Calvary, or Golgotha (
Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ[ς] Golgotha[s],
traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta,
as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull"), was, according to the
Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was
Matthew's and Mark's gospels translate the term to mean "place of
[the] skull" (Κρανίου Τόπος Kraníou Tópos), in Latin
rendered Calvariæ Locus, from which the English word
Its traditional site, identified by Helena of Constantinople, the
mother of Constantine I, in 325, is at the site of the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre. A modern suggestion places it at the site now known as
Skull Hill, some 500 m to the north (200 m north of Damascus
1 Biblical references and etymology
2.1 Church of the Holy Sepulchre
2.2 Alternative theories
3 Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Temple to Aphrodite
3.3 Pilgrimages to Constantine's Church
4 Gordon's Calvary
5 Outside Lions Gate
6 See also
8 External links
Biblical references and etymology
Altar at the traditional site of Gagulta.
The altar at the traditional site of Gagulta.
The recorded form Γολγοθα may be a simplified pronunciation of
an Aramaic golgolta, corresponding to Hebrew gulgōleṯ
Calvary is the anglicized form of the
Latin gloss from the
Vulgate (Calvariæ), to refer to Golgotha in Luke 23:33, where the
Greek text gives Κρανίον rather than the explicit
Κρανίου Τόπος of Matthew and Mark. The adoption the Latin
form has a long tradition in English Bible translations, going back to
at least the late 10th century (Wessex Gospels), and is retained in
Wycliffe's Bible and
Tyndale's Bible as well as in the King James
Version. By contrast, Luther is translating Luke's Κρανίον, as
German Schädelstätte ("place of skull(s)"). The Latinism is also
current in various other languages within the
Latin sphere of
influence, including Spanish and Italian Calvario, French Calvaire,
Polish Kalwaria, Lithuanian Kalvarijos.
The church fathers offer different interpretations for the name;
either deriving it from a topographic feature resembling a cranium
(Pseudo-Tertullian), or alternatively as the site where the skull
of Adam was said to be buried (Origenes), or from skulls of those
executed there (Jerome, locum decollatorum).
The association of the site with the "skull of Adam" is expanded in a
number of early Christian sources, including the Kitab al-Magall, the
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve with Satan, the Cave of Treasures, as well as
Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (9th century). According to these
Melchizedek traveled to the resting place of Noah's
Ark, retrieved the body of Adam from it, and were led by Angels to
Golgotha – described as a skull-shaped hill at the centre of the
Earth, where also the serpent's head had been crushed following the
Fall of Man.
Gospels merely identify
Calvary as a "place" (τόπος),
Christian tradition since at least the 6th century has described the
location as "mountain" or "hill",
The location itself is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels:
Matthew 27:33: "And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha
[Γολγοθᾶ], that is to say, a place of a skull [Κρανίου
Mark 15:22: "And they bring him unto the place Golgotha
[Γολγοθᾶ], which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull
[Κρανίου Τόπος]" (KJV)
Luke 23:33: "And when they were come to the place, which is called
Calvary [Κρανίον], there they crucified him, and the
malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left." (KJV)
John 19:17: "And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called
the place of a skull [Κρανίου Τόπον], which is called in
the Hebrew Golgotha [Γολγοθα]." (KJV)
An alternative suggestion, due to Krafft (1846) proposes that the
reported association with the word "skull" is a popular etymology of
an original name Gol Goatha, interpreted (by Krafft) as meaning "heap
of death", or "hill of execution"; the supposed toponym Goatha has
also been identified, by Ferguson (1847), with the location called
Goʿah (גֹּעָה) in Jeremiah 31:39, in a description of the
geography of Jerusalem.
There is no consensus as to the location of the site. John (John
19:20) describes the crucifixion site as being "near the city".
According to Hebrews (Hebrews 13:12), it was "outside the city wall".
Matthew 27:39 and Mark 15:29 both note that the location would have
been accessible to "passers-by". Thus, locating the crucifixion site
involves identifying a site that, in the city of
Jerusalem some four
decades before its destruction in AD 70, would have been outside the
city walls and well visible to passers-by.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Christian tradition since the 4th century has favoured a location now
within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This places it well within
Jerusalem's Old City Walls, which were built in the 16th century.
Proponents of the traditional Holy Sepulchre location point out at the
fact that 1st-century
Jerusalem had a different shape and size from
the 16th-century city, leaving the church's site outside the pre-AD 70
city walls. Those opposing it doubt this.
Defenders of the traditional site have argued that the site of the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre was only brought within the city limits
Herod Agrippa (41–44), who built a so-called Third Wall around a
newly-settled northern district, while at the time of Jesus'
crucifixion around AD 30 it would still have been just outside the
Henry Chadwick (2003) argued that when Hadrian's builders replanned
the old city, they "incidentally confirm[ed] the bringing of Golgotha
inside a new town wall."
In 2007 Dan Bahat, the former City Archaeologist of
Professor of Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University, stated
that "Six graves from the first century were found on the area of the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. That means, this place [was] outside of
the city, without any doubt…", thus maintaining that there are
no scientific, archaeological grounds for rejecting the traditional
location for Calvary.
Some Protestant advocates of an alternative site claim that a wall
would imply the existence of a defensive ditch outside it, so an
earlier wall couldn't be immediately adjacent to the Golgotha site,
which, combined with the presence of the
Temple Mount, would make the
city inside the wall quite thin. Essentially, for the traditional site
to have been outside the wall, the city would have had to be limited
to the lower parts of the Tyropoeon Valley, rather than including the
defensively advantageous western hill. Since these geographic
considerations imply that not including the hill within the walls
would be willfully making the city prone to attack from it, some
scholars, including the late 19th century surveyors of the Palestine
Exploration Fund, consider it unlikely that people would build a wall
that cut the hill off from the city in the valley. However,
archaeological digs within the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre proved the
existence of six graves from the first century on the area of the
church, placing it outside the city area and casting doubt on the
"Strategic Weakness" and "Defensive Ditch" hypotheses.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Pilgrims queue to touch the rock of
Calvary in Chapel of the
Disc marking traditional place, under the altar, where Jesus' cross
The Holy Sepulchre (1) in the
Christian Quarter of Jerusalem.
The traditional location of Golgotha derives from its identification
by Helena, the mother of Constantine I, in 325. Only a few steps away
(within 45 metres (50 yd)), Helena also identified the location
of the tomb of Jesus and claimed to have discovered the True Cross;
her son, Constantine, then built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
around the whole site. In 333, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, entering from
the east described the result:
On the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the Lord was
crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a vault [crypta]
wherein his body was laid, and rose again on the third day. There, at
present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a
basilica; that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty.
In Nazénie Garibian de Vartavan's doctoral thesis, now published as
La Jérusalem Nouvelle et les premiers sanctuaires chrétiens de
l’Arménie. Méthode pour l’étude de l’église comme temple de
Dieu, she concluded, through multiple arguments (mainly theological
and archaeological), that the true site of Golgotha was precisely at
the vertical of the now buried Constantinian basilica's altar and away
from where the traditional rock of Golgotha is situated. The plans
published in the book indicate the location of the Golgotha within a
precision of less than two meters, below the circular passage situated
a metre away from where the blood stained shirt of Christ was
traditionally recovered and immediately before the stairs leading down
to "St. Helena's Chapel" (the above-mentioned mother of Emperor
Constantine), alternatively called "St. Vartan's Chapel".
Temple to Aphrodite
Jerusalem after being rebuilt by Hadrian. Two main east-west roads
were built rather than one
Prior to Helena's identification, the site had been a temple to
Aphrodite. Constantine's construction took over most of the site of
the earlier temple enclosure, and the Rotunda and cloister (which was
replaced after the 12th century by the present Catholicon and Calvary
chapel) roughly overlap with the temple building itself; the basilica
church Constantine built over the remainder of the enclosure was
destroyed at the turn of the 11th century, and has not been replaced.
Christian tradition claims that the location had originally been a
Christian place of veneration, but that
Hadrian had deliberately
buried these Christian sites and built his own temple on top, on
account of his alleged hatred for Christianity.
There is certainly evidence that circa 160 CE, at least as early as 30
years after Hadrian's temple had been built, Christians associated it
with the site of Golgotha; Melito of Sardis, an influential mid-2nd
century bishop in the region, described the location as "in the middle
of the street, in the middle of the city", which matches the
position of Hadrian's temple within the mid-2nd century city.
Romans typical built a city according to a Hippodamian grid plan—a
North-South arterial road, the
Cardo (which is now the Suq
Khan-ez-Zeit), and an East-West arterial road, the Decumanus Maximus
(which is now the Via Dolorosa). The forum would traditionally be
located on the intersection of the two roads, with the main temples
adjacent. However, due to the obstruction posed by the Temple
Mount, as well as the Tenth Legion encampment on the Western Hill,
Hadrian's city had two Cardo, two Decamanus Maximus, two forums,
and several temples. The Western Forum (now Muristan) is located on
the crossroads of the West
Cardo and what is now El-Bazar/David
Street, with the
Aphrodite adjacent, on the intersection of
Cardo and the Via Dolorossa. The Northern Forum is located
north of the
Temple Mount, on the junction of the Via Dolorossa and
the Eastern Cardo, adjacent to the
Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus
intentionally built atop the
Temple Mount. Another popular holy
Hadrian converted to a pagan temple was the Pool of
Bethesda, possibly referenced to in the fifth chapter of the Gospel of
John, on which was built the
Asclepius and Serapis.
While the positioning of the
Aphrodite may be, in light of
the common Colonia layout, entirely unintentional,
Hadrian is known to
have concurrently built pagan temples on top of other holy sites in
Jerusalem as part of an overall Romanization
Archaeological excavations under the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre have
revealed Christian pilgrims' graffiti, dating from the period that the
Aphrodite was still present, of a ship, a common early
Christian symbol and the etching "DOMINVS IVIMVS", meaning
"Lord, we went", lending possible support to the statement by
Melito of Sardis
Melito of Sardis asserting that early Christians identified Golgotha
as being in the middle of Hadrian's city rather than outside.
Natural stone of Golgotha in the Chapel of Adam below site
During 1973–1978 restoration works and excavations inside the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre and under the nearby Muristan, it was found that
the area was originally a quarry, from which white Meleke limestone
was struck; surviving parts of the quarry to the north-east of the
chapel of St. Helena are now accessible from within the chapel (by
permission). Inside the church is a rock, about 7 m long by
3 m wide by 4.8 m high, that is traditionally believed
to be all that now remains visible of Golgotha; the design of the
church means that the
Calvary Chapel contains the upper foot or so of
the rock, while the remainder is in the chapel beneath it (known as
the tomb of Adam). Virgilio Corbo, a
Franciscan priest and
archaeologist, present at the excavations, suggested that from the
city the little hill (which still exists) could have looked like a
During a 1986 repair to the floor of the
Calvary Chapel by the art
historian George Lavas and architect Theo Mitropoulos, a round slot of
11.5 cm (4.5 in) diameter was discovered in the rock, partly
open on one side (Lavas attributes the open side to accidental damage
during his repairs); although the dating of the slot is uncertain,
and could date to Hadrian's temple of Aphrodite, Lavas suggested that
it could have been the site of the crucifixion, as it would be strong
enough to hold in place a wooden trunk of up to 2.5 metres (8 ft
2 in) in height (among other things). The same
restoration work also revealed a crack running across the surface of
the rock, which continues down to the Chapel of Adam; the crack is
thought by archaeologists to have been a result of the quarry workmen
encountering a flaw in the rock.
Based on the late 20th century excavations of the site, there have
been a number of attempted reconstructions of the profile of the cliff
face. These often attempt to show the site as it would have appeared
to Constantine. However, as the ground level in Roman times was about
4–5 feet (1.2–1.5 m) lower and the site housed Hadrian's
temple to Aphrodite, much of the surrounding rocky slope must have
been removed long before Constantine built the church on the site. The
height of the Golgotha rock itself would have caused it to jut through
the platform level of the
Aphrodite temple, where it would be clearly
visible. The reason for
Hadrian not cutting the rock down is
uncertain, but Virgilio Corbo suggested that a statue, probably of
Aphrodite, was placed on it, a suggestion also made by Jerome.
Some archaeologists have been suggested that prior to Hadrian's use,
the rock outcrop had been a nefesh - a Jewish funeral monument,
equivalent to the stele.
Pilgrimages to Constantine's Church
Icon of Jesus being led to Golgotha, 16th century, Theophanes the
Stavronikita Monastery, Mount Athos).
Itinerarium Burdigalense speaks of Golgotha in 333: "... On the
left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the Lord was crucified.
About a stone's throw from thence is a vault (crypta) wherein His body
was laid, and rose again on the third day. There, at present, by the
command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is
to say, a church of wondrous beauty," Cyril of Jerusalem, a
distinguished theologian of the early Church, and eyewitness to the
early days of Constantine's edifice, speaks of Golgotha in eight
separate passages, sometimes as near to the church where he and his
listeners assembled: "Golgotha, the holy hill standing above us
here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulchre bears witness,
and the stone which lies there to this day." And just in such a
way the pilgrim Egeria often reported in 383: "… the church, built
by Constantine, which is situated in Golgotha …" and also bishop
Eucherius of Lyon wrote to the island presbyter Faustus in 440:
"Golgotha is in the middle between the Anastasis and the Martyrium,
the place of the Lord's passion, in which still appears that rock
which once endured the very cross on which the Lord was.", and
Breviarius de Hierosolyma reports in 530: "From there (the middle of
the basilica), you enter into Golgotha, where there is a large court.
Here the Lord was crucified. All around that hill, there are silver
screens." (See also:
Eusebius in 338).
Main article: Gordon's Calvary
Rocky escarpment resembling a skull, located northwest of the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre, near the Garden Tomb
In 1842, heavily relying on the research of Edward Robinson, a German
theologian and biblical scholar from Dresden named Otto Thenius was
the first to publish a proposal that the rocky knoll north of Damascus
Gate was the biblical Golgotha. In 1882–83, Major-General
Charles George Gordon
Charles George Gordon endorsed this view, and subsequently the site
has sometimes been known as Gordon's Calvary. The location, usually
referred to today as Skull Hill, is beneath a cliff that contains two
large sunken holes, which Gordon regarded as resembling the eyes of a
skull. He and a few others before him believed that the skull-like
appearance would have caused the location to be known as Golgotha.
Nearby is an ancient rock-cut tomb known today as the Garden Tomb,
which Gordon proposed as the tomb of Jesus. The
Garden Tomb contains
several ancient burial places, although the archaeologist Gabriel
Barkay has proposed that the tomb dates to the 7th century BCE and
that the site may have been abandoned by the 1st century.
Eusebius comments that Golgotha was in his day (the 4th century)
pointed out north of Mount Zion. While "Mount Zion" was used
previously in reference to the
Temple Mount itself, Josephus, the
first-century CE historian who knew the city as it was before the
Roman destruction of Jerusalem, identified
Mount Zion as being the
Western Hill (the current Mount Zion), which is south of both
Garden Tomb and the Holy Sepulchre. Eusebius' comment therefore
offers no additional argument for either location.
Outside Lions Gate
The hill having the appearance of a cranium (the skull-pan of a head,
approx. 200 meters northeast of where the curtain at the Temple
entrance once stood
Another alternate location has been proposed by Rodger Dusatko, a
missionary in Germany. He claims that the location of Golgotha is just
outside the Lions Gate.
Gospels use the Greek word 'Kranion' to describe the place
where Jesus was crucified. Unlike Skufion (skull), Kranion (in English
- cranium)  is the upper part of the skull excluding the face
Since the temple faced east, the curtain in front of the
entrance of the temple would have been in direct view of those
gathered on this mount at the northeast corner of the
just outside the city wall. And to testify that the curtain ripped at
the very moment when Jesus died, there must have been
Gospel of John
Gospel of John refers to Golgotha as being very near the city, so
near that all who passed by could read the inscription[19:20].
Considering also the prophecy in Psalms 69:12[69:12], his place of
crucifixion would have been near enough to the gate that Jesus could
hear what the people were saying about him there. And just as Eusebius
comments in Onomasticon concerning Golgotha as being a hill just
outside Jerusalem, north of the ancient Mount Zion, this hill fits his
Crucifixion of Jesus
^ e.g. Johannem Luzac, Institutiones ad fundamenta linguæ Hebrææ
(1737), p. 334; Joseph Francis Thrupp, Antient
Jerusalem (1855), p.
272 (fn 1).
^ a b Lande, George M. (2001) . Building Your Biblical Hebrew
Vocabulary Learning Words by Frequency and Cognate. Resources for
Biblical Study 41. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
p. 115. ISBN 1-58983-003-2. Strong's Concordance
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calvary". Encyclopædia
Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22
John Lightfoot (ed. Dove 1822) iii.164. Lightfoot points out that
golgotha is the Samaritan form of Biblical Hebrew
גֻּלְגֹּלֶת in Numeri 1:18 (לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָֽם
"by their polls"). see also Samuel James Andrews, The Life of Our Lord
Upon the Earth Considered in Its Historical, Chronological, and
Geographical Relations (1873), p. 559
^ Da Halgan Godspel on Englisc ed. Thorpe (1842), p. 176.
^ Luther in this diverges from the pre-Lutheran Lübeck translation,
which like Wycliffe retains
Latin calvarie. Biblia, Lübeck, 1494
(Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek Rar. 880, p. 430).
^ Golgotha is described as "A spot there is called Golgotha, – of
old the fathers' earlier tongue thus called its name, 'The skull-pan
of a head'." by Five Books in Reply to Marcion, Book 2, Ante-Nicene
Fathers Volume 4[page needed]
^ a b c Mount Calvary. Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. III. New York:
Robert Appleton Company. 1908.
^ Wilhelm Ludwig Krafft, Die Topographie Jerusalems, Bonn (1846)
^ Strong's Concordance H1601 "Goah, a place near Jerusalem:—Goath."
^ James Fergusson, An Essay on the Ancient Topography of Jerusalem
(1847), 80f. Ferguson in this disagrees with Krafft, who identified
the Goath of Jeremiah with the Gennath Γεννάθ of Josephus, i.e.
the "garden gate" to the west of the
^ Chadwick, H. (2003). The Church in Ancient Society: From
Gregory the Great. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 21.
^ a b
Dan Bahat in German television ZDF, April 11, 2007
^ Colonel Claude R. Conder, The City of
Jerusalem (1909), (republished
2004); for details about Conder himself, see Herbert Kitchener, 1st
Earl Kitchener#Survey of Western Palestine
^ Itinerarium Burdigalense, pages 593, 594
^ Garibian de Vartavan, N. (2008). La Jérusalem Nouvelle et les
premiers sanctuaires chrétiens de l’Arménie. Méthode pour
l’étude de l’église comme temple de Dieu. London: Isis Pharia.
^ Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 3:26
^ Melito of Sardis, On Easter
^ a b c Ball, Warwick. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an
Empire. p. 294.
^ Clermont-Ganneau, Charles. Archaeological researches in Palestine
during the years 1873-1874.
^ John 5:1-18
Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 29
^ Peter Schäfer (2003). The Bar Kokhba war reconsidered: new
perspectives on the second Jewish revolt against Rome. Mohr Siebeck.
pp. 36–. ISBN 978-3-16-148076-8. Retrieved 4 December
^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (22 February 2007). "Palestine: History". The
On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South
Dakota. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18
^ Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1996). "Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 C.E". In
Hershel Shanks. Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History
of their Origins and Early Development. Washington DC: Biblical
Archaeology Society. p. 196.
^ Emily Jane Hunt, Christianity in the second century: the case of
Tatian, p. 7, at Google Books, Psychology Press, 2003, p. 7
^ E. Mary Smallwood The Jews under Roman rule: from Pompey to
Diocletian : a study in political relations, p. 460, at Google
Books BRILL, 1981, p. 460.
^ Nave New Advent encyclopedia, accessed 25 March 2014.
^ Ship as a Symbol of the Church (Bark of St. Peter) Jesus Walk,
accessed 11 February 2015.
^ "Ship hangs in balance at Pella Evangelical Lutheran Church". Sidney
(Montana) Herald. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
^ Clermont-Ganneau, Charles. Archaeological researches in Palestine
during the years 1873-1874. p. 103.
^ followinghadrian (5 November 2014). "Exploring Aelia Capitolina,
^ a b Hesemann, Michael (1999). Die Jesus-Tafel (in German). Freiburg.
p. 170. ISBN 3-451-27092-7.
^ Hesemann 1999, p.170: "Von der Stadt aus muß er tatsächlich wie
eine Schädelkuppe ausgesehen haben," and page 190: a sketch; and page
172: a sketch of the geological findings by C. Katsimbinis, 1976: "der
Felsblock ist zu 1/8 unterhalb des Kirchenbodens, verbreitert sich
dort auf etwa 6,40 Meter und verläuft weiter in die Tiefe"; and page
192, a sketch by Corbo, 1980: Golgotha is distant 10 meters outside
from the southwest corner of the Martyrion-basilica
^ a b George Lavas, The Rock of Calvary, published (1996) in The Real
Jerusalem in Jewish, Christian and Islamic Art (proceedings
of the 5th International Seminar in Jewish Art), pages 147-150
^ Hesemann 1999, pp. 171-172:"....Georg Lavas and ... Theo
Mitropoulos, ... cleaned off a thick layer of rubble and building
material from one to 45 cm thick that covered the actual limestone.
The experts still argue whether this was the work of the architects of
Hadrian, who aimed thereby to adapt the rock better to the temple
plan, or whether it comes from 7th century cleaning....When the
restorers progressed to the lime layer and the actual rock....they
found they had removed a circular slot of 11.5 cm diameter".
^ Vatican-magazin.com, Vatican 3/2007, page 12/13; Vatican 3/2007,
page 11, here page 3 photo No. 4, quite right, photo by Paul Badde:
der steinere Ring auf dem Golgothafelsen.
^ Holyplacesinisrael.com Archived March 18, 2009, at the Wayback
^ Virgilio Corbo, The Holy Sepulchre of
^ Dan Bahat, Does the Holy Sepulchre Church Mark the Burial of Jesus?,
Biblical Archaeology Review
Biblical Archaeology Review May/June 1986
^ abela, john. "Bordeaux Pilgrim - Text 7b:
^ St. Cyril of Jerusalem, page 51, note 313
^ Cyril, Catechetical Lectures, year 347, lecture X, page 160, note
^ Iteneraria Egeriae
^ Letter To The Presbyter Faustus Archived 2008-06-13 at the Wayback
Machine., by Eucherius. "What is reported, about the site of the city
Jerusalem and also of Judaea"; Epistola Ad Faustum Presbyterum.
"Eucherii, Quae fertur, de situ Hierusolimitanae urbis atque ipsius
Iudaeae." Corpus Scriptorum Eccles. Latinorum XXXIX Itinera
Hierosolymitana, Saeculi IIII–VIII, P. Geyer, 1898
^ Whalen, Brett Edward, Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, page 40,
University of Toronto Press, September 2011,
ISBN 978-1-4426-0199-4; Iteneraria et alia geographica, Corpus
Christianorum Series Latina, vol. 175 (Turnhout,
Brepols 1965), pages
Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine,
Oration in Praise of Constantine - Christian Classics Ethereal
^ Charles W. Wilson, Golgotha and The Holy Sepulchre (1906, The
Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund), pp. 103-120
^ Otto Thenius, "Golgatha et Sanctum Sepulchrum" in Zeitschrift fir
die historische Theologie (1842)
^ Bill White, A
Special Place: The Story of the
Garden Tomb (1989).
^ Gabriel Barkay, The Garden Tomb, published in Biblical Archaeology
Review March/April 1986
^ Eusebius, Onomasticon, 365
^ Zion, Encyclopædia Britannica
^ The Unknown Mount Zion
^ "Golgotha Rediscovered".
^ cranium - The bony case enclosing the brain, excluding the bones of
the face; braincase - American Heritage Medical Dictionary
^ "East orientation of Jewish temples and altars".
^ "Peshitta Mat 27".
^ But Yeshua cried again with a loud voice, and his Spirit departed.
And at once the curtain entrance of The
Temple was ripped in two from
top to bottom. Mt 27,50-51 Peshitta
Media related to Calvaries at Wikimedia Commons
Coordinates: 31°46′43″N 35°13′46″E / 31.77861°N
35.22944°E / 31.77861; 35.22944
New Testament places associated with Jesus
Mount of Transfiguration
Sea of Galilee
Mount of Olives
Road to Damascus