HOME
The Info List - Canadian Football


--- Advertisement ---



Canadian football
Canadian football
(French: Football
Football
canadien) is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (101 m) long and 65 yards (59 m) wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone). In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football
Canadian football
and American football
American football
collectively, or to either sport specifically, depending on context. The two sports have shared origins and are closely related but have significant differences. Rugby football
Rugby football
in Canada originated in the early 1860s,[1] and over time, the game known as Canadian football
Canadian football
developed. Both the Canadian Football
Football
League (CFL), the sport's top professional league, and Football
Football
Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football
Football
Union. The CFL is the most popular and only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game;[2] in 2014, it was closer to 33%, peaking at 5.1 million viewers in the fourth quarter.[3] Canadian football
Canadian football
is also played at the bantam, high school, junior, collegiate, and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, and Quebec Junior Football
Football
League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football
U Sports football
for the Vanier Cup, and senior leagues such as the Alberta Football
Football
League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football
Canadian football
are enshrined in the Canadian Football
Football
Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer.

Contents

1 History 2 League play 3 The field 4 Play of the game

4.1 Start of play 4.2 Stoppage of play 4.3 Scrimmage 4.4 Change in possession 4.5 Rules of contact 4.6 Infractions and penalties 4.7 Kicking 4.8 Scoring

4.8.1 Resumption of play

4.9 Game timing 4.10 Overtime

5 Players

5.1 Offence 5.2 Defence 5.3 Special
Special
teams

6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External links

History[edit] The first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto (approximately 400 yards or 370 metres west of Queen's Park). One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto
University of Toronto
students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.[1] A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.[citation needed] The first written account of a game played was on October 15, 1862, on the Montreal Cricket
Cricket
Grounds. It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards
Grenadier Guards
and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards
Grenadier Guards
3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing.[citation needed] In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.[1] The game gradually gained a following, with the Hamilton Football
Football
Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, and the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. (Of those clubs, only the Toronto club is still in continuous operation today.) This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University
Harvard University
to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill.[4][5] The first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union (CRFU) founded June 12, 1880,[6] which included teams from Ontario and Quebec. Later both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union (ORFU and QRFU) were formed (January 1883), and then the Interprovincial (1907) and Western Interprovincial Football
Football
Union (1936) (IRFU and WIFU).[7] The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) in 1891.[8] The original forerunners to the current Canadian Football
Football
League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football
Football
Council (CFC).[9] In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL. The Burnside rules closely resembling American football
American football
(which are similar rules developed by Walter Camp
Walter Camp
for that sport) that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks. The rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country. The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first.[10] Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, and touchdowns, which had been five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes. The primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not (originally, both sides had three downs, goal posts on the goal lines and unlimited forward motion, but the American side modified these rules and the Canadians did not). The Canadian field width was one rule that was not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums. The Grey Cup
Grey Cup
was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada.[10] Initially an amateur competition, it eventually became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s. The Ontario Rugby Football
Football
Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy, withdrew from competition in 1954. The move ushered in the modern era of Canadian professional football, culminating in the formation of the present-day Canadian Football
Football
League in 1958. Canadian football
Canadian football
has mostly been confined to Canada, with the United States being the only other country to have hosted high-level Canadian football games. The CFL's controversial "South Division" as it would come to be officially known attempted to put CFL teams in the United States playing under Canadian rules between 1992 and 1995. The move was aborted after three years; the Baltimore Stallions
Baltimore Stallions
were the most successful of the numerous Americans teams to play in the CFL, winning the 83rd Grey Cup. Continuing financial losses, a lack of proper Canadian football
Canadian football
venues, a pervasive belief that the American teams were simply pawns to provide the struggling Canadian teams with expansion fee revenue, and the return of the NFL to Baltimore prompted the end of Canadian football
Canadian football
on the American side of the border. The CFL hosted the Touchdown Atlantic
Touchdown Atlantic
regular season game at Nova Scotia in 2005 and New Brunswick in 2010, 2011 and 2013. In 2013, Newfoundland and Labrador became the last province to establish football at the minor league level, with teams playing on the Avalon Peninsula and in Labrador City.[citation needed] The province however has yet to host a college or CFL game. Prince Edward Island, the smallest of the provinces, has also never hosted a CFL game.

A game between the Hamilton Tigers and the Ottawa Rough Riders, 1910

A game between the 4th Canadian Armoured Division
4th Canadian Armoured Division
Atoms and First Canadian Army Red and Blue Bombers, in Utrecht, Netherlands, October 1945

Touchdown
Touchdown
monument outside the Canadian Football
Football
Hall of Fame in Hamilton, Ontario

League play[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Footballs and a helmet at a Calgary Stampeders
Calgary Stampeders
(CFL) team practice

Canadian football
Canadian football
is played at several levels in Canada; the top league is the professional nine-team Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
(CFL). The CFL regular season begins in June, and playoffs for the Grey Cup are completed by mid-November. In cities with outdoor stadiums such as Edmonton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Regina, low temperatures and icy field conditions can seriously affect the outcome of a game. Amateur football is governed by Football
Football
Canada. At the university level, 26 teams play in four conferences under the auspices of U Sports (known from 2001–2016 as Canadian Interuniversity Sport); the U Sports
U Sports
champion is awarded the Vanier Cup. Junior football is played by many after high school before joining the university ranks. There are 20 junior teams in three divisions in the Canadian Junior Football League competing for the Canadian Bowl. The Quebec Junior Football League includes teams from Ontario and Quebec who battle for the Manson Cup. Semi-professional leagues have grown in popularity in recent years, with the Alberta Football
Football
League becoming especially popular. The Northern Football
Football
Conference formed in Ontario in 1954 has also surged in popularity for former college players who do not continue to professional football. The Ontario champion plays against the Alberta champion for the "National Championship". The Canadian Major Football League is the governing body for the semi-professional game. Women's football has gained attention in recent years in Canada. The first Canadian women's league to begin operations was the Maritime Women's Football
Football
League in 2004. The largest women's league is the Western Women's Canadian Football
Football
League. The field[edit]

Edmonton's Commonwealth Stadium, in 2005. A Canadian Football
Football
League venue.

The Canadian football
Canadian football
field is 150 yards (137 m) long and 65 yards (59 m) wide, within which the goal areas are 20 yards (18 m) deep, and the goal lines are 110 yards (101 m) apart. Including the endzones, the total area of the field is 87,750 square feet (8,152 m2). At each goal line is a set of 40-foot-high (12 m) goalposts, which consist of two uprights joined by an 18 1⁄2-foot-long (5.6 m) crossbar which is 10 feet (3 m) above the goal line. The goalposts may be H-shaped (both posts fixed in the ground) although in the higher-calibre competitions the tuning-fork design (supported by a single curved post behind the goal line, so that each post starts 10 feet (3 m) above the ground) is preferred. The sides of the field are marked by white sidelines, the goal line is marked in white, and white lines are drawn laterally across the field every 5 yards (4.6 m) from the goal line. These lateral lines are called "yard lines" and often marked with the distance in yards from and an arrow pointed toward the nearest goal line. In previous decades, arrows were not used and every yard line (in both multiples of 5 and 10) was usually marked with the distance to the goal line, including the goal line itself which was marked with either a "0" or "00"; in most stadiums today, only the yard markers in multiples of 10 are marked with numbers, with the goal line sometimes being marked with a "G". The centre (55-yard) line usually is marked with a "C" (or, more rarely, with a "55"). "Hash marks" are painted in white, parallel to the yardage lines, at 1 yard (0.9 m) intervals, 24 yards (21.9 m) from the sidelines. On fields that have a surrounding running track, such as Molson Stadium and many universities, the end zones are often cut off in the corners to accommodate the track. Until 1986,[11] the end zones were 25 yards (23 m) deep, giving the field an overall length of 160 yards (150 m), and a correspondingly larger cutoff could be required at the corners. The first field to feature the shorter 20-yard endzones was Vancouver's BC Place
BC Place
(home of the BC Lions), which opened in 1983. This was particularly common among U.S.-based teams during the CFL's American expansion, where few American stadiums were able to accommodate the much longer and noticeably wider CFL field. The end zones in Toronto's BMO Field
BMO Field
are only 18 yards instead of 20 yards. Play of the game[edit]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Teams advance across the field through the execution of quick, distinct plays, which involve the possession of a brown, prolate spheroid ball with ends tapered to a point. The ball has two one-inch-wide white stripes. Start of play[edit] At the beginning of a match, an official tosses a coin and allows the captain of the visiting team call heads or tails. The captain of the team winning the coin toss is given the option of having first choice, or of deferring first choice to the other captain. The captain making first choice may either choose a) to kick off or receive the kick at the beginning of the half, or b) which direction of the field to play in. The remaining choice is given to the opposing captain. Before the resumption of play in the second half, the captain that did not have first choice in the first half is given first choice. Teams usually choose to defer, so it is typical for the team that wins the coin toss to kick to begin the first half and receive to begin the second. Play begins at the start of each half with one team place-kicking the ball from its own 35-yard line. Both teams then attempt to catch the ball. The player who recovers the ball may run while holding the ball, or lateral throw the ball to a teammate. Stoppage of play[edit] Play stops when the ball carrier's knee, elbow, or any other body part aside from the feet and hands, is forced to the ground (a tackle); when a forward pass is not caught on the fly (during a scrimmage); when a touchdown (see below) or a field goal is scored; when the ball leaves the playing area by any means (being carried, thrown, or fumbled out of bounds); or when the ball carrier is in a standing position but can no longer move forwards (called forward progress). If no score has been made, the next play starts from scrimmage. Scrimmage[edit] Before scrimmage, an official places the ball at the spot it was at the stop of clock, but no nearer than 24 yards from the sideline or 1 yard from the goal line. The line parallel to the goal line passing through the ball (line from sideline to sideline for the length of the ball) is referred to as the line of scrimmage. This line is similar to "no-man's land"; players must stay on their respective sides of this line until the play has begun again. For a scrimmage to be valid the team in possession of the football must have seven players, excluding the quarterback, within one yard of the line of scrimmage. The defending team must stay a yard or more back from the line of scrimmage.

Montreal Alouettes
Montreal Alouettes
quarterback Anthony Calvillo
Anthony Calvillo
looks down field with the ball during the 93rd Grey Cup
Grey Cup
game at BC Place.

On the field at the beginning of a play are two teams of 12 (unlike 11 in American football). The team in possession of the ball is the offence and the team defending is referred to as the defence. Play begins with a backwards pass through the legs (the snap) by a member of the offensive team, to another member of the offensive team. This is usually the quarterback or punter, but a "direct snap" to a running back is also not uncommon. If the quarterback or punter receives the ball, he may then do any of the following:

run with the ball, attempting to run farther down field (gaining yardage). The ball-carrier may run in any direction he sees fit (including backwards). drop-kick the ball, dropping it onto the ground and kicking it on the bounce. (This play is exceedingly rare in both Canadian and American football.) pass the ball laterally or backwards to a teammate. This play is known as a lateral, and may come at any time on the play. A pass which has any amount of forward momentum is a forward pass (see below); forward passes are subject to many restrictions which do not apply to laterals. hand-off—hand the ball off to a teammate, typically a halfback or the fullback. punt the ball; dropping it in the air and kicking it before it touches the ground. When the ball is punted, only opposing players (the receiving team), the kicker, and anyone behind the kicker when he punted the ball are able to touch the ball, or even go within five yards of the ball until it is touched by an eligible player (the no-yards rule, which is applied to all kicking plays). place the ball on the ground for a place kick throw a forward pass, where the ball is thrown to a receiver located farther down field (closer to the opponent's goal) than the thrower is. Forward passes are subject to the following restrictions:

They must be made from behind the line of scrimmage Only one forward pass may be made on a play The pass must be made in the direction of an eligible receiver or pass 10 yards after the line of scrimmage

Each play constitutes a down. The offence must advance the ball at least ten yards towards the opponents' goal line within three downs or forfeit the ball to their opponents. Once ten yards have been gained the offence gains a new set of three downs (rather than the four downs given in American football). Downs do not accumulate. If the offensive team completes 10 yards on their first play, they lose the other two downs and are granted another set of three. If a team fails to gain ten yards in two downs they usually punt the ball on third down or try to kick a field goal (see below), depending on their position on the field. The team may, however use its third down in an attempt to advance the ball and gain a cumulative 10 yards. Change in possession[edit] The ball changes possession in the following instances:

If the offence scores a field goal, the scored-against team can either scrimmage from its 35-yard line or have the scoring team kickoff from its 35-yard line.[12] If a team scores a touchdown, the scoring team must kickoff from their own 35-yard line. If the defence scores on a safety (bringing the ball down in the offence's own end zone), they have the right to claim possession. If one team kicks the ball; the other team has the right to recover the ball and attempt a return. If a kicked ball goes out of bounds, or the kicking team scores a single or field goal as a result of the kick, the other team likewise gets possession. If the offence fails to make ten yards in three plays, the defence takes over on downs. If the offence attempts a forward pass and it is intercepted by the defence; the defence takes possession immediately (and may try to advance the ball on the play). Note that incomplete forward passes (those which go out of bounds, or which touch the ground without being first cleanly caught by a player) result in the end of the play, and are not returnable by either team. If the offence fumbles (a ball carrier drops the football, or has it dislodged by an opponent, or if the intended player fails to catch a lateral pass or a snap from centre, or a kick attempt is blocked by an opponent), the ball may be recovered (and advanced) by either team. If a fumbled ball goes out of bounds, the team whose player last touched it is awarded possession at the spot where it went out of bounds. A fumble by the offence in their own end zone, which goes out of bounds, results in a safety. When the first half ends, the team which kicked to start the first half will receive a kickoff to start the second half. After the three-minute warning near the end of each half, the offence can lose possession for a time count violation (failure to legally put the ball into play within the 20-second duration of the play clock). However, this can only occur in one very specific scenario:[13]

The offence committed a time count violation on its last attempted scrimmage play. This prior violation took place on third down. The referee deemed said violation to be deliberate, and warned the offence that it had to legally place the ball into play within the 20-second clock or lose possession. Such a loss of possession is statistically treated as the defence taking over on downs.

Rules of contact[edit] There are many rules to contact in this type of football. First, the only player on the field who may be legally tackled is the player currently in possession of the football (the ball carrier). Second, a receiver, that is to say, an offensive player sent down the field to receive a pass, may not be interfered with (have his motion impeded, be blocked, etc.) unless he is within one yard of the line of scrimmage (instead of 5 yards (4.6 m) in American football). Any player may block another player's passage, so long as he does not hold or trip the player he intends to block. The kicker may not be contacted after the kick but before his kicking leg returns to the ground (this rule is not enforced upon a player who has blocked a kick), and the quarterback, having already thrown the ball, may not be hit or tackled. Infractions and penalties[edit] Infractions of the rules are punished with penalties, typically a loss of yardage of 5, 10 or 15 yards against the penalized team. Minor violations such as offside (a player from either side encroaching into scrimmage zone before the play starts) are penalized five yards, more serious penalties (such as holding) are penalized 10 yards, and severe violations of the rules (such as face-masking) are typically penalized 15 yards. Depending on the penalty, the penalty yardage may be assessed from the original line of scrimmage, from where the violation occurred (for example, for a pass interference infraction), or from where the ball ended after the play. Penalties on the offence may, or may not, result in a loss of down; penalties on the defence may result in a first down being automatically awarded to the offence. For particularly severe conduct, the game official(s) may eject players (ejected players may be substituted for), or in exceptional cases, declare the game over and award victory to one side or the other. Penalties do not affect the yard line which the offence must reach to gain a first down (unless the penalty results in a first down being awarded); if a penalty against the defence results in the first down yardage being attained, then the offence is awarded a first down. If the defence is penalized on a two-point convert attempt and the offence chooses to attempt the play again, the offence must attempt another two-point convert; it cannot change to a one-point attempt. Conversely, the offence can attempt a two-point convert following a defensive penalty on a one-point attempt. Penalties may occur before a play starts (such as offside), during the play (such as holding), or in a dead-ball situation (such as unsportsmanlike conduct). Penalties never result in a score for the offence. For example, a point-of-foul infraction committed by the defence in their end zone is not ruled a touchdown, but instead advances the ball to the one-yard line with an automatic first down. For a distance penalty, if the yardage is greater than half the distance to the goal line, then the ball is advanced half the distance to the goal line, though only up to the one-yard line (unlike American football, in Canadian football
Canadian football
no scrimmage may start inside either one-yard line). If the original penalty yardage would have resulted in a first down or moving the ball past the goal line, a first down is awarded. In most cases, the non-penalized team will have the option of declining the penalty; in which case the results of the previous play stand as if the penalty had not been called. One notable exception to this rule is if the kicking team on a 3rd down punt play is penalized before the kick occurs: the receiving team may not decline the penalty and take over on downs. After the kick is made, change of possession occurs and subsequent penalties are assessed against either the spot where the ball is caught, or the runback. Kicking[edit] Canadian football
Canadian football
distinguishes four ways of kicking the ball:

Place kick Kicking a ball held on the ground by a teammate, or, on a kickoff (resuming play following a score), optionally placed on a tee. Drop kick Kicking a ball after bouncing it on the ground. Although rarely used today, it has the same status in scoring as a place kick. This play is part of the game's rugby heritage, and was largely made obsolete when the ball with pointed ends was adopted. Unlike the American game, Canadian rules allow a drop kick to be attempted at any time by any player, but the move is very rare. Punt Kicking the ball after it has been released from the kicker's hand and before it hits the ground. Punts may not score a field goal, even if one should travel through the uprights. As with drop kicks, players may punt at any time. Dribbled ball A dribbled ball is one that has been kicked while not in possession of a player, for example, a loose ball following a fumble, a blocked kick, a kickoff, or a kick from scrimmage. The kicker of the dribbled ball and any player onside when the ball was kicked may legally recover the ball.

On any kicking play, all onside players (the kicker, and teammates behind the kicker at the time of the kick) may recover and advance the ball. Players on the kicking team who are not onside may not approach within five yards of the ball until it has been touched by the receiving team, or by an onside teammate. Scoring[edit] The methods of scoring are:

Touchdown  Achieved when the ball is in possession of a player in the opponent's end zone, or when the ball in the possession of a player crosses or touches the plane of the opponent's goal-line, worth 6 points (5 points until 1956). A touchdown in Canadian football
Canadian football
is often referred to as a "major score" or simply a "major." Conversion (or convert)  After a touchdown, the team that scored gets one scrimmage play to attempt to add one or two more points. If they make what would normally be a field goal, they score one point (a "point-after"); what would normally be a touchdown scores two points (a "two-point conversion"). In amateur games, this scrimmage is taken at the opponents' 5-yard line. The CFL formerly ran all conversion attempts from the 5-yard line as well, but starting in 2015 the line of scrimmage for one-point kick attempts became the 25-yard line, while two-point attempts are scrimmaged at the 3-yard line.[14] No matter what happens on the convert attempt, play then continues with a kickoff (see below). Field goal  Scored by a drop kick or place kick (except on a kickoff) when the ball, after being kicked and without again touching the ground, goes over the cross bar and between the goal posts (or between lines extended from the top of the goal posts) of the opponent's goal, worth three points. If the ball hits the upright above the cross-bar before going through, it is not considered a dead ball, and the points are scored. (Rule 5, Sect 4, Art 4(d)) If the field goal is missed, but the ball is not returnable after crossing the dead-ball-line, then it constitutes a rouge (see below). Safety  Scored when the ball becomes dead in the possession of a team in its own goal area, or when the ball touches or crosses the dead-line, or side-line-in-goal and touches the ground, a player, or some object beyond these lines as a result of the team scored against making a play. It is worth two points. This is different from a single (see below) in that the team scored against begins with possession of the ball. The most common safety is on a third down punt from the end zone, in which the kicker decides not to punt and keeps the ball in his team's own goal area. The ball is then turned over to the receiving team (who gained the two points), by way of a kickoff from the 25 yard line or scrimmaging from the 35-yard (32 m) line on their side of the field. Single (rouge)  Scored when the ball becomes dead in the possession of a team in its own goal area, or when the ball touches or crosses the dead-line, or side-line-in-goal, and touches the ground, a player, or some object beyond these lines as a result of the ball having been kicked from the field of play into the goal area by the scoring team. It is worth one point. This is different from a Safety (see above) in that team scored against receives possession of the ball after the score. Officially, the single is called a rouge (French for "red") but is often referred to as a single. The exact derivation of the term is unknown, but it has been thought that in early Canadian football, the scoring of a single was signalled with a red flag. A rouge is also a method of scoring in the Eton field game, which dates from at least 1815.

Resumption of play[edit] Resumption of play following a score is conducted under procedures which vary with the type of score.

Following a touchdown and convert attempt (successful or not), play resumes with the scoring team kicking off from its own 35-yard line (45-yard line in amateur leagues). Following a field goal, the non-scoring team may choose for play to resume either with a kickoff as above, or by scrimmaging the ball from its own 35-yard line. Following a safety, the scoring team may choose for play to resume in either of the above ways, or it may choose to kick off from its own 35-yard line. Following a single or rouge, play resumes with the non-scoring team scrimmaging from its own 35-yard line, unless the single is awarded on a missed field goal, in which case the non-scoring team scrimmages from either the 35-yard line or the yard line from which the field goal was attempted, whichever is greater.

Game timing[edit] The game consists of two 30-minute halves, each of which is divided into two 15-minute quarters. The clock counts down from 15:00 in each quarter. Timing rules change when there are three minutes remaining in a half. A short break interval of 2 minutes occurs after the end of each quarter (a longer break of 15 minutes at halftime), and the two teams then change goals. In the first 27 minutes of a half, the clock stops when:

points are scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a forward pass is incomplete, the ball is dead and a penalty flag has been thrown, the ball is dead and teams are making substitutions (e.g., possession has changed, punting situation, short yardage situation), the ball is dead and a player is injured, or the ball is dead and a captain or a coach calls a time-out.

The clock starts again when the referee determines the ball is ready for scrimmage, except for team time-outs (where the clock starts at the snap), after a time count foul (at the snap) and kickoffs (where the clock starts not at the kick but when the ball is first touched after the kick). In the last three minutes of a half, the clock stops whenever the ball becomes dead. On kickoffs, the clock starts when the ball is first touched after the kick. On scrimmages, when it starts depends on what ended the previous play. The clock starts when the ball is ready for scrimmage except that it starts on the snap when on the previous play

the ball was kicked off, the ball was punted, the ball changed possession, the ball went out of bounds, there were points scored, there was an incomplete forward pass, there was a penalty applied (not declined), or there was a team time-out.

During the last three minutes of a half, the penalty for failure to place the ball in play within the 20-second play clock, known as "time count" (this foul is known as "delay of game" in American football), is dramatically different from during the first 27 minutes. Instead of the penalty being 5 yards with the down repeated, the base penalty (except during convert attempts) becomes loss of down on first or second down, and 10 yards on third down with the down repeated. In addition, as noted previously, the referee can give possession to the defence for repeated deliberate time count violations on third down. The clock does not run during convert attempts in the last three minutes of a half. If the 15 minutes of a quarter expire while the ball is live, the quarter is extended until the ball becomes dead. If a quarter's time expires while the ball is dead, the quarter is extended for one more scrimmage. A quarter cannot end while a penalty is pending: after the penalty yardage is applied, the quarter is extended one scrimmage. Note that the non-penalized team has the option to decline any penalty it considers disadvantageous, so a losing team cannot indefinitely prolong a game by repeatedly committing infractions. Overtime[edit] In the CFL, if the game is tied at the end of regulation play, then each team is given an equal number of offensive possessions to break the tie. A coin toss is held to determine which team will take possession first; the first team scrimmages the ball at the opponent's 35-yard line and conducts a series of downs until it scores or loses possession. If the team scores a touchdown, starting with the 2010 season, it is required to attempt a two-point conversion.[15] The other team then scrimmages the ball at the opponent's 35-yard line and has the same opportunity to score. After the teams have completed their possessions, if one team is ahead, then it is declared the winner; otherwise, the two teams each get another chance to score, scrimmaging from the other 35-yard line. After this second round, if there is still no winner, during the regular season the game ends as a tie. In a playoff game, the teams continue to attempt to score from alternating 35-yard lines, until one team is leading after both have had an equal number of possessions. In U Sports
U Sports
football, for the Uteck Bowl, Mitchell Bowl, and Vanier Cup, the same overtime procedure is followed until there is a winner. Players[edit]

running back quarter- back slot- back slot- backs offensive     line wide receiver wide receiver defensive    line line- backers umpire cornerback defensive backs defensive backs corner- back

The offence (yellow and white) are first-and-ten at their 54-yard line against the defence (red and black) in a CIS football
CIS football
game. The twelve players of each side and the umpire (one of seven officials) are shown. The offence is in a one-back offence with five receivers. Note: The labels are clickable.

Offence[edit] The offensive positions found in Canadian football
Canadian football
have, for the most part, evolved throughout the years, and are not officially defined in the rules. However, among offensive players, the rules recognize three different types of players:

Down linemen Down linemen are players who, at the start of every play, line up at the line of scrimmage; once in their stance, they may not move until the play begins. The offence must have at least seven players lined up at the line of scrimmage on every play. The exception to this rule is the player (typically the centre) who snaps the ball to the quarterback. Linemen generally do not run with the ball (unless they recover it on a fumble) or receive a hand-off or lateral pass, but there is no rule against it. Interior linemen (that is, excluding the two players at either end of the scrimmage line) are ineligible receivers; they may not receive a forward pass either. (The two offensive ends on the line of scrimmage may receive forward passes, and may be in motion along the line of scrimmage prior to the snap.) Backs Backs line up behind the linemen; they may run with the ball, receive handoffs, laterals, and forward passes. They may also be in motion before the play starts.

Specific offensive positions include:

Backs/Receivers Quarterback Generally the leader of the offence. Calls all plays to teammates, receives the ball off of snap, and initiates the action usually by running the ball himself, passing the ball to a receiver, or handing the ball off to another back. Fullback Multiple roles including pass protection, receiving, and blocking for the running back. On short yardage situations may also carry the ball. Running back/Tailback As the name implies, the main runner on the team. Also an eligible receiver and blocker on pass plays. Wide receiver Lines up on the line of scrimmage, usually at a distance from the centre. Runs a given route to make a successful play catch ball and gain yardage, not that a tight end can count as an eligible receiver so if one is on the wide outs field that the wideout cannot be on the line of scrimmage and may adopt a slotback start. Slotback Is an eligible receiver but lines up off the line (usually 8yds back) of scrimmage and runs before snap and can not have any part on field over scrimmage or it's an off-side call Down linemen Centre Snaps the ball to the quarterback. Most important pass blocker on pass plays. Calls offensive line plays. Left/right guard Stands to the left and right of the centre helps protect the quarterback, Usually very good run blockers to open holes up the middle for runners. Left/right tackle Stands on the ends of the offensive line, The biggest men on the line, usually well over 300 pounds (140 kg). Usually very good pass blockers. Offensive lineman Collective name for the centre, guards and tackles.

Defence[edit] The rules do not constrain how the defence may arrange itself (other than the requirement that they must remain one yard behind the line of scrimmage until the play starts).

Cornerback Covers the wide receivers on most plays. Safety Covers deep. Last line of defence, can offer run support or blitz. Defensive halfback Covers the slotback and helps contain the run from going to the outside. Defensive back Collective term for cornerback, safety and defensive halfback. Nose tackle Lineman across from centre, tries to get past the offensive-line or take double team and open holes for blitzes. Defensive tackle Inside defensive linemen try to break through the offensive line and open holes for linebackers. Defensive end Main rushing lineman. Rushes the quarterback and tries to contain rushers behind the line of scrimmage. Defensive lineman Collective term for defensive tackle (or nose tackle) and defensive end. Middle linebacker Lines up across from the centre 3 to 4 yds/m back. Quarterback
Quarterback
of the defence. Calls plays for lineman and linebackers. Weak-side linebacker Lines up on the short side of field, and can drop into pass coverage or contain. Strong-side linebacker Lines up on the opposite side and usually rushes.

Special
Special
teams[edit] Special
Special
teams generally refers to kicking plays, which typically involve a change in possession.

Holder Receives the snap on field goal tries and converts; places the ball in position and holds it to be kicked by the kicker. This position is generally filled by a reserve quarterback; occasionally the starting quarterback or punter will fill in as holder. Kicker Kicks field goals, converts, kick-offs Punter Punts ball, usually on third downs Returners Fast, agile runners who specialize in fielding punts, field goals and kickoffs, attempting to advance them for better field position or a score.

See also[edit]

Canadian football
Canadian football
portal Sport
Sport
in Canada portal

Comparison of American and Canadian football Glossary of Canadian football List of Gridiron football
Gridiron football
teams in Canada Comparison of Canadian football
Canadian football
and rugby league Rugby football Rugby league

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b c "Timeline 1860s". Official Site of the Canadian Football League. Canadian Football
Football
League. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ Zelkovich, Chris (1 December 2009). " Grey Cup
Grey Cup
a ratings champion". The Toronto Star. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved 23 December 2009.  ^ Chris Zelkovich, The Great Canadian ratings report: Drop in Grey Cup audience follows CFL's downward trend, Yahoo Sports, 2 December 2014 ^ "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "gridiron football (sport)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. britannica.com. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ " Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
(CFL)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ a b "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Game Rules and Regulations". Retrieved 4 June 2014.  ^ "CFL introduces 4 rule changes for 2009 season". Canadian Broadcasting Company. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ "Rule 1, Section 7, Article 9: Time Count" (PDF). The Official Playing Rules for the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
2015. Canadian Football League. pp. 18–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2015.  ^ "Major rule changes approved by CFL Governors". cfl.ca. 8 April 2015.  ^ The Canadian Press
The Canadian Press
(2010-04-14). "CFL approves rule requiring two-point convert attempts in OT". CTVglobemedia. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canadian football.

CFL Rule Book (2016) Canadian Football
Football
Resources (archived 14 July 2007) Quebec Junior Football
Football
League

v t e

Sports in Canada

Main articles

Sports in Canada Professional sports in Canada Baseball
Baseball
in Canada Basketball
Basketball
in Canada Canadian football Cricket
Cricket
in Canada Cycling in Canada Ice hockey
Ice hockey
in Canada Judo in Canada Lacrosse
Lacrosse
in Canada Quidditch in Canada Rugby league
Rugby league
in Canada Rugby union
Rugby union
in Canada Shooting sports in Canada Soccer in Canada Surfing in Canada Volleyball
Volleyball
in Canada Canada Games

Significant figures

Members of Canada's Sports Hall of Fame Members of Canada's Olympic Hall of Fame Recipients of the Lou Marsh Trophy Team of the Year

Athletes of the 20th century Bobbie Rosenfeld Award
Bobbie Rosenfeld Award
(female) Velma Springstead Trophy (female) Lionel Conacher Award
Lionel Conacher Award
(male) Tip O'Neill Award
Tip O'Neill Award
(baseball)

Canada at international competitions

Olympics Summer Olympics Winter Olympics Paralympics Commonwealth Games Pan Am Games Special
Special
Olympics

Summer Olympics stats

1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016

Winter Olympics stats

1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014

Paralympics stats (host nation)

1976 2010

Commonwealth Games stats

1930 1950 1982 2006

National sports teams

A1GP Australian football Bandy

men women

Badminton Baseball Basketball
Basketball
(men - women) Cricket
Cricket
(men – women) Field hockey
Field hockey
(men – women) Floorball
Floorball
(men - men's U-19 - women) Football Ice hockey
Ice hockey
(men – men's U-20 – women women's U-18) Ice sledge hockey Inline hockey Quidditch Rugby Rugby league Rugby union
Rugby union
(sevens) Soccer (men – men's youth – women) Softball
Softball
(men - women) Squash (men - women) Tennis (Davis Cup - Fed Cup) Volleyball
Volleyball
(men – women) Water polo
Water polo
(men – women)

Ice hockey

Canadian Amateur Hockey
Hockey
League NHL Stanley Cup Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
Finals World Cup of Hockey
World Cup of Hockey
(Canada Cup) University Cup

Teams... British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Quebec New Brunswick Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island Newfoundland and Labrador

Football

CIS football CFL Grey Cup List of Grey Cup
Grey Cup
champions Vanier Cup Teams... Football

Baseball

Teams... Active Baseball
Baseball
teams Defunct baseball teams

Rugby League

Tournaments... Ontario Rugby League British Columbia Rugby League Alberta Rugby League

Other sports

Teams... Basketball Lacrosse Soccer

Tournaments... Golf Motorsport Tennis Cycle Soccer Horse races Curling

Governing bodies

Alpine Canada Archery Athletics Canada Aquatic Federation of Canada Baseball
Baseball
Canada Biathlon Canada Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton Basketball Canadian Blind Sport
Sport
Association Canadian Canoe Association Canadian Cerebral Palsy Sports Association Curling
Curling
Canada Cycling Canada Cyclisme Canadian Dinghy Association Canadian Fencing Federation Canadian Freestyle Ski Association Canadian Interuniversity Sport Canadian Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Association Canadian Luge Association Canadian Olympic Committee Canadian Orienteering Federation Canadian Paralympic Committee Canada Rugby League Canadian Snowboard Federation Canadian Soccer Association Canadian Wheelchair Basketball
Basketball
Association Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association Canadian Yachting Association Cricket
Cricket
Canada Cross Country Canada (Canadian Hockey
Hockey
League) Diving Equine Canada Federation of Canadian Archers Field Hockey
Hockey
Canada Floorball
Floorball
Canada Golf Canada Hockey
Hockey
Canada Judo Canada Karate Canada Nordic Combined Ski Canada Quidditch Canada Rowing Canada Rugby Canada Minister of State (Sport) Ski Jumping Canada Skate Canada Shooting Federation of Canada Speed Skating Canada Sport
Sport
Canada Squash Canada Swimming Natation Canada Synchro Table Tennis Canada Tennis Canada Volleyball
Volleyball
Canada Water Polo

Related

Quebec Games Western Canada Summer Games ParticipACTION List of stadiums in Canada List of Canada Games

Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Team sports

Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport

Basket sports

Basketball

beach deaf 3x3 water wheelchair

Cestoball Korfball Netball

Fast5 indoor wheelchair

Rezball Ringball Slamball

Football
Football
codes

Association football

amputee beach freestyle Futsal indoor Jorkyball paralympic powerchair roller street walking

Australian rules football

AFLX Lightning football Metro footy Nine-a-side Rec footy

Gaelic football

Ladies'

Circle rules football

Gridiron codes

American football

eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair

Canadian football Indoor American football

Arena football

Hybrid codes

Austus Eton wall game International rules football Samoa rules Speedball Swedish football Universal football Volata

Medieval football
Medieval football
codes

Ba game Caid Calcio fiorentino Camping Cnapan Cornish hurling Cuju Harpastum Kemari Ki-o-rahi Jegichagi La soule Lelo burti Marn grook Pasuckuakohowog Royal Shrovetide Uppies and downies Yubi lakpi

Rugby codes

Beach Rugby league

masters mod nines sevens tag wheelchair

Rugby union

American flag mini sevens snow tag touch tens

Touch Wheelchair

Bat-and-ball games

Baseball Brännboll British baseball Corkball Cricket

One Day Test Twenty20

Danish longball Indoor cricket Kickball Lapta Matball Oină Over-the-line Pesäpallo Rounders Softball

Fastpitch

Stickball Stoolball Town ball Vigoro Vitilla Wiffle ball Wireball

Stick and ball sports

Bando Cammag Hurling

Camogie Super11s Shinty–Hurling

Indigenous North American stickball Iomain Knattleikr Knotty Lacrosse

box/indoor field intercrosse women's

Ritinis Shinty

Shinty–Hurling

Hockey
Hockey
sports

Ball hockey Bandy

rink

Broomball

Moscow

Field hockey

indoor

Floor hockey Floorball Ice hockey

pond power ice sledge underwater

Ringette Rinkball Roller hockey

in-line quad

Rossall hockey Shinny Street hockey Underwater hockey Unicycle hockey

Polo
Polo
sports

Auto polo Cowboy polo Cycle polo Elephant polo Horseball Motoball Pato Polo

Arena polo chovgan snow polo

Polocrosse Segway polo Yak polo

Net sports

Ball badminton Beach
Beach
tennis Biribol Bossaball Fistball Footbag net Football
Football
tennis Footvolley Jianzi Jokgu Newcomb ball Peteca Sepak takraw Throwball Volleyball

beach paralympic

Other sports

Airsoft Angleball Balle à la main Ballon au poing Basque pelota

frontenis jai alai xare

Bo-taoshi Boules

Bocce Bocce
Bocce
volo Boccia Bowls Jeu provençal Pétanque Raffa

Buzkashi Combat (juggling) Curling

wheelchair

Cycle ball Digor Dodgeball Flickerball Gateball Goalball Guts Handball

beach Czech field

Hornussen Ice stock sport Jereed Kabaddi

indoor beach

Kho kho Kin-Ball Lagori Longue paume Makura-Nage Mesoamerican ballgame Paintball Pelota mixteca Prisonball Pushball Quidditch Rollball Roller derby Slahal Snow snake Synchronized skating Synchronized swimming Tamburello Tchoukball

beach

Tejo Tug of war Ulama Ultimate Underwater football Underwater rugby Valencian pilota

Llargues

Water polo

canoe inner tube beach

Waboba Whirlyball Woodball Yukigassen

v t e

Gridiron football
Gridiron football
concepts

Codes

American

Glossary History

Early Modern

Rules

Canadian

American–Canadian comparison Burnside rules Glossary

Arena Indoor 9-man 8-man 6-man Flag Touch Street/Backyard Powderpuff Wheelchair Rules of gridiron football codes

Levels of play

Youth/midget

Pop Warner AYF

High school

Varsity Junior varsity

College

Club Sprint

Semi-pro Professional

Practice squad

Women's International

Field

Lines

Yard lines

Hash marks Goal line Sidelines

Line of scrimmage Field goal
Field goal
range

Spaces

End zone Red zone Neutral zone Coffin corner Flat Gap Hole Pocket

Scoring

Touchdown One-point conversion Two-point conversion Field goal Safety Single (rouge)

Turnovers

Fumble Interception Muffed punt Turnover on downs

Downs

First down Three-and-out Fourth down conversion Dead ball

Play clock

Timeout Kneel Spike Time warnings

3 min. 2 min. 1 min.

Clock management Running out the clock Untimed play Garbage time

Statistics

Carry Completion Rushing yards Passing yards Passer rating Total quarterback rating Reception Receiving yards Pass deflected Sack Return yards Total offense Yards after catch Yards from scrimmage All-purpose yardage Touchdown
Touchdown
pass

Practice

Two-a-days Oklahoma drill Three-cone drill Film session

Officiating

Official (American, Canadian) Chain crew Penalty Penalty flag Instant replay

Miscellaneous

Ball Coaching tree Concussions Equipment 12th man Letterman Overtime Running up the score Touchdown
Touchdown
celebration Gatorade shower Tuck rule Uniform number

v t e

Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
seasons

Early era

1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957

CFL era

1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2

.