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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Caen
Caen
(/kɑːn/; French pronunciation: ​[kɑ̃]; Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants (as of 2012[update]), while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen
Caen
the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is also the third largest municipality in all of Normandy
Normandy
after Le Havre
Le Havre
and Rouen
Rouen
and the third largest city proper in Normandy, after Rouen
Rouen
and Le Havre[1],[2]. The metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France. It is located 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) inland from the English Channel, two hours north-west of Paris, and connected to the south of England by the Caen-(Ouistreham)- Portsmouth
Portsmouth
ferry route. Caen
Caen
is located in the centre of its northern region, and it is a centre of political, economic and cultural power. Located a few miles from the coast, the landing beaches, the bustling resorts of Deauville
Deauville
and Cabourg, Norman Switzerland
Norman Switzerland
and Pays d'Auge, Caen
Caen
is often considered the archetype of Normandy. Caen
Caen
is known for its historical buildings built during the reign of William the Conqueror, who was buried there, and for the Battle for Caen—heavy fighting that took place in and around Caen
Caen
during the Battle of Normandy
Normandy
in 1944, destroying much of the city. The city has now preserved the memory by erecting a memorial and a museum dedicated to peace, the Memorial de Caen.

Contents

1 Symbols

1.1 Heraldry 1.2 Motto 1.3 Code

2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Hundred Years' War 2.3 Second World War 2.4 Post-war

2.4.1 Images

2.5 Etymology

3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Main sights

5.1 Castle 5.2 Abbeys 5.3 Others

6 Administration 7 Transport 8 Education 9 Economy 10 Music and theatre 11 Notable Caennais 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

13 Sport 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 External links

Symbols[edit] Heraldry[edit] Current arms:

Gules, a single-towered open castle Or, windowed and masoned sable.

Under the Ancien Régime: Per fess, gules and azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or. During the First French Empire: Gules, a single-towered castle Or, a chief of Good Imperial Cities (gules, 3 bees Or).

Arms in effect under Ancien Régime.

Arms requested from Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1809 which were refused.[3]

Arms in effect under the First French Empire.

Arms in effect today, reverting to the original arms of the 13th century. .

Motto[edit] Today, Caen
Caen
has no motto, but it used to have one, which did not survive the French Revolution. As a result, its spelling is archaic and has not been updated:[4]

Un Dieu, un Roy, une Foy, une Loy.

(One God, one King, one Faith, one Law.) This motto is reflected in a notable old Chant royal.[5] Code[edit] Caen's home port code is CN. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Caen Early history[edit] See also: History of Normandy Hundred Years' War[edit] Main article: Battle of Caen
Caen
(1346) In 1346, King Edward III of England
Edward III of England
led his army against the city, hoping to loot it. It was expected that a siege of perhaps several weeks would be required, but the army took the city in less than a day, on 26 July 1346, storming and sacking it, killing 3,000 of its citizens, and burning much of the merchants' quarter on the Ile Ste-Jean. During the attack, English officials searched its archives and found a copy of the 1339 Franco-Norman plot to invade England, devised by Philip VI of France
France
and Normandy. This was subsequently used as propaganda to justify the supplying and financing of the conflict and its continuation. Only the castle of Caen
Caen
held out, despite attempts to besiege it. A few days later, the English left, marching to the east and on to their victory at the Battle of Crécy. It was later captured by Henry V in 1417 and treated harshly for being the first town to put up any resistance to his invasion. Second World War[edit] Main article: Battle for Caen

Ruins of Caen

During the Battle of Normandy
Normandy
in the Second World War, Caen
Caen
was liberated from the Nazis in early July, a month after the Normandy landings, particularly those by British I Corps on 6 June 1944. British and Canadian troops had intended to capture the town on D-Day. However they were held up north of the city until 9 July, when an intense bombing campaign during Operation Charnwood
Operation Charnwood
destroyed 70% of the city and killed 2,000 French civilians.[6] The Allies seized the western quarters, a month later than Field Marshal Montgomery's original plan. During the battle, many of the town's inhabitants sought refuge in the Abbaye aux Hommes ("Men's Abbey"), built by William the Conqueror some 800 years before. Both the cathedral and the university were entirely destroyed by the British and Canadian bombing. Post-war[edit] Post-Second World War work included the reconstruction of complete districts of the city and the university campus. It took 14 years (1948–1962) and led to the current urbanization of Caen. Having lost many of its historic quarters and its university campus in the war, the city does not have the atmosphere of a traditional Normandy
Normandy
town such as Honfleur, Rouen, Cabourg, Deauville
Deauville
and Bayeux. The Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit filmed the D-Day
D-Day
offensive and Orne
Orne
breakout several weeks later, then returned several months later to document the city's recovery efforts. The resulting film, You Can't Kill a City, is preserved in the National Archives of Canada. Images[edit]

Hôtel d'Escoville, 16th century, Caen

Anonymous pen-and-ink bird's-eye view of the fortifications of Caen (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)

South Wall of the Castle, a huge fortress in the centre of the city

Town Hall of Caen

Caen
Caen
railway station

Caen's 'tramway' is in fact a modern guided-bus system

Saint-Étienne-le-Vieux Church

Interior of Saint-Pierre Church

The fortress of Caen

The Abbey
Abbey
of St. Étienne

Église Saint Pierre seen from in front of the Château

Etymology[edit] The very first mentions of the name of Caen
Caen
are found in different acts of the dukes of Normandy: Cadon 1021/1025,[7] Cadumus 1025,[8] Cathim 1026/1027.[9] Year 1070 of the Parker manuscript[10] of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
refers to Caen
Caen
as Kadum,[11] and year 1086 of the Laud manuscript[12] gives the name as Caþum.[13] Despite a lack of sources as to the origin of the settlements, the name Caen
Caen
would seem to be of Gaulish
Gaulish
origin, from the words catu-, referring to military activities and magos, field, hence meaning "manoeuvre field" or "battlefield".[14] In Layamon's Brut, the poet asserts that King Arthur named the city in memory of Sir Kay.[15] Geography[edit] Caen
Caen
is in an area of high humidity. The Orne River
Orne River
flows through the city, as well as small rivers known as les Odons, most of which have been buried under the city to improve urban hygiene. Caen
Caen
has a large flood zone, named "La prairie", located around the hippodrome, not far from the River Orne, which is regularly submerged[16],[17]. Caen
Caen
is 10 km (6 mi) from the Channel. A canal (Canal de Caen
Caen
à la Mer) parallel to the Orne
Orne
was built during the reign of Napoleon
Napoleon
III to link the city to the sea at all times. The canal reaches the English Channel
English Channel
at Ouistreham. A lock keeps the tide out of the canal and lets large ships navigate up the canal to Caen's freshwater harbours. Climate[edit] Caen
Caen
has an oceanic climate that is somewhat ameliorated due to its slightly inland position. In spite of this, summers are still cool by French standards and the climate is typically maritime in terms of high precipitation, relatively modest sunshine hours and mild winters.

Climate data for Caen
Caen
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 20.8 (69.4) 24.4 (75.9) 26.4 (79.5) 30.4 (86.7) 34.1 (93.4) 36.6 (97.9) 38.9 (102) 33.5 (92.3) 28.9 (84) 21.6 (70.9) 17.2 (63) 38.9 (102)

Average high °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 8.6 (47.5) 11.5 (52.7) 13.6 (56.5) 17.1 (62.8) 20.1 (68.2) 22.6 (72.7) 22.8 (73) 20.1 (68.2) 16.1 (61) 11.5 (52.7) 8.3 (46.9) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.4 (36.3) 4.2 (39.6) 5.3 (41.5) 8.5 (47.3) 11.0 (51.8) 13.1 (55.6) 13.2 (55.8) 11.1 (52) 8.7 (47.7) 5.3 (41.5) 3.0 (37.4) 7.4 (45.3)

Record low °C (°F) −19.6 (−3.3) −16.5 (2.3) −7.4 (18.7) −5.7 (21.7) −0.8 (30.6) 1.0 (33.8) 4.7 (40.5) 4.0 (39.2) 1.8 (35.2) −3.7 (25.3) −6.8 (19.8) −11.0 (12.2) −19.6 (−3.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.1 (2.602) 52.4 (2.063) 55.6 (2.189) 50.4 (1.984) 62.6 (2.465) 57.9 (2.28) 52.6 (2.071) 51.2 (2.016) 60.8 (2.394) 77.6 (3.055) 74.6 (2.937) 78.1 (3.075) 739.9 (29.13)

Average precipitation days 12.0 10.7 10.8 10.3 10.2 8.2 8.0 7.6 9.5 12.1 12.7 13.6 125.7

Average snowy days 3.4 3.8 2.3 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.2 13.6

Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 82 80 81 82 81 81 83 86 86 87 83.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.6 84.3 125.6 167.3 193.7 213.5 207.1 204.4 167.2 117.8 79.4 61.4 1,691.2

Source #1: Météo France[18][19]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[20]

Main sights[edit] Castle[edit] The castle, Château de Caen, built circa 1060 by William the Conqueror, who successfully conquered England in 1066, is one of the largest medieval fortresses of Western Europe. It remained an essential feature of Norman strategy and policy. At Christmas 1182, a royal court celebration for Christmas in the aula of Caen
Caen
Castle brought together Henry II and his sons, Richard the Lionheart and John Lackland, receiving more than a thousand knights. Caen
Caen
Castle, along with all of Normandy, was handed over to the French Crown in 1204. The castle saw several engagements during the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1346, 1417, 1450) and was in use as a barracks as late as the Second World War. Bullet holes are visible on the walls of the castle where members of the French Resistance
French Resistance
were shot during the Second World War. Today, the castle serves as a museum that houses the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen
Caen
(Museum of Fine Arts of Caen) and Musée de Normandie (Museum of Normandy) along with many periodical exhibitions about arts and history. (See Timeline of Caen
Timeline of Caen
Castle at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 13 February 2006)) Abbeys[edit] In repentance for marrying his cousin Mathilda of Flanders, William ordered two abbeys to be built on the Pope's encouragement:

Eglise St.-Etienne, formerly the Abbaye aux Hommes (Men's Abbey). It was completed in 1063 and is dedicated to St Stephen. The current Hôtel de Ville (town hall) of Caen
Caen
is built onto the South Transept of the building. Eglise de la Ste.-Trinité, formerly the Abbaye aux Dames (Women's Abbey). It was completed in 1060 and is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The current seat of the regional council (conseil régional) of Basse-Normandie
Basse-Normandie
is nearby.

Others[edit]

Jardin botanique de Caen, a historic botanical garden Church of Saint-Pierre Church of Saint-Étienne-le-Vieux Mémorial pour la Paix ("Memorial for Peace") built in 1988, charting the events leading up to and after D-Day. It is an emotional presentation inviting meditation on the thought of Elie Wiesel: "Peace is not a gift from God to man, but a gift from man to himself". The Memorial for Peace also includes an exhibit of Nobel Peace Prize winners and another one on Conflict Resolution in different cultures. Parc Festyland, an amusement park to the west of Caen
Caen
in the nearby town of Carpiquet. The park receives 110,000 visitors every year. Mondeville 2 is a regional shopping centre in adjoining Mondeville. Medieval wooden houses[21] Colline aux oiseaux, a floral parc located on the former dump of the city of Caen[22],[23]

Administration[edit]

The coat of arms of Caen

Recent Mayors of Caen
Caen
have included:

1959–1970: Jean-Marie Louvel, MRP and Centre Démocrate 1970–2001: Jean-Marie Girault, Parti républicain
Parti républicain
UDF 2001–2008: Brigitte Le Brethon, RPR and UMP 2008–2014: Philippe Duron, PS 2014–present : Joël Bruneau, The Republicans

In 1952, the small commune of Venoix became part of Caen. In 1990, the agglomeration of Caen
Caen
was organized into a district, transformed in 2002 into a Communauté d'agglomération (Grand Caen (Greater Caen), renamed Caen
Caen
la Mer in 2004), gathers 29 towns and villages, including Villons-les-Buissons, Lions-sur-mer, Hermanville-sur-mer, which joined the Communauté d'agglomération in 2004. The population of the "communauté d'agglomération" is around 220000 inhabitants. In the former administrative organisation, Caen
Caen
was a part of 9 cantons, of which it was the chief town. These cantons contained a total of 13 towns. Caen
Caen
gave its name to a 10th canton, of which it was not part. Since the 2015 canton reorganization, Caen
Caen
is part of the cantons of Caen-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.[24] Transport[edit] Caen
Caen
has a recently built, controversial guided bus system—built by Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation
and modelled on its Guided Light Transit technology. Faced with the residents' anger against the project, the municipality had to pursue the project with only 23% of the population in favour[citation needed] of the new form of transport. The road layout of the city centre was deeply[citation needed] transformed and the formerly traffic-jam-free centre's problems are still unresolved[citation needed]. The systems will be abandoned by the end of 2019.[25] Caen
Caen
also has a very efficient[citation needed] network of city buses, operated under the name Twisto. The city is connected to the rest of the Calvados département by the Bus Verts du Calvados
Bus Verts du Calvados
bus network. Caen
Caen
- Carpiquet
Carpiquet
Airport is the biggest airport in Lower-Normandy considering the number of passengers that it serves every year. Most flights are operated by HOP!
HOP!
and Chalair Aviation
Chalair Aviation
and the French national airline Air France
France
operates three daily flights to the French city of Lyon. Flybe
Flybe
also operate year-round services to London-Southend. In the summer there are many charter flights to Spain, Germany, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria. Caen
Caen
is served by the small port of Ouistreham, lying at the mouth of the Caen Canal
Caen Canal
where it meets the English Channel. A ferry service operates between Portsmouth, England, and Caen/ Ouistreham
Ouistreham
running both standard roll-on-roll-off car ferries and supercat fast ferries, with the latter making crossing from March to November. The ferry terminal is 15 km (9.3 mi) from Caen
Caen
with a daytime shuttle bus service for foot passengers. Caen
Caen
is connected to the rest of France
France
by motorways to Paris
Paris
(A13), Brittany
Brittany
(A84) and soon to Le Mans
Le Mans
(A88–A28). The A13 is a toll road while the A84 is a toll-free motorway. The city is encircled by the N814 ring-road that was completed in the late 1990s. The N13 connects Caen
Caen
to Cherbourg and to Paris. A section of the former N13 (Caen-Paris) is now D613 (in Calvados) following road renumbering. The N814 ring-road includes an impressive viaduct called the Viaduc de Calix that goes over the canal and River Orne. The canal links the city to the sea to permit cargo ships and ferries to dock in the port of Caen. Ferries which have docked include the Quiberon and the Duc de Normandie. Although a fraction of what it used to be remains, Caen
Caen
once boasted an extensive rail and tram network. From 1895 until 1936, the Compagnie des Tramways Electriques de Caen
Caen
(Electrical Tramway Company of Caen) operated all around the city. Caen
Caen
also had several main and branch railway lines linking Caen
Caen
railway station to all parts of Normandy
Normandy
with lines to Paris, Vire, Flers, Cabourg, Houlgate, Deauville, Saint-Lô, Bayeux
Bayeux
and Cherbourg. Now only the electrified line of Paris-Cherbourg, Caen- Le Mans
Le Mans
and Caen- Rennes
Rennes
subsist with minimal services. Education[edit]

The University of Caen, Université de Caen, has around 25,000 students in three different campuses. The University is divided into 11 colleges, called UFR (Unité fondamentale de Recherche), six institutes, one Engineering School, two IUP and five local campuses. The University is one of the oldest in France, having been founded by Henry VI, King of England
Henry VI, King of England
in 1432. Caen
Caen
also has a Fine Arts school (École des Beaux-Arts) and "grandes écoles" such as the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Caen.

The Caen
Caen
skyline facing the Saint-Pierre Church. Photo taken from the Château de Caen
Château de Caen
– April 2007.

Economy[edit] The agricultural and food-processing Agrial
Agrial
cooperative has its head office on Caen. Agrial
Agrial
group processes vegetables, cider apples, milk, poultry and meat with the help of its 12,000 employees and all its partners.[26] Music and theatre[edit] The Théâtre de Caen
Théâtre de Caen
(1963) is the home of the Baroque musical ensemble Les Arts Florissants. The organization was founded by conductor William Christie in 1979 and derives its name from the 1685 opera by Marc-Antoine Charpentier. Notable Caennais[edit] Caen
Caen
was the birthplace of:

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
(c. 1090–1147), illegitimate son of Henry I of England Robert Constantin (bibliographer) (1530?–1605), scholar, lexicographer Jean Bertaut
Jean Bertaut
(1552–1611), poet François le Métel de Boisrobert (1592–1662), poet François de Malherbe
François de Malherbe
(1555–1628), poet, critic and translator (Malherbe's birthplace has survived) Tanneguy Le Fèvre
Tanneguy Le Fèvre
(1615–1672), classical scholar Jean Regnault de Segrais (1624–1701), poet and novelist Pierre Daniel Huet
Pierre Daniel Huet
(1630–1721), churchman and scholar René Auguste Constantin de Renneville
René Auguste Constantin de Renneville
(1650–1723), writer Pierre Varignon
Pierre Varignon
(1654–1722), mathematician Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
(d. 1793), assassin of Marat François Henri Turpin (1709–1799), man of literature Jacques Clinchamps de Malfilâtre
Jacques Clinchamps de Malfilâtre
(1732–1767), poet J. Hector St. John de Crèvecœur
J. Hector St. John de Crèvecœur
(1735–1813), French-American writer Jean-Jacques Boisard (1744–1833), writer who specialized in fables Gervais de La Rue (1751–1835), historian Louis Gustave le Doulcet, comte de Pontécoulant (1764–1853), politician Daniel Auber
Daniel Auber
(1782–1871), composer Jacques Amand Eudes-Deslongchamps (1794–1867), French naturalist and palaeontologist Étienne Mélingue
Étienne Mélingue
(1808–1875), actor and sculptor Jules Danbé
Jules Danbé
(1840–1905) opera conductor Charles-Hippolyte Pouthas (1886–1974), historian André-Louis Danjon (1890–1967), astronomer Marie-Pierre Kœnig
Marie-Pierre Kœnig
(1898–1970), general who commanded a Free French Brigade at the Battle of Bir Hakeim
Battle of Bir Hakeim
in 1942, Maréchal de France Florent Chopin (born 1958), painter Christophe Desjardins (born 1962), violist Arnaud Guillon (1964– ), writer Gilles Peterson
Gilles Peterson
(1964– ), British-based DJ, record collector and record label owner, residing in London Joël Thomas
Joël Thomas
(1987– ), professional football player Elliot Grandin (1987– ), professional football player Gabriel Dupont
Gabriel Dupont
(1878-1914), musical composer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Caen
Caen
is twinned with:[27][28]

Pernik, Bulgaria Nashville, Tennessee, USA (11 April 1991)[27][29] Alexandria, Virginia, USA (28 October 1991)[27] Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA

Coventry, United Kingdom[30][31][32] Portsmouth, United Kingdom[27][32][33] Würzburg, Germany
Germany
(May 1962)[27] Thiès, Senegal
Senegal
(2 June 1992)[27]

Sport[edit] From 1947 to 2006, Caen
Caen
was a stage of the Tour de France
France
a total of 15 times.[34] Further, Caen
Caen
was one of the hosts of the EuroBasket 1983. The city has a football team, SM Caen. See also[edit]

Normandy
Normandy
portal

Stade Malherbe de Caen, Caen's football team Caen
Caen
Stone Operation Charnwood Operation Overlord Communes of the Calvados department

References[edit]

INSEE

^ "La Normandie compte 3 339 131 habitants". www.paris-normandie.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ "Grande Normandie : combien d'habitants dans votre commune ?" (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ Cabinet du maire de Caen ^ French motto and heraldry site ^ Royal Chant, Pierre Gringoire (1475–1539) ^ "Mémorial des victimes civiles 1944 en Basse-Normandie". Crhq.cnrs.fr. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Marie Fauroux, Recueil des actes des ducs de Normandie (911–1066), Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie XXXVI, Caen, 1961, p. 122, n° 32. ^ Ibid., p. 130, n° 34. ^ Villam que dicitur Cathim super fluvium Olne: the town called Cathim on the Orne
Orne
river, ibid., p. 182, n° 58. ^ "Manuscript A: The Parker Chronicle". Asc.jebbo.co.uk. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ Her Landfranc se þe wæs abbod an Kadum com to Ængla lande: Here Lanfranc
Lanfranc
who was abbot at Caen
Caen
came to England. ^ Manuscript E: The Laud Chronicle - Asc.jebbo.co.uk ^ He swealt on Normandige on þone nextan dæg æfter natiuitas sancte Marie. 7 man bebyrgede hine on Caþum æt sancte Stephanes mynstre: He [King William] died in Normandy
Normandy
on the day after the Nativity of St Mary and was buried in Caen, in St Stephen's Abbey ^ René Lepelley, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de communes de Normandie, P.U.C., Corlet, Caen, Condé-sur-Noireau, 1996) ^ Brut, l. 13,936 ^ "La Prairie de Caen". CAEN (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "EN IMAGES. Caen : inondations autour de la Prairie". Ouest-France.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Caen" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ "Climat Basse-Normandie" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Caen- Carpiquet
Carpiquet
(14) - altitude 64m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ "Maisons à pans de bois". Office de Tourisme de Caen
Caen
(in French). Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "Colline aux Oiseaux". CAEN (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "La colline aux oiseaux, l'un des plus grand parc et jardins de Cae". Site officiel du tourisme dans le Calvados (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "Décret n° 2014-160 du 17 février 2014 portant délimitation des cantons dans le département du Calvados Legifrance". Retrieved 2017-05-16.  ^ http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view/guided-bus-to-tram-plan-confirmed.html ^ "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Agrial
Agrial
Group. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ a b c d e f "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.  ^ Mairie de Caen. "Caen, terre d'échanges". Retrieved 28 September 2009.  ^ "Sister Cities of Nashville". SCNashville.org. Retrieved 3 August 2011.  ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  ^ " Coventry
Coventry
- Twin towns and cities". Coventry
Coventry
City Council. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  ^ a b "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ (6 June 1987)"Twin Towns in Hampshire". www3.hants.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ Caen
Caen
dans le Tour de France
France
depuis 1947

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Caen

Joseph Decaëns and Adrien Dubois (ed.), Caen
Caen
Castle. A ten Centuries Old Fortress within the Town, Publications du CRAHM, 2010, ISBN 978-2-902685-75-2, Publications du CRAHM

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caen.

 "Caen". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). 1911.  Caen
Caen
City Council (in French) Caen
Caen
Borough Council at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 6 November 2008) (in French) Encyclopædia Britannica Caen Mémorial pour la Paix museum Caen
Caen
town guide

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Calvados department

Ablon Acqueville Agy Amayé-sur-Orne Amayé-sur-Seulles Amfreville Angerville Angoville Anisy Annebault Arganchy Argences Arromanches-les-Bains Asnelles Asnières-en-Bessin Auberville Aubigny Audrieu Aure sur Mer Aurseulles Authie Les Authieux-sur-Calonne Auvillars Avenay Balleroy-sur-Drôme Banneville-la-Campagne Banville Barbery Barbeville Barneville-la-Bertran Baron-sur-Odon Barou-en-Auge Basly Basseneville Bavent Bayeux Bazenville La Bazoque Beaufour-Druval Beaumais Beaumesnil Beaumont-en-Auge Bellengreville Belle Vie en Auge Benerville-sur-Mer Bénouville Bény-sur-Mer Bernesq Bernières-d'Ailly Bernières-sur-Mer Beuvillers Beuvron-en-Auge Biéville-Beuville Blainville-sur-Orne Blangy-le-Château Blay Blonville-sur-Mer Le Bô La Boissière Bonnebosq Bonnemaison Bonneville-la-Louvet Bonneville-sur-Touques Bonnœil Bons-Tassilly Bougy Boulon Bourgeauville Bourguébus Branville Brémoy Bretteville-le-Rabet Bretteville-sur-Laize Bretteville-sur-Odon Le Breuil-en-Auge Le Breuil-en-Bessin Le Brévedent Bréville-les-Monts Bricqueville Brucourt Bucéels Le Bû-sur-Rouvres Cabourg Caen Cagny Cahagnes Cahagnolles La Caine Cairon La Cambe Cambes-en-Plaine Cambremer Campagnolles Campigny Canapville Canchy Canteloup Carcagny Cardonville Carpiquet Cartigny-l'Épinay Castillon Castillon-en-Auge Caumont-sur-Aure Cauvicourt Cauville Cernay Cesny-aux-Vignes Cesny-Bois-Halbout Chouain Cintheaux Clarbec Clécy Cléville Colleville-Montgomery Colleville-sur-Mer Colombelles Colombières Colombiers-sur-Seulles Colomby-Anguerny Combray Commes Condé-en-Normandie Condé-sur-Ifs Condé-sur-Seulles Coquainvilliers Cordebugle Cordey Cormelles-le-Royal Cormolain Cossesseville Cottun Coudray-Rabut Courcy Courseulles-sur-Mer Courtonne-la-Meurdrac Courtonne-les-Deux-Églises Courvaudon Crépon Cresserons Cresseveuille Creully sur Seulles Cricquebœuf Cricqueville-en-Auge Cricqueville-en-Bessin Cristot Crocy Croisilles Crouay Culey-le-Patry Cussy Cuverville Damblainville Danestal Deauville Démouville Le Détroit Deux-Jumeaux Dialan sur Chaîne Dives-sur-Mer Donnay Douville-en-Auge Douvres-la-Délivrande Dozulé Drubec Ducy-Sainte-Marguerite Ellon Émiéville Englesqueville-en-Auge Englesqueville-la-Percée Épaney Épinay-sur-Odon Épron Équemauville Eraines Ernes Escoville Espins Esquay-Notre-Dame Esquay-sur-Seulles Esson Estrées-la-Campagne Éterville Étréham Évrecy Falaise Fauguernon Le Faulq Feuguerolles-Bully Fierville-les-Parcs Firfol Fleury-sur-Orne La Folie La Folletière-Abenon Fontaine-Étoupefour Fontaine-Henry Fontaine-le-Pin Fontenay-le-Marmion Fontenay-le-Pesnel Formentin Formigny La Bataille Foulognes Fourches Fourneaux-le-Val Le Fournet Fourneville Frénouville Le Fresne-Camilly Fresné-la-Mère Fresney-le-Puceux Fresney-le-Vieux Fumichon Garcelles-Secqueville Gavrus Géfosse-Fontenay Genneville Gerrots Giberville Glanville Glos Gonneville-en-Auge Gonneville-sur-Honfleur Gonneville-sur-Mer Goupillières Goustranville Gouvix Grainville-Langannerie Grainville-sur-Odon Grandcamp-Maisy Grangues Graye-sur-Mer Grentheville Grimbosq Guéron Hermanville-sur-Mer Hermival-les-Vaux Hérouville-Saint-Clair Hérouvillette Heuland La Hoguette Le Hom Honfleur L'Hôtellerie Hotot-en-Auge Hottot-les-Bagues La Houblonnière Houlgate Hubert-Folie Ifs Isigny-sur-Mer Les Isles-Bardel Janville Jort Juaye-Mondaye Juvigny-sur-Seulles Laize-Clinchamps Landelles-et-Coupigny Landes-sur-Ajon Langrune-sur-Mer Lasson Léaupartie Leffard Lessard-et-le-Chêne Lingèvres Lion-sur-Mer Lisieux Lison Lisores Litteau Livarot-Pays-d'Auge Les Loges Les Loges-Saulces Longues-sur-Mer Longueville Longvillers Loucelles Louvagny Louvigny Luc-sur-Mer Magny-en-Bessin Maisoncelles-Pelvey Maisoncelles-sur-Ajon Maisons Maizet Maizières Malherbe-sur-Ajon Maltot Mandeville-en-Bessin Manerbe Manneville-la-Pipard Le Manoir Manvieux Le Marais-la-Chapelle Marolles Martainville Martigny-sur-l'Ante Mathieu May-sur-Orne Merville-Franceville-Plage Méry-Bissières-en-Auge Meslay Le Mesnil-au-Grain Le Mesnil-Eudes Le Mesnil-Guillaume Le Mesnil-Robert Le Mesnil-Simon Le Mesnil-sur-Blangy Le Mesnil-Villement Meuvaines Mézidon Vallée d'Auge Le Molay-Littry Les Monceaux Monceaux-en-Bessin Mondeville Mondrainville Monfréville Montfiquet Montigny Montreuil-en-Auge Monts-en-Bessin Les Monts d'Aunay Morteaux-Coulibœuf Mosles Mouen Moulines Moulins en Bessin Moult-Chicheboville Les Moutiers-en-Auge Les Moutiers-en-Cinglais Moyaux Mutrécy Nonant Norolles Noron-l'Abbaye Noron-la-Poterie Norrey-en-Auge Notre-Dame-de-Livaye Notre-Dame-d'Estrées-Corbon Noues de Sienne Olendon Orbec Osmanville Ouézy Ouffières Ouilly-du-Houley Ouilly-le-Tesson Ouilly-le-Vicomte Ouistreham Parfouru-sur-Odon Pennedepie Périers-en-Auge Périers-sur-le-Dan Périgny Perrières Pertheville-Ners Petiville Pierrefitte-en-Auge Pierrefitte-en-Cinglais Pierrepont Le Pin Placy Planquery Plumetot La Pommeraye Pont-Bellanger Pont-d'Ouilly Pontécoulant Pont-Farcy Pont-l'Évêque Port-en-Bessin-Huppain Ponts sur Seulles Potigny Préaux-Bocage Le Pré-d'Auge Prêtreville Putot-en-Auge Quetteville Ranchy Ranville Rapilly Repentigny Reux Reviers La Rivière-Saint-Sauveur Rocquancourt La Roque-Baignard Rocques Rosel Rots Rouvres Rubercy Rumesnil Ryes Saint-Aignan-de-Cramesnil Saint-André-d'Hébertot Saint-André-sur-Orne Saint-Arnoult Saint-Aubin-d'Arquenay Saint-Aubin-des-Bois Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer Saint-Benoît-d'Hébertot Saint-Côme-de-Fresné Saint-Contest Saint-Denis-de-Mailloc Saint-Denis-de-Méré Saint-Désir Sainte-Croix-sur-Mer Sainte-Honorine-de-Ducy Sainte-Honorine-du-Fay Sainte-Marguerite-d'Elle Sainte-Marie-Outre-l'Eau Saint-Étienne-la-Thillaye Saint-Gatien-des-Bois Saint-Germain-de-Livet Saint-Germain-du-Pert Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe Saint-Germain-Langot Saint-Germain-le-Vasson Saint-Hymer Saint-Jean-de-Livet Saint-Jouin Saint-Julien-sur-Calonne Saint-Lambert Saint-Laurent-de-Condel Saint-Laurent-du-Mont Saint-Laurent-sur-Mer Saint-Léger-Dubosq Saint-Louet-sur-Seulles Saint-Loup-Hors Saint-Manvieu-Norrey Saint-Marcouf Saint-Martin-aux-Chartrains Saint-Martin-de-Bienfaite-la-Cressonnière Saint-Martin-de-Blagny Saint-Martin-de-Fontenay Saint-Martin-de-la-Lieue Saint-Martin-de-Mailloc Saint-Martin-de-Mieux Saint-Martin-des-Entrées Saint-Omer Saint-Ouen-du-Mesnil-Oger Saint-Ouen-le-Pin Saint-Pair Saint-Paul-du-Vernay Saint-Philbert-des-Champs Saint-Pierre-Azif Saint-Pierre-Canivet Saint-Pierre-des-Ifs Saint-Pierre-du-Bû Saint-Pierre-du-Fresne Saint-Pierre-du-Jonquet Saint-Pierre-du-Mont Saint-Pierre-en-Auge Saint-Rémy Saint-Samson Saint-Sylvain Saint-Vaast-en-Auge Saint-Vaast-sur-Seulles Saint-Vigor-le-Grand Saline Sallen Sallenelles Saon Saonnet Sassy Secqueville-en-Bessin Seulline Soignolles Soliers Sommervieu Soulangy Souleuvre-en-Bocage Soumont-Saint-Quentin Subles Sully Surrain Surville Terres de Druance Tessel Thaon Le Theil-en-Auge Thue et Mue Tilly-la-Campagne Tilly-sur-Seulles Le Torquesne Touffréville Touques Tour-en-Bessin Tourgéville Tournebu Tournières Tourville-en-Auge Tourville-sur-Odon Tracy-Bocage Tracy-sur-Mer Tréprel Trévières Trois-Monts Le Tronquay Trouville-sur-Mer Trungy Urville Ussy Vacognes-Neuilly Valambray Valdallière Val d'Arry Val de Drôme Val-de-Vie Valorbiquet Valsemé Varaville Vaucelles Vauville Vaux-sur-Aure Vaux-sur-Seulles Vendes Vendeuvre Versainville Verson Ver-sur-Mer La Vespière-Friardel Le Vey Vicques Victot-Pontfol Vienne-en-Bessin Vierville-sur-Mer Vieux Vieux-Bourg Vignats Villers-Bocage Villers-Canivet Villers-sur-Mer Villerville La Villette Villons-les-Buissons Villy-Bocage Villy-lez-Falaise Vimont Vire-Normandie

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155931751 LCCN: n80001213 GND: 4009282-3 SUDOC: 026362996 BNF:

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