A calzone (//, US: // UK: //; Italian: [kalˈtsoːne], "stocking" or "trouser") is an Italian oven-baked folded pizza that originated in Naples. A typical calzone is made from salted bread dough, baked in an oven and is stuffed with salami, ham or vegetables, mozzarella, ricotta and Parmesan or pecorino cheese, as well as an egg. Different regional variations on a calzone can often include other ingredients that are normally associated with pizza toppings.
Sandwich-sized calzones are often sold at Italian lunch counters or by street vendors, because they are easy to eat while standing up or walking. Fried versions of the calzone are typically filled with tomato and mozzarella: these are made in Apulia and called panzerotti.
The Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza is distantly related to the calzone. This is a dish stuffed with onions (or sometimes other vegetables, such as potatoes or broccoli), anchovies, olives, cheese and mortadella; the rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edges are sealed before the dish is fried.
In the United States, calzones are typically made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats, cheeses and vegetables. Traditional calzone dough consists of flour, yeast, olive oil, water and salt. Calzones are similar to stromboli; traditionally, though, the two are different dishes.
As a rule, calzones are usually stuffed with cheeses such as ricotta, mozzarella, Parmesan, provolone or a different local cheese. The dough is folded into a half-moon shape, then either sealed with an egg mixture or shaped into a sphere. It is then either baked or fried. After being cooked, calzones might be served with marinara sauce, or alternatively topped with a combination of garlic, olive oil, and parsley: this depends on the region.
Scacciata is a similar dish to a calzone; however, this dish is normally filled with either broccoli, spinach, potatoes or onions, and sometimes sausage.
In Italy, calzones are popularly believed to be the most efficient type of pizza for home delivery. This popular credence has some scientific ground as the folded nature of the calzone results in a lower surface-to-volume ratio than a traditional pizza resulting in better heat retention during the journey from the pizzeria to the buyer's home. This results in a calzone being delivered warmer than pizza all things equal. Nowadays pizza delivery motorbikes have electrically heated bags to keep pizzas warm during the journey, but the preference towards calzone when ordering for home delivery remains; probably more as a tradition than for the heat retention advantages offered by the calzone.
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