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Caerwent
Caerwent
is a village and community in Monmouthshire, Wales. It is located about five miles west of Chepstow
Chepstow
and eleven miles east of Newport. It was founded by the Romans as the market town of Venta Silurum, an important settlement of the Brythonic Silures
Silures
tribe. The modern village is built around the Roman ruins, which are some of the best-preserved in Europe. It remained prominent through the Roman era and Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
as the site of a road crossing between several important civic centres.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Roman times 1.2 Early Christian times

2 Modern era 3 Governance 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Roman times[edit] Main article: Venta Silurum It was founded by the Romans in AD 75 as Venta Silurum, a market town for the defeated Silures
Silures
tribe. This is confirmed by inscriptions on the "Civitas Silurum" stone, now on display in the parish church.[2] Large sections of the Roman town walls are still in place, rising up to 5 metres high in places. Historian John Newman has described the walls as "easily the most impressive town defence to survive from Roman Britain, and in its freedom from later rebuilding one of the most perfectly preserved in Northern Europe."[3] In 1881, a portion of a highly intricate coloured floor mosaic or tessellated pavement, depicting different types of fish, was unearthed during excavations in the garden of a cottage.[4] Excavations in 1971 dated the north-west polygonal angle-tower to the mid-300s.[5] Further excavations were carried out in 2008 by Wessex Archaeology and was featured in the Channel 4
Channel 4
TV programme Time Team.[6] Modern houses are built on top of part of the old Roman market place. The ruins of several Roman buildings are still visible, including the foundations of a 4th-century Roman temple.[7] The fact that most of the houses lacked mosaic or hypocaust-heated floors, however, suggests that despite its size, Caerwent
Caerwent
never achieved the cultural level of other Romano-British tribal capitals.[8] Early Christian times[edit] Caerwent
Caerwent
was a centre for the Kingdom of Gwent
Kingdom of Gwent
after the Roman occupation. The name Caerwent
Caerwent
translates from Welsh as "fort of Gwent", and the name Gwent derives from the Roman name Venta (Silurum). The English town name of Winchester
Winchester
has a parallel derivation, ultimately from the combination of the Latin
Latin
words Venta, in that case, Venta Belgarum, and castra.[9] Caerwent
Caerwent
remained an important centre, where the road between Gloucester
Gloucester
and Caerleon
Caerleon
met the north-south road from Shrewsbury, via Monmouth
Monmouth
and Trellech, to the sea at Portskewett. Excavations at Caerwent
Caerwent
have revealed remains and everyday objects from the post-Roman period. Metalwork, including elaborate penannular brooches and fastening pins, have been dated to the 5th-7th centuries. A large number of Christian burials, some stone-lined, dating from between the 4th and 9th centuries have also been discovered, both around the town's East Gate and close to the parish church.[10] It has been suggested that it may have been the birthplace of St. Patrick.[11]

Near infra-red kite aerial photo of the south wall of Caerwent

A monastery was established at Caerwent
Caerwent
some time before the 10th century, and a pre-Norman cross head was discovered at the site in 1992.[3] The Church of St Stephen and St Tathan is dedicated to Saints Stephen and Tathan, the latter name possibly having arisen through confusion with Saint Tathyw. The oldest existing part of the church dates to the 13th century.[3] The village appears as "Venta Siluru" and "Caer went" on the Cambriae Typus map of 1573.[12] Modern era[edit] During World War II
World War II
a Royal Navy Propellant Factory was established at Caerwent, immediately north of the A48 road. Between 1967 and 1993 this was used as a storage station for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and the United States Air Force; since that time it has been used as an army training facility and on occasion as a filming location for large scale productions such as Captain America: The First Avenger.[13] Caerwent
Caerwent
is now a small village, largely bypassed by the busy A48 road running between the city of Newport to the west and Chepstow
Chepstow
to the east. The Northgate Inn closed in 2013, leaving the Coach and Horses as the only village pub. The Post Office thrives and was recently refitted. The village has a garage which has been repairing cars since 1917.

Governance[edit] An electoral ward in the same name exists. The area and population of this ward are identical to that of the parish. References[edit]

^ "Parish population 2011". Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ Photograph of church ^ a b c John Newman, The Buildings of Wales: Gwent/Monmouthshire, 2000, ISBN 0-14-071053-1 ^ Morgan, Octavius (1882), "Goldcliff and the Ancient Roman Inscribed Stone Found There 1878", Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
& Caerleon
Caerleon
Antiquarian Association. ^ E-castles: Caerwent ^ Wessex Archaeology, Caerwent
Caerwent
Roman Town: Archaeological Evaluation and Assessment of Results, February 2009 ^ Photograph of temple foundations ^ Caerwent
Caerwent
at Roman-Sites.com Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hywel Wyn Owen, The Place-Names of Wales, 1998, ISBN 0-7083-1458-9 ^ Raymond Howell, A History of Gwent, 1988, ISBN 0-86383-338-1, p.34 ^ Rodney Imrie, The Parish Church of St. Stephen and St. Tathan, Caerwent, 2004 ^ A reproduction of the map is at File:Atlas_Ortelius_KB_PPN369376781-011av-011br.jpg ^ Bently, David (2010-07-07). " Captain America
Captain America
to film war scenes in Wales". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-10-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caerwent.

Aerial video showing many parts of Roman Caerwent Caerwent
Caerwent
community website BBC News: 'Stylish' Roman life found on dig (30 June 2008) Retrieved 25 January 2009.

v t e

Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
principal area

Principal settlements

Abergavenny Caldicot Chepstow Monmouth Usk

Towns and villages

Bedwellty Betws Newydd Black Rock Blaenawey Bryngwyn Buckholt Botany Bay Catbrook Caer Llan Caerwent Chapel Hill Clydach Coed Morgan Coed-y-paen Crick Croes y pant Croes Hywel Cross
Cross
Ash Crossway Cwmcarvan Cwmyoy Devauden Dingestow Dixton Earlswood Gaerllwyd Gilwern Glascoed Goetre Govilon Great Oak Grosmont Gwehelog Gwernesney Highmoor Hill Hoaldalbert Itton Kemeys Commander Kilgwrrwg Common Kingcoed Little Mill Llanarth Llanbadoc Llancayo Llanddewi Rhydderch Llandewi Skirrid Llandegveth Llandenny Llandevenny Llandogo Llanellen Llanelly Llanfair Kilgeddin Llanfihangel Rogiet Llanfihangel Crucorney Llanfoist Llangattock-Lingoed Llangattock-Vibon-Avel Llangovan Llangua Llangwm-isaf Llangybi Llanhennock Llanishen Llanllowell Llanover Llansoy Llanthony Llantilio Crossenny Llantilio Pertholey Llantrisant Llanvair-Discoed Llanvapley Llanvetherine Llanwenarth Llanvihangel-Ystern-Llewern Llanvihangel Gobion Magor Mamhilad Mardy Maryland Mathern Maypole Mitchel Troy Mitcheltroy Common Monkswood Mounton Mynydd-bach Mynyddislwyn Nant-y-derry New Inn New Mills Newbridge-on-Usk Newcastle Newchurch Oldcastle Pandy Parkhouse Pen-croes-oped Pen-how Pen-yr-hoel Pen-y-cae-mawr Pen-y-clawdd Pen-twyn Penallt Penpergwm Penperlleni Penrhos Portskewett Pwllmeyric Raglan Redbrook Redwick Rockfield Rogiet Shirenewton Skenfrith St Arvans St Brides Netherwent St. Maughans Sudbrook The Bryn Tintern Tredunnock Tregagle Tregare Trelleck
Trelleck
Grange Trelleck Twyn-y-Sheriff The Narth Undy Upper Green Wernyrheolydd Whitebrook Whitson Wilcrick Wolvesnewton Wonastow Wyesham

Castles

Abergavenny
Abergavenny
Castle Betws newydd Caerleon Caldicot Castle Castell Arnold Chepstow
Chepstow
Castle Dingestow Grosmont Castle Llangibby Llanfair Kilgeddin Llantrisant Llanvair Discoed Monmouth Newport Castle Newcastle Penhow Pencoed Castle Pen y Clawdd Castle Penrhos Raglan Castle Skenfrith
Skenfrith
Castle Trellech Usk
Usk
Castle White Castle

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Schools SSSIs Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Country houses Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Scheduled Monuments Museums

v t e

Communities of Monmouthshire

Abergavenny Caerwent Caldicot Chepstow Crucorney Devauden Goetre
Goetre
Fawr Grosmont Gwehelog
Gwehelog
Fawr Llanarth Llanbadoc Llanelly Llanfoist
Llanfoist
Fawr Llangattock Vibon Avel Llangwm Llangybi Llanhennock Llanover Llantilio Crossenny Llantilio Pertholey Llantrisant Fawr Magor with Undy Mathern Mitchel Troy Monmouth Portskewett Raglan Rogiet Shirenewton St Arvans Tintern Trellech Usk

Authority control

WorldCat Identiti

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