
and Lycaon) including the dog ( Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris), gray wolf ( Canis
Canis
lupus), red wolf (Canis rufus), eastern wolf ( Canis
Canis
lycaon), coyote ( Canis
Canis
latrans), golden jackal ( Canis
Canis
aureus), Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
( Canis
Canis
simensis), black-backed jackal ( Canis
Canis
mesomelas), side-striped jackal ( Canis
Canis
adustus), dhole ( Cuon
Cuon
alpinus), and African wild dog
African wild dog
(Lycaon pictus).[8] The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
velox), red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes), Cape fox
Cape fox
( Vulpes
Vulpes
chama), Arctic fox
Arctic fox
( Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus), and fennec fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
zerda).[8] The South American canids, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), hoary fox ( Lycalopex
Lycalopex
uetulus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and maned wolf.[8] Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), gray fox ( Urocyon
Urocyon
cinereoargenteus), and raccoon dog ( Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
procyonoides).[8]

DNA
DNA
analysis shows that the first three form monophyletic clades. The wolf-like canids and the South American canids together form the tribe Canini.[9] Molecular data imply a North American origin of living Canidae
Canidae
some ten million years ago and an African origin of wolf-like canines (Canis, Cuon, and Lycaon), with the jackals being the most basal of this group. The South American clade is rooted by the maned wolf and bush dog, and the fox-like canids by the fennec fox and Blanford's fox. The grey fox and island fox are basal to the other clades; however, this topological difference is not strongly supported.[10] The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh et al. (2005),[10] modified to incorporate recent findings on Canis[11] and Vulpes[12] species.

Canidae

Canini

Canina

Canis
Canis
familiaris (domestic dog)

Canis
Canis
lupus (gray wolf)

Canis
Canis
latrans (coyote)

Canis
Canis
anthus (African golden wolf)

Canis
Canis
simensis (Ethiopian wolf)

Canis
Canis
aureus (golden jackal)

Cuon
Cuon
alpinus (dhole or Asiatic wild dog)

Lycaon pictus
Lycaon pictus
(African wild dog)

Canis
Canis
mesomelas (black-backed jackal)

Canis
Canis
adustus (side-striped jackal)

Cerdocyonina

Speothos
Speothos
venaticus (bush dog)

Chrysocyon
Chrysocyon
brachyurus (maned wolf)

Lycalopex

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
vetulus (hoary fox)

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
fulvipes (Darwin's fox)

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
griseus ( South American gray fox
South American gray fox
or chilla)

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
gymnocercus (pampas fox)

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
culpaeus (culpeo or Andean fox)

Lycalopex
Lycalopex
sechurae ( Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
or Peruvian desert fox)

Cerdocyon
Cerdocyon
thous (crab-eating fox)

Atelocynus microtis
Atelocynus microtis
(short-eared dog)

Vulpini

Otocyon
Otocyon
megalotis (bat-eared fox)

Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
procyonoides (raccoon dog)

Vulpes

Vulpes
Vulpes
zerda (fennec fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
cana (Blanford's fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
chama (Cape fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes (red fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
rueppellii (Ruppell's fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
corsac (corsac fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
ferrilata (Tibetan sand fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
macrotis (Kit fox)

Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus (Arctic fox)

Urocyon

Urocyon
Urocyon
littoralis (island fox)

Urocyon
Urocyon
cinereoargenteus (gray fox)

Evolution[edit] The Canidae
Canidae
today includes a diverse group of some 34 species ranging in size from the maned wolf with its long limbs to the short-legged bush dog. Modern canids inhabit forests, tundra, savannahs and deserts throughout tropical and temperate parts of the world. The evolutionary relationships between the species have been studied in the past using morphological approaches but more recently, molecular studies have enabled the investigation of phylogenetic relationships. In some species, genetic divergence has been suppressed by the high level of gene flow between different populations and where the species have hybridized, large hybrid zones exist.[13] Eocene
Eocene
epoch[edit] Carnivorans evolved from miacoids about 55 million years ago (Mya) during the late Paleocene.[14] Some five million years later, the carnivorans split into two main divisions: caniforms (dog-like) and feliforms (cat-like). By 40 Mya, the first member of the dog family proper had arisen. Called Prohesperocyon wilsoni, its fossilized remains have been found in what is now the southwestern part of Texas. The chief features which identify it as a canid include the loss of the upper third molar (part of a trend toward a more shearing bite), and the structure of the middle ear which has an enlarged bulla (the hollow bony structure protecting the delicate parts of the ear). Prohesperocyon probably had slightly longer limbs than its predecessors, and also had parallel and closely touching toes which differ markedly from the splayed arrangements of the digits in bears.[15] The canid family soon subdivided into three subfamilies, each of which diverged during the Eocene: Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
(about 39.74–15 Mya), Borophaginae
Borophaginae
(about 34–2 Mya), and Caninae
Caninae
(about 34–0 Mya). Caninae
Caninae
is the only surviving subfamily and all present-day canids including wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals, and domestic dogs belong to it. Members of each subfamily showed an increase in body mass with time, and some exhibited specialized hypercarnivorous diets that made them prone to extinction.[16]:Fig. 1

Evolution of the canids

view • discuss • edit

-65 — – -60 — – -55 — – -50 — – -45 — – -40 — – -35 — – -30 — – -25 — – -20 — – -15 — – -10 — – -5 — – 0 —

 

 

 

Cretaceous

 

Quaternary

Palæocene

Eocene

Oligocene

Pliocene

Miocene

 

 

 

← K-P mass extinction

← First Hesperocyoninae

← First Borophaginae

← Caninae

← Modern-looking dogs

← Canine radiation

P a l æ o g e n e

N e o g e n e

 Cenozoic

 Mesozoic

An approximate timescale of key events in canid evolution. For precise dates, see text. Axis scale: millions of years ago.

PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N

Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch[edit] By the Oligocene, all three subfamilies of canids (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae, and Caninae) had appeared in the fossil records of North America. The earliest and most primitive branch of the Canidae
Canidae
was the Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
lineage, which included the coyote-sized Mesocyon
Mesocyon
of the Oligocene
Oligocene
(38–24 Mya). These early canids probably evolved for the fast pursuit of prey in a grassland habitat; they resembled modern civets in appearance. Hesperocyonines eventually became extinct in the middle Miocene. One of the early members of the Hesperocyonines, the genus Hesperocyon, gave rise to Archaeocyon
Archaeocyon
and Leptocyon. These branches led to the borophagine and canine radiations.[17] Miocene
Miocene
epoch[edit] Around 9–10 Mya during the Late Miocene, Canis, Urocyon, and Vulpes genera expanded from southwestern North America, where the canine radiation began. The success of these canines was related to the development of lower carnassials that were capable of both mastication and shearing.[17] Around 8 Mya, the Beringian land bridge allowed members of the genus Eucyon
Eucyon
a means to enter Asia and they continued on to colonize Europe.[18] Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch[edit] During the Pliocene, around 4–5 Mya, Canis
Canis
lepophagus appeared in North America. This was small and sometimes coyote-like. Others were wolf-like in characteristics. Canis
Canis
latrans (the coyote) is theorized to have descended from Canis
Canis
lepophagus.[19] The formation of the Isthmus of Panama, about 3 Mya, joined South America to North America, allowing canids to invade South America, where they diversified. However, the most recent common ancestor of the South American canids lived in North America
North America
some 4 Mya and the likelihood is that there were more than one incursion across the new land bridge. One of the resulting lineages consisted of the gray fox ( Urocyon
Urocyon
cinereoargentus) and the now extinct dire wolf ( Canis
Canis
dirus). The other lineage consisted of the so-called South American endemic species; the maned wolf ( Chrysocyon
Chrysocyon
brachyurus), the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis), the bush dog ( Speothos
Speothos
venaticus), the crab-eating fox ( Cerdocyon
Cerdocyon
thous) and the South American foxes ( Lycalopex
Lycalopex
spp.). The monophyly of this group has been established by molecular means.[18] Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch[edit]

Restoration of two Borophagus
Borophagus
preying on a camel

During the Pleistocene, the North American wolf line appeared, with Canis
Canis
edwardii, clearly identifiable as a wolf, and Canis
Canis
rufus appeared, possibly a direct descendent of Canis
Canis
edwardii. Around 0.8 Mya, Canis
Canis
ambrusteri emerged in North America. A large wolf, it was found all over North and Central America, and was eventually supplanted by its descendant, the dire wolf, which then spread into South America
South America
during the late Pleistocene.[20] By 0.3 Mya, a number of subspecies of the gray wolf ( Canis
Canis
lupus) had developed and had spread throughout Europe and northern Asia.[21] The gray wolf colonized North America
North America
during the late Rancholabrean era across the Bering land bridge, there being at least three separate invasions, with each one consisting of one or more different Eurasian gray wolf clades.[22] Mt DNA
DNA
studies have shown that there are at least four extant C. lupus
C. lupus
lineages.[23] The dire wolf shared its habitat with the gray wolf but became extinct in a large-scale extinction event that occurred around 11,500 years ago. It may have been more of a scavenger than a hunter; its molars appear to be adapted for crushing bones and it may have died out as a result of the extinction of the large herbivorous animals on whose carcasses it relied.[20] In 2015, a study of mitochondrial genome sequences and whole genome nuclear sequences of African and Eurasian canids indicated that extant wolf-like canids have colonized Africa from Eurasia at least 5 times throughout the Pliocene
Pliocene
and Pleistocene, which is consistent with fossil evidence suggesting that much of African canid fauna diversity resulted from the immigration of Eurasian ancestors, likely coincident with Plio- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
climatic oscillations between arid and humid conditions. When comparing the African and Eurasian golden jackals, the study concluded that the African specimens represented a distinct monophyletic lineage that should be recognized as a separate species, Canis
Canis
anthus (African golden wolf). According to a phylogeny derived from nuclear sequences, the Eurasian golden jackal ( Canis
Canis
aureus) diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage 1.9 million years ago but the African golden wolf
African golden wolf
separated 1.3 million years ago. Mitochondrial genome sequences indicated the Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage slightly prior to that.[11]:S1 Characteristics[edit]

Comparative illustration of the paws of grey wolf, golden jackal and dhole by A. N. Komarov

Wild canids are found on every continent except Antarctica, and inhabit a wide range of different habitats, including deserts, mountains, forests, and grasslands. They vary in size from the fennec fox, which may be as little as 24 cm (9.4 in) in length and weigh 0.6 kg (1.3 lb),[24] to the gray wolf, which may be up to 160 cm (5.2 ft) long, and can weigh up to 79 kg (174 lb).[25] Only a few species are arboreal – the North American gray fox, the closely related Channel Island fox,[26] and the raccoon dog habitually climb trees.[27][28][29] All canids have a similar basic form, as exemplified by the grey wolf, although the relative length of muzzle, limbs, ears and tail vary considerably between species. With the exceptions of the bush dog, raccoon dog, and some domestic breeds of Canis
Canis
lupus, canids have relatively long legs and lithe bodies, adapted for chasing prey. The tails are bushy and the length and quality of the pelage varies with the season. The muzzle portion of the skull is much more elongated than that of the cat family. The zygomatic arches are wide, there is a transverse lambdoidal ridge at the rear of the cranium and in some species, a sagittal crest running from front to back. The bony orbits around the eye never form a complete ring and the auditory bullae are smooth and rounded.[30] All canids are digitigrade, meaning they walk on their toes. The tip of the nose is always naked, as are the cushioned pads on the soles of the feet. These latter consist of a single pad behind the tip of each toe and a more-or-less three-lobed central pad under the roots of the digits. Hairs grow between the pads and in the Arctic fox, the sole of the foot is densely covered with hair at some times of year. With the exception of the four-toed African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus), there are five toes on the forefeet but the pollex (thumb) is reduced and does not reach the ground. On the hind feet, there are four toes, but in some domestic dogs, a fifth vestigial toe, known as a dewclaw, is sometimes present but has no anatomical connection to the rest of the foot. The slightly curved nails are non-retractile and more-or-less blunt.[30] The penis in male canids is supported by a bone called the baculum. It also contains a structure at the base called the bulbus glandis which helps to create a copulatory tie during mating, locking the animals together for up to an hour.[31] Young canids are born blind, with their eyes opening a few weeks after birth.[32] All living canids (Caninae) have a ligament analogous to the nuchal ligament of ungulates used to maintain the posture of the head and neck with little active muscle exertion; this ligament allows them to conserve energy while running long distances following scent trails with their nose to the ground. However, based on skeletal details of the neck, at least some Borophaginae
Borophaginae
(such as Aelurodon) are believed to have lacked this ligament.[33]:97–98 Dentition[edit]

Diagram of a wolf skull with key features labelled

Eurasian wolf
Eurasian wolf
skull

Dentition
Dentition
relates to the arrangement of teeth in the mouth, with the dental notation for the upper-jaw teeth using the upper-case letters I to denote incisors, C for canines, P for premolars, and M for molars, and the lower-case letters i, c, p and m to denote the mandible teeth. Teeth are numbered using one side of the mouth and from the front of the mouth to the back. In carnivores, the upper premolar P4 and the lower molar m1 form the carnassials that are used together in a scissor-like action to shear the muscle and tendon of prey.[33]:74 Canids
Canids
use their premolars for cutting and crushing except for the upper fourth premolar P4 (the upper carnassial) that is only used for cutting. They use their molars for grinding except for the lower first molar m1 (the lower carnassial) that has evolved for both cutting and grinding depending on the candid's dietary adaptation. On the lower carnassial the trigonid is used for slicing and the talonid is used for grinding. The ratio between the trigonid and the talonid indicates a carnivore's dietary habits, with a larger trigonid indicating a hypercarnivore and a larger talonid indicating a more omnivorous diet.[34][35] Because of its low variability, the length of the lower carnassial is used to provide an estimate of a carnivore's body size.[34] A study of the estimated bite force at the canine teeth of a large sample of living and fossil mammalian predators, when adjusted for their body mass, found that for placental mammals the bite force at the canines (in Newtons/kilogram of body weight) was greatest in the extinct dire wolf (163), followed among the modern canids by the four hypercarnivores that often prey on animals larger than themselves: the African hunting dog (142), the gray wolf (136), the dhole (112), and the dingo (108). The bite force at the carnassials showed a similar trend to the canines. A predator's largest prey size is strongly influenced by its biomechanical limits.[36] Most canids have 42 teeth, with a dental formula of: 3.1.4.23.1.4.3. The bush dog has only one upper molar with two below, the dhole has two above and two below, and the bat-eared fox has three or four upper molars and four lower ones.[30] The molar teeth are strong in most species, allowing the animals to crack open bone to reach the marrow. The deciduous, or baby teeth, formula in canids is 3.1.33.1.3, molars being completely absent.[30] Life history[edit] Social behavior[edit]

Dholes attacking a sambar, Bandipur National Park

See also: Gray wolf
Gray wolf
§ Behaviour, Dog
Dog
behavior, Red fox § Behaviour, and African wild dog
African wild dog
§ Behaviour Almost all canids are social animals and live together in groups. In general, they are territorial or have a home range and sleep in the open, using their dens only for breeding and sometimes in bad weather.[37] In most foxes, and in many of the true dogs, a male and female pair work together to hunt and to raise their young. Gray wolves and some of the other larger canids live in larger groups called packs. African wild dogs have packs which may consist of twenty to forty animals, and packs of fewer than about seven individuals may be incapable of successful reproduction.[38] Hunting in packs has the advantage that larger prey items can be tackled. Some species form packs or live in small family groups depending on the circumstances, including the type of available food. In most species, some individuals live on their own. Within a canid pack, there is a system of dominance so that the strongest, most experienced animals lead the pack. In most cases, the dominant male and female are the only pack members to breed.[39] Canids
Canids
communicate with each other by scent signals, by visual clues and gestures, and by vocalizations such as growls, barks, and howls. In most cases, groups have a home territory from which they drive out other conspecifics. The territory is marked by leaving urine scent marks, which warn trespassing individuals.[40] Social behaviour is also mediated by secretions from glands on the upper surface of the tail near its root and from the anal glands.[39] Reproduction[edit] Main article: Canine reproduction

Gray wolves and red foxes mating

A feral dog from Sri Lanka nursing her puppies

Canids
Canids
as a group exhibit several reproductive traits that are uncommon among mammals as a whole. They are typically monogamous, provide paternal care to their offspring, have reproductive cycles with lengthy proestral and dioestral phases and have a copulatory tie during mating. They also retain adult offspring in the social group, suppressing the ability of these to breed while making use of the alloparental care they can provide to help raise the next generation of offspring.[41] During the proestral period, increased levels of oestradiol make the female attractive to the male. There is a rise in progesterone during the oestral phase and the female is now receptive. Following this, the level of oestradiol fluctuates and there is a lengthy dioestrous phase during which the female is pregnant. Pseudo-pregnancy frequently occurs in canids that have ovulated but failed to conceive. A period of anoestrus follows pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy, there being only one oestral period during each breeding season. Small and medium-sized canids mostly have a gestation period of fifty to sixty days while larger species average sixty to sixty-five days. The time of year in which the breeding season occurs is related to the length of day, as has been demonstrated in the case of several species that have been translocated across the equator to the other hemisphere and experiences a six-month shift of phase. Domestic dogs and certain small canids in captivity may come into oestrus more frequently, perhaps because the photoperiod stimulus breaks down under conditions of artificial lighting.[41] The size of a litter varies, with from one to sixteen or more pups being born. The young are born small, blind and helpless and require a long period of parental care. They are kept in a den, most often dug into the ground, for warmth and protection.[30] When the young begin eating solid food, both parents, and often other pack members, bring food back for them from the hunt. This is most often vomited up from the adult's stomach. Where such pack involvement in the feeding of the litter occurs, the breeding success rate is higher than is the case where females split from the group and rear their pups in isolation.[42] Young canids may take a year to mature and learn the skills they need to survive.[43] In some species, such as the African wild dog, male offspring usually remain in the natal pack, while females disperse as a group, and join another small group of the opposite sex to form a new pack.[44] Canids
Canids
and humans[edit]

Traditional English fox hunt

Further information: dog One canid, the domestic dog, entered into a partnership with humans a long time ago. The archaeological record shows the first undisputed dog remains buried beside humans 14,700 years ago,[45] with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago.[46] These dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists.[47][48] The dog was the first domesticated species.[49][50][51][52] The fact that wolves are pack animals with cooperative social structures may have been the reason that the relationship developed. Humans benefited from the canid's loyalty, cooperation, teamwork, alertness and tracking abilities while the wolf may have benefited from the use of weapons to tackle larger prey and the sharing of food. Humans and dogs may have evolved together.[53] Among canids, only the gray wolf has widely been known to prey on humans.[54] Nonetheless, at least two records have coyotes killing humans,[55] and two have golden jackals killing children.[56] Human beings have trapped and hunted some canid species for their fur and, especially the gray wolf, coyote and the red fox, for sport.[57] Canids
Canids
such as the dhole are now endangered in the wild because of persecution, habitat loss, a depletion of ungulate prey species and transmission of diseases from domestic dogs.[58] Extant and recently extinct species[edit]

The genus Canis: gray wolf, coyote, African golden wolf, Ethiopian wolf, golden jackal, black-backed jackal and side-striped jackal

The genus Lycalopex: culpeo, pampas fox, chilla and Darwin's fox

The genus Vulpes: red fox, Rüppell's fox, corsac fox, Bengal fox, Arctic fox, Blanford's fox, Cape fox
Cape fox
and fennec fox

Dhole

African wild dog

Short-eared dog

Maned wolf

Bush dog

Gray fox

Bat-eared fox

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog

All extant species of family Canidae
Canidae
are in subfamily Caninae. Subfamily
Subfamily
Caninae[edit]

True dogs – Tribe Canini

Genus Canis
Canis
(see also List of Canis
Canis
species and subspecies which also includes some varieties)

Gray wolf, Canis
Canis
lupus (2.723 Mya to present)

Domestic dog, Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris Dingo, most often classified as Canis
Canis
lupus dingo many other subspecies

Red wolf, Canis
Canis
rufus (sometimes considered a subspecies of gray wolf, but including several subtaxa of its own including the Florida black wolf) Eastern wolf, Canis
Canis
lycaon Coyote, Canis
Canis
latrans (also called prairie wolf) Canis
Canis
dirus (dire wolf), (0.25 mya) † African golden wolf, Canis
Canis
anthus Golden jackal, Canis
Canis
aureus Ethiopian wolf, Canis
Canis
simensis (also called Abyssinian wolf, simien fox and simien jackal) Side-striped jackal, Canis
Canis
adustus Black-backed jackal, Canis
Canis
mesomelas

Genus Cuon

Dhole, Cuon
Cuon
alpinus or Canis
Canis
alpinus (also called Asian or Indian wild dog)

Genus Cynotherium
Cynotherium

Sardinian dhole, Cynotherium
Cynotherium
sardous †

Genus Lycaon

African wild dog, Lycaon pictus
Lycaon pictus
(also called African hunting dog)

Genus Atelocynus

Short-eared dog, Atelocynus microtis

Genus Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon
Cerdocyon
thous

Genus Dusicyon
Dusicyon

Falklands wolf, Dusicyon
Dusicyon
australis † Dusicyon
Dusicyon
avus †

Genus Lycalopex
Lycalopex
(Pseudalopex)

Culpeo, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
culpaeus Darwin's fox, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
fulvipes South American gray fox, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
griseus Pampas fox, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
gymnocercus Sechuran fox, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
sechurae Hoary fox, Lycalopex
Lycalopex
vetulus

Genus Chrysocyon

Maned wolf, Chrysocyon
Chrysocyon
brachyurus

Genus Speothos

Bush dog, Speothos
Speothos
venaticus

True foxes – Tribe Vulpini

Genus Vulpes

Arctic fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus Red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes (1 Mya to present) including a domesticated silver fox Swift fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
velox Kit fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
macrotis Corsac fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
corsac Cape fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
chama Pale fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
pallida Bengal fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
bengalensis Tibetan sand fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
ferrilata Blanford's fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
cana Rüppell's fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
rueppelli Fennec fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
zerda

Genus Otocyon
Otocyon
(probably a vulpine close to Urocyon)

Bat-eared fox, Otocyon
Otocyon
megalotis

Genus Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog, Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
procyonoides

Basal Caninae

Genus Urocyon
Urocyon
(2 Mya to present)

Gray fox, Urocyon
Urocyon
cinereoargenteus Island fox, Urocyon
Urocyon
littoralis Cozumel fox, Urocyon
Urocyon
sp.

Fluctuation of species within Canidae
Canidae
over 40 million years

Prehistoric Canidae[edit] Except where otherwise stated, the following classification is based on a 1994 paper by Xiaoming Wang, curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
on the systematics of the subfamily Hesperocyoninae,[59] a 1999 paper by Wang, together with the zoologists Richard H. Tedford
Richard H. Tedford
and Beryl E. Taylor on the subfamily Borophaginae,[60] and a 2009 paper by Tedford, Wang and Taylor on the North American fossil Caninae.[61] Subfamily
Subfamily
Caninae[edit]

Tribe Canini[61]

Genus Canis

Canis
Canis
adoxus † Canis
Canis
ameghinoi † Canis
Canis
apolloniensis (1.1 Mya) † Canis
Canis
armbrusteri (1.5 Mya) † Canis
Canis
arnensis (1.9-1.6 Mya) † Canis
Canis
cautleyi † Canis
Canis
cedazoensis (4.6 Mya) † Canis
Canis
donnezani (4.0–3.1 Mya) † Canis
Canis
edwardii (4.6 Mya) † Canis
Canis
(Eucyon) cipio (8.2 Mya) † Canis
Canis
etruscus ((1.9-1.6 Mya) † Canis
Canis
ferox (5 Mya) † Canis
Canis
gezi † Canis
Canis
lepophagus (8 Mya)† Canis
Canis
michauxi † Canis
Canis
mosbachensis (0.787 Mya) † Canis
Canis
nehringi † Canis
Canis
variabilis †

Genus Theriodictis (1.19 Mya)†

Theriodictis platensis (1.8 Mya) † Theriodictis tarijensis (1.8 Mya) † Theriodictis (Canis) proplatensis (2.1 Mya) †

Genus Protocyon

Protocyon orcesi † Protocyon scagliarum † Protocyon troglodytes †

Genus Cerdocyon

Cerdocyon
Cerdocyon
avius † Cerdocyon
Cerdocyon
ensenadensis †

Genus Speothos

Speothos
Speothos
pacivorus †

Genus Nurocyon

Nurocyon chonokhariensis †

Genus Xenocyon
Xenocyon

Xenocyon
Xenocyon
falconeri (1.9-1.6 Mya) † Xenocyon
Xenocyon
lycaonoides (1.69 Mya) †

Tribe Vulpini

Genus Vulpes
Vulpes
(7 Mya to present)

Vulpes
Vulpes
alopecoides (2.6 Mya) † Vulpes
Vulpes
cf. alopecoides (2.6 Mya) † Vulpes
Vulpes
cf. vulpes (0.1275 Mya) † Vulpes
Vulpes
galaticus (4.2 Mya) † Vulpes
Vulpes
riffautae (7 Mya) †

Basal Caninae

Genus Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
(7.1 Mya to present)

Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
cf. donnezani (7.1 Mya) † Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
cf. megamastoides (3.158 Mya) † Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
donnezani (3.4 Mya) † Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
megamostoides (2.6 Mya) † Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
sinensis (3.4 Mya) †

First Caninae

Genus Eucyon
Eucyon
(8 Mya) †

Eucyon
Eucyon
davisi (8.3 Mya †, probably ancestor of Canis) Eucyon
Eucyon
minor (8 Mya †) Eucyon
Eucyon
zhoui (8 Mya †) Eucyon
Eucyon
monticinensis (8 Mya †) Eucyon
Eucyon
odessanus †

Genus Leptocyon
Leptocyon
(24–16 Mya †)

Leptocyon
Leptocyon
vafer (16 Mya †) Leptocyon
Leptocyon
vulpinus (24 Mya †)

Subfamily
Subfamily
Borophaginae[edit]

Genus Archaeocyon
Archaeocyon
(7 Mya) †

Archaeocyon
Archaeocyon
falkenbachi (10.2 Mya) † Archaeocyon
Archaeocyon
leptodus (7 Mya) † Archaeocyon
Archaeocyon
pavidus (7 Mya) †

Genus Otarocyon
Otarocyon
(7.6 Mya) †

Otarocyon
Otarocyon
cooki (4.5 Mya) † Otarocyon
Otarocyon
macdonaldi (0.6 Mya) †

Genus Oxetocyon
Oxetocyon
(2.5 Mya) †

Oxetocyon
Oxetocyon
cuspidatus (2.5 Mya) †

Genus Rhizocyon
Rhizocyon
(30 Mya)

Rhizocyon
Rhizocyon
oregonensis (30 Mya)

Tribe Phlaocyonini
Phlaocyonini
(27.2 Mya) †

Genus Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
(16.7 Mya) †

Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
acridens (11 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
emryi (4 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
gawnae (4 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
harlowi (4 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
lemur (30 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
luskensis (4.2 Mya) † Cynarctoides
Cynarctoides
roii (4.5 Mya) †

Genus Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
(30–19 Mya)

Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
achoros Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
annectens (22 Mya) Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
latidens (30 Mya) Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
leucosteus (22 Mya) Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
mariae Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
marslandensis (19 Mya) Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
minor (30 Mya) Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
multicuspus Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
taylori[62] Phlaocyon
Phlaocyon
yakolai (19 Mya)

Tribe Borophagini
Borophagini
(16.7 Mya) †

Genus Cormocyon
Cormocyon
(10.2 Mya) †

Cormocyon
Cormocyon
copei (10.2 Mya) † Cormocyon
Cormocyon
haydeni (4.2 Mya) †

Genus Desmocyon
Desmocyon
(9 Mya) †

Desmocyon
Desmocyon
matthewi (4.3 Mya) † Desmocyon
Desmocyon
thompsoni †

Genus Metatomarctus (4.3 Mya) †

Metatomarctus canavus (4.3 Mya) † Metatomarctus sp. A (16 Mya) Metatomarctus sp. B (16 Mya)

Genus Euoplocyon (18–16 Mya)

Euoplocyon brachygnathus (16 Mya) Euoplocyon spissidens (18 Mya)

Genus Psalidocyon (16 Mya)

Psalidocyon marianae (16 Mya)

Genus Microtomarctus (4 Mya) †

Microtomarctus conferta (17.67 Mya) †

Genus Protomarctus (18 Mya)

Protomarctus optatus (18 Mya)

Genus Tephrocyon (16 Mya)

Tephrocyon rurestris (16 Mya)

Subtribe Cynarctina

Genus Paracynarctus (6.7 Mya) †

Paracynarctus kelloggi (6.7 Mya) † Paracynarctus sinclairi (7 Mya) †

Genus Cynarctus (5.6 Mya) †

Cynarctus crucidens (1.3 Mya) † Cynarctus galushai (2.7 Mya) † Cynarctus marylandica (2.3 Mya) † Cynarctus saxatilis (2.7 Mya) † Cynarctus voorhiesi (3.3 Mya) † Cynarctus wangi (1 Mya) †[63]

Subtribe Aelurodontina
Aelurodontina
(15 Mya) †

Genus Tomarctus
Tomarctus
(7 Mya) †

Tomarctus
Tomarctus
brevirostris (6.8 Mya) † Tomarctus
Tomarctus
hippophaga (7 Mya) †

Genus Aelurodon
Aelurodon
(15.7 Mya) †

Aelurodon
Aelurodon
asthenostylus (7 Mya) † Aelurodon
Aelurodon
ferox (6 Mya) † Aelurodon
Aelurodon
mcgrewi (2.7 Mya) † Aelurodon
Aelurodon
montanensis (2.7 Mya) †[64] Aelurodon
Aelurodon
stirtoni (6 Mya) † Aelurodon
Aelurodon
taxoides (8.3 Mya) †

Subtribe Borophagina (17 Mya) †

Genus Paratomarctus
Paratomarctus
(6 Mya) †

Paratomarctus
Paratomarctus
euthos (13 Mya) Paratomarctus
Paratomarctus
temerarius (16 Mya)

Genus Carpocyon
Carpocyon
(19.7 Mya) †

Carpocyon
Carpocyon
compressus (2.7 Mya) † Carpocyon
Carpocyon
limosus (5 Mya) † Carpocyon
Carpocyon
robustus (3.3 Mya) † Carpocyon
Carpocyon
webbi (6 Mya) †

Genus Protepicyon (16 Mya)

Protepicyon raki (16 Mya)

Genus Epicyon
Epicyon
(2 Mya) †

Epicyon
Epicyon
aelurodontoides (5.4 Mya) † Epicyon
Epicyon
haydeni (5.4 Mya) † Epicyon
Epicyon
saevus (11.4 Mya) †

Genus Borophagus
Borophagus
(7 Mya) †

Borophagus
Borophagus
diversidens (5 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
dudleyi (1.7 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
hilli (6.7 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
littoralis (0.6 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
orc (0.4 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
parvus (5.4 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
pugnator (8.3 Mya) † Borophagus
Borophagus
secundus (8.3 Mya) †

Subfamily
Subfamily
Hesperocyoninae[edit] † (Mya = million years ago)

Genus Cynodesmus (32–29 Mya)

Cynodesmus martini (29 Mya) Cynodesmus thooides (32 Mya)

 ?Genus Caedocyon

Caedocyon tedfordi

Genus Ectopocynus (32–19 Mya)

Ectopocynus antiquus (32 Mya) Ectopocynus intermedius (29 Mya) Ectopocynus siplicidens (19 Mya)

Genus Enhydrocyon
Enhydrocyon
(29–25 Mya)

Enhydrocyon
Enhydrocyon
basilatus (25 Mya) Enhydrocyon
Enhydrocyon
crassidens (25 Mya) Enhydrocyon
Enhydrocyon
pahinsintewkpa (29 Mya) Enhydrocyon
Enhydrocyon
stenocephalus (29 Mya)

Genus Hesperocyon
Hesperocyon
(39.74–34 Mya)

Hesperocyon
Hesperocyon
coloradensis Hesperocyon
Hesperocyon
gregarius (37 Mya)

Genus Mesocyon
Mesocyon
(34–29 Mya)

Mesocyon
Mesocyon
brachyops (29 Mya) Mesocyon
Mesocyon
coryphaeus (29 Mya) Mesocyn temnodon

Genus Osbornodon
Osbornodon
(32–18 Mya)

Osbornodon
Osbornodon
brachypus Osbornodon
Osbornodon
fricki (18 Mya) Osbornodon
Osbornodon
iamonensis (21 Mya) Osbornodon
Osbornodon
renjiei (33 Mya) Osbornodon
Osbornodon
scitulus[65] Osbornodon
Osbornodon
sesnoni (32 Mya) Osbornodon
Osbornodon
wangi[62]

Genus Paraenhydrocyon (30–25 Mya)

Paraenhydrocyon josephi (30 Mya) Paraenhydrocyon robustus (25 Mya)

Genus Philotrox (29 Mya)

Philotrox condoni (29 Mya)

Genus Prohesperocyon (36 Mya)

Prohesperocyon wilsoni (36 Mya)

Genus Sunkahetanka (29 Mya)

Sunkahetanka geringensis (29 Mya)

See also[edit]

Canid hybrid Free-ranging dog

References[edit]

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of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16.  ^ Wang, Xiaoming (1994). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Hesperocyoninae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 221: 1–207. hdl:2246/829.  ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H.; Taylor, Beryl E. (1999). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 243: 1–391. hdl:2246/1588.  ^ a b Tedford, Richard; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1.  ^ a b Hayes, F.G. (2000). "The Brooksville 2 local fauna (Arikareean, latest Oligocene) Hernando County, Florida". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 43 (1): 1–47.  ^ Jasinski, Steven E.; Wallace, Steven C. (2016). "A Borophagine canid (Carnivora: Canidae: Borophaginae) from the middle Miocene
Miocene
Chesapeake Group of eastern North America". Journal of Paleontology. 89 (6): 1082–1088. doi:10.1017/jpa.2016.17. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Wideman, Benjamin C.; Nichols, Ralph; Hanneman, Debra L. (2004). "A new species of Aelurodon
Aelurodon
(Carnivora, Canidae) from the Barstovian of Montana" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24 (2): 445–452. doi:10.1671/2493. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-08.  ^ Wang, Xiaoming (2003). "New Material of Osbornodon
Osbornodon
from the Early Hemingfordian of Nebraska and Florida" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 279: 163–176. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0163:C>2.0.CO;2. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Canidae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canidae.

"Canidae". National Center for Biotechnology Information
National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI). 

v t e

Extinct members of the family Canidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia

†Hesperocyoninae

Hesperocyon Mesocyon Cynodesmus Sunkahetanka Philotrox Enhydrocyon Paraenhydrocyon Osbornodon Caedocyon Ectopocynus

†Borophaginae

Archaeocyon Oxetocyon Otarocyon Rhizocyon

Phlaocyonini

Cynarctoides Phlaocyon

Borophagini

Cormocyon Desmocyon Metatomarctus Euoplocyon Psalidocyon Microtomarctus Protomarctus Tephrocyon

Cynarctina

Paracynarctus Cynarctus

Aelurodontina

Tomarctus Aelurodon

Borophagina

Paratomarctus Carpocyon Protepicyon Epicyon Borophagus

Caninae

Chailicyon Cynotherium Dusicyon Eucyon Gobicyon Leptocyon Neocynodesmus Nurocyon Prototocyon Theriodictis

Urocyon

U. progressus

Cuon

C. alpinus europaeus

Vulpes

V. qiuzhudingi V. riffautae V. skinneri

Canis

C. apolloniensis C. armbrusteri C. arnensis C. cedazoensis C. dirus C. edwardii C. etruscus C. ferox C. lepophagus

C. latrans

C. l. orcutti

C. lupus

C. l. hattai C. l. hodophilax

C. (Xenocyon)

C. (X.) africanus C. (X.) antonii C. (X.) falconeri C. (X.) lycanoides

Category

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog
Raccoon dog
(N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q25324 ADW: Canidae EoL: 7676 EPPO: 1CANIF Fauna Europaea: 12634 Fossilworks: 41189 GBIF: 9701 ITIS: 180594 MSW: 14000691 NCBI: 9608 WoRMS: 404128

Authority control

GND: 4398917-2 BNF: cb119403115 (d

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