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Pawnee, Wichita, Kitsai

Caddo
Caddo
Confederacy: Adai, Cahinnio, Eyeish, Hainai, Hasinai, Kadohadacho, Nabedache, Nabiti, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Nanatsoho, Nasoni, Natchitoches, Nechaui, Neche, Ouachita, Tula, Yatasi

The Caddo
Caddo
Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, and portions of southern Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma. They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. In the early 19th century, Caddo people
Caddo people
were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
in 1859. Today, the Caddo
Caddo
Nation of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma. Descendants of the historic Caddo
Caddo
tribes, with documentation of at least ​1⁄16 ancestry, are eligible to enroll as members in the Caddo
Caddo
Nation. The several Caddo languages have converged into a single language.

Contents

1 Government and civic institutions 2 Pre-contact history

2.1 Archaeology 2.2 Oral history 2.3 Territory

3 Post-contact history

3.1 Late 19th century to present

4 21st-century tribal issues 5 Notable Caddo 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Government and civic institutions[edit] The Caddo
Caddo
Nation was previously known as the Caddo
Caddo
Tribe of Oklahoma. The tribal constitution provides for election of an eight-person council, with a chairperson, that is based in Binger, Oklahoma.[2] The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues its own tribal vehicle tags. It also operates an administrative center, dance grounds, several community centers, the Caddo
Caddo
Nation Heritage Museum, and an active NAGPRA
NAGPRA
office, located south of Binger.[3] As of 2012, 5,757 people are enrolled in the nation, with 3,044 living within the state of Oklahoma.[3] Individuals are required to document at least 1/16 Caddo
Caddo
ancestry in order to enroll as citizens. In July 2016, Tamara M. Francis was re-elected as the Chairman of the Caddo
Caddo
Nation. Chairman Tamara Francis is the daughter of the first elected female Chairman, Mary Pat Francis. She is the fourth elected female leader of the Caddo
Caddo
Nation. The council consists of:

Chairman: Tamara M. Francis Vice-Chairman: Carol D. Ross Acting Secretary: Philip Martin Treasurer: Marilyn McDonald Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Representative: Jennifer Wilson Binger Representative; Marilyn Threlkeld Fort Cobb Representative Maureen Owings.

The tribe has several programs to invigorate Caddo
Caddo
culture. It sponsors a summer culture camp for children.[4] The Hasinai
Hasinai
Society[5] and Caddo
Caddo
Culture Club[6] both teach and perform Caddo
Caddo
songs and dances to keep the tradition alive and pass it on to the next generations. The Kiwat Hasinay Foundation is dedicated to preserving and increasing use of the Caddo
Caddo
language.[7] Pre-contact history[edit] Main article: Caddoan Mississippian culture Archaeology[edit]

Map of the Caddoan Mississippian culture and some important sites

The Caddo
Caddo
are thought to be an extension of Woodland period
Woodland period
peoples, the Fourche Maline and Mossy Grove cultures, whose members were living in the area of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas
Texas
between 200 BCE and 800 CE.[8] The Wichita and Pawnee are related to the Caddo, as both tribes speak Caddoan languages. By 800 CE, this society had begun to coalesce into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. Some villages began to gain prominence as ritual centers. Leaders directed the construction of major earthworks, serving as temple mounds and platforms for residences of the elite. The flat-topped mounds were arranged around leveled, large, open plazas, which were usually kept swept clean and were often used for ceremonial occasions. As complex religious and social ideas developed, some people and family lineages gained prominence over others.[8] By 1000 CE, a society that is defined by archaeologists as "Caddoan" had emerged. By 1200, the many villages, hamlets, and farmsteads established throughout the Caddo
Caddo
world had developed extensive maize agriculture, producing a surplus that allowed for greater density of settlement.[8] In these villages, artisans and craftsmen developed specialties. The artistic skills and earthwork mound-building of the Caddoan Mississippians flourished during the 12th and 13th centuries.[9] The Spiro Mounds, near the Arkansas
Arkansas
River in present-day southeastern Oklahoma, were some of the most elaborate mounds in the United States. They were made by Mississippian ancestors of the historic Caddo
Caddo
and Wichita tribes, in what is considered the westernmost point of the Mississippian culture.[10] The Caddo
Caddo
were farmers and enjoyed good growing conditions most of the time. The Piney Woods, the geographic area where they lived, was affected by the Great Drought from 1276–1299 CE, which covered an area extending to present-day California and disrupted many Native American cultures.[11] Archeological evidence has confirmed that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present among these peoples. The Caddoan Mississippian people were the direct ancestors of the historic Caddo people
Caddo people
and related Caddo-language speakers who encountered the first Europeans, as well as of the modern Caddo
Caddo
Nation of Oklahoma.[12] Oral history[edit]

Caddo
Caddo
turkey dance, Caddo
Caddo
National Complex, Binger, Oklahoma, 2000: The turkey dance relays Caddo
Caddo
history.

Caddo
Caddo
oral history of their creation story says the tribe emerged from an underground cave, called Chahkanina or "the place of crying," located at the confluence of the Red River of the South
Red River of the South
and Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in northern present-day Louisiana. Their leader, named Moon, instructed the people not to look back. An old Caddo
Caddo
man carried with him a drum, a pipe, and fire, all of which have continued to be important religious items to the people. His wife carried corn and pumpkin seeds. As people and accompanying animals emerged, the wolf looked back. The exit from the underground closed to the remaining people and animals.[13] The Caddo
Caddo
peoples moved west along the Red River, which they called Bah'hatteno in Caddo.[14] A Caddo
Caddo
woman, Zacado, instructed the tribe in hunting, fishing, home construction, and making clothing. Caddo religion focuses on Kadhi háyuh, translating to "Lord Above" or "Lord of the Sky." In early times, the people were led by priests, including a head priest, the xinesi, who could commune with spirits residing near Caddo
Caddo
temples.[13] A cycle of ceremonies developed around important periods of corn cultivation. Tobacco was and is used ceremonially. Early priests drank a purifying sacrament made of wild olive leaves.[15] Territory[edit] Centuries before extensive European contact, some of the Caddo territory was invaded by migrating Dhegihan-speaking peoples, Osage, Ponca, Omaha, and Kaw, who moved west beginning about 1200 due to years of warfare with the Iroquois
Iroquois
in the Ohio River
Ohio River
area of present-day Kentucky. The Iroquois
Iroquois
took control of hunting grounds in the area. The Osage particularly fought the Caddo, pushed them out of some former territory, and became dominant in the region of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, and western Kansas. These tribes had become settled in their new territory west of the Mississippi prior to mid-18th-century European contact.[16] Most of the Caddo
Caddo
historically lived in the Piney Woods
Piney Woods
ecoregion of the United States, divided among the state regions of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. This region extends up to the foothills of the Ozarks. The Piney Woods
Piney Woods
are a dense forest of deciduous and pinophyta flora covering rolling hills, steep river valleys, and intermittent wetlands called "bayous". Caddo people
Caddo people
primarily settled near the Caddo
Caddo
River. When they first encountered Europeans and Africans, the Caddo
Caddo
tribes organized themselves in three confederacies: the Natchitoches, Hasinai, and Kadohadacho. They were loosely affiliated with other neighboring tribes. The Natchitoches lived in now northern Louisiana, the Haisinai lived in East Texas, and the Kadohadacho
Kadohadacho
lived near the border of Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.[17] The Caddo people
Caddo people
had a diet based on cultivated crops, particularly maize (corn), but also sunflower, pumpkins, and squash. These foods held cultural significance, as did wild turkeys. They hunted and gathered wild plants, as well. Post-contact history[edit]

Kaw-u-tz, photographed in 1906

The Caddo
Caddo
first encountered Europeans and Africans in 1541 when the Spanish Hernando de Soto Expedition came through their lands.[18] De Soto's force had a violent clash with one band of Caddo
Caddo
Indians, the Tula people, near present-day Caddo
Caddo
Gap, Arkansas. This historic event has been marked by the modern town with a monument. French explorers in the early 18th century encountered the Natchitoche in northern Louisiana. They were followed by fur traders from outposts along the Gulf Coast, and later by missionaries from France
France
and Spain, who also traveled among the people. The Europeans carried chronic infections such as smallpox and measles, because these were endemic in their societies. As the Caddo
Caddo
peoples had no acquired immunity to such new diseases, they suffered epidemics with high fatalities that decimated the tribal populations. Influenza
Influenza
and malaria also devastated the Caddo.[16] French traders built forts with trading posts near Caddo
Caddo
villages. These stations attracted more French and other European settlers. Among such settlements are the present-day communities of Elysian Fields and Nacogdoches, Texas, and Natchitoches, Louisiana. In the latter two towns, early explorers and settlers kept the original Caddo names of the villages. Having given way over years before the power of the former Ohio Valley tribes, the later Caddo
Caddo
negotiated for peace with the waves of Spanish, French, and finally Anglo-American settlers. After the 1803 Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase, by which the United States took over the former French colonial territory west of the Mississippi River, the US government sought to ally with the Caddo
Caddo
peoples. During the War of 1812, American generals such as William Henry Harrison, William Clark, and Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
crushed pro-British uprisings among other Southeast Indians. Due to the Caddo's neutrality and their importance as a source of information for the Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory government, they were left alone. In the 1830s, the federal government embarked on a program of Indian removal of tribes from the Southeast in order to enable European-American settlement, as new migrants pressed from the east.[19] In 1835 the Kadohadacho, the northernmost Caddo
Caddo
confederacy, signed a treaty with the US to relocate to independent Mexico (in the area of present-day East Texas). Then lightly settled by Mexican colonists, this area was being rapidly transformed by greatly increased immigration of European Americans. In 1836, the Americans declared independence from Mexico and established the Republic of Texas, an independent nation.[14] The name "Texas" is derived from the Hasinai word táysha, meaning "friend".[20] In 1845, Texas
Texas
was admitted to the US as a state. At that time, the federal government forced the relocation of both the Hasinai
Hasinai
and the Kadohadacho
Kadohadacho
onto the Brazos Reservation. In 1859, many of the Caddo were relocated again to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
north of Texas, in present-day Oklahoma. After the Civil War, the Caddo
Caddo
were concentrated on a reservation located between the Washita and Canadian rivers in Indian Territory.[14] In the late 19th century, the Caddo
Caddo
took up the Ghost Dance
Ghost Dance
religion, which was widespread among American Indian nations in the West. John Wilson, a Caddo- Lenape
Lenape
medicine man who spoke only Caddo, was an influential leader in the Ghost Dance. In 1880, Wilson became a peyote roadman. The tribe had known the Half Moon peyote ceremony, but Wilson introduced the Big Moon ceremony to them.[21] The Caddo
Caddo
tribe remains very active in the Native American Church
Native American Church
today. Late 19th century to present[edit]

Moccasins made by Mrs. Sien-Coit Sturm (Caddo), 1909, collection of the Bata Shoe Museum, in Toronto, Ontario[22]

Congress passed the Dawes Act
Dawes Act
to promote assimilation of tribes in Indian Territory. It authorized distribution of tribal communal landholdings into allotments for individual households in order for them to establish subsistence family farms along the European-American model. Any tribal lands remaining after such allotments were to be declared "surplus" and sold, including to non-Native Americans. The allotment system was intended to extinguish tribal Native American land claims to enable admission of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
as a state and assimilate Native Americans into the majority culture. At the same time, tribal governments were to be ended. The territory had already been settled by numerous European Americans outside the tribal territories. The Caddo
Caddo
vigorously opposed allotment. Whitebread, a Caddo
Caddo
leader, said, "because of their peaceful lives and friendship to the white man, and through their ignorance were not consulted, and have been ignored and stuck away in a corner and allowed to exist by sufferance."[14] Tribal governments were dismantled at this time, and Native Americans were expected to act as state and US citizens. After some period, the adverse effects of these changes were recognized. The Caddo
Caddo
and other Native American peoples suffered greatly from the disruption of the loss of their lands and breakup of their traditional cultures. Under the federal Indian Reorganization Act
Indian Reorganization Act
of 1934 and the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, the Caddo
Caddo
restored their tribal government. They adopted a written constitution and a process of electing officials. They organized in 1938 as the Caddo
Caddo
Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. They ratified their constitution on 17 January 1938.[2] In 1976, they drafted a new constitution, which continues elected representative government. During the 20th century, Caddo
Caddo
leaders such as Melford Williams, Harry Guy, Hubert Halfmoon, and Vernon Hunter have helped shape the tribe.[14] In a special election on 29 June 2002, the tribe adopted six amendments to the constitution. Tribal enrollment is open to individuals with a documented minimum of 1/16 degree Caddo
Caddo
blood quantum.[23] 21st-century tribal issues[edit] Sometimes, severe disagreements have developed among factions of the tribe that have not been resolved in elections. In August 2013, a group led by Philip Smith attempted to recall Brenda Shemayme Edwards, the chairman of the Tribal Council. This faction conducted a new election, but the victor stepped down, and Edwards refused to leave office. In October 2013, Smith and his supporters broke into the Caddo Nation headquarters. They chained the front doors from the inside and blocked off the entrance to the administration building. The opposition called the Bureau of Indian Affairs Police.[24] Operation of the tribe was split between two factions. The Court of Indian Offenses, which had been overseeing issues for a year because of the internal conflict, in October 2014 ordered a new election for all positions.[25][26] In the January 2015 elections, all the top tribal positions were won by women: Tamara Michele Francis as chair, Carol D. Ross as vice chair, Jennifer Reeder as secretary, and Wildena G. Moffer as treasurer.[27] In July 2016, Tamara M. Francis was re-elected as the Chairman of the Caddo
Caddo
Nation. The Council consists of Chairman Francis, Vice Chairman Carol D. Ross, Acting Secretary Philip Martin, Treasurer Marilyn McDonald, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Representative Jennifer Wilson, Binger Representative Marilyn Threlkeld, Fort Cobb Representative Maureen Owings. (Chairman Francis is the daughter of the first elected female Chairman, Mary Pat Francis. She is the fourth elected female leader of the Caddo
Caddo
Nation)

John Wilson (1840-1901), Caddo
Caddo
peyote roadman

Sho-e-tat (Little Boy) or George Washington (1816-1883), Louisiana Caddo
Caddo
leader

A stirrup dance by the Caddo
Caddo
Culture Club, Caddo
Caddo
National Complex, Binger, 2008

Caddo
Caddo
dancers, members of the Caddo
Caddo
Cultural Club, Binger, Oklahoma, 2008

Notable Caddo[edit]

T. C. Cannon, Kiowa- Caddo
Caddo
artist LaRue Parker, former tribal chairperson Jeri Redcorn, Caddo-Potawatomi potter John Wilson, peyote roadman

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Caddo
Caddo
Lake List of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition

Notes[edit]

^ "Enrollment". Caddo
Caddo
Nation. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ a b Constitution and By-Laws of the Caddo
Caddo
Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. Archived 2013-06-30 at Archive.is
Archive.is
National Tribal Justice Resource Center. (retrieved 13 September 2009) ^ a b 2011 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Archived May 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 7. Retrieved 2 January 2012. ^ Hasinai
Hasinai
Summer Youth Camp. Hasinai
Hasinai
Society. 2008 (retrieved 13 Sept 2009) ^ General Information. Archived 2009-01-05 at the Wayback Machine. Hasinai
Hasinai
Society. 2008 (retrieved 13 Sept 2009) ^ Edge, Donald. Caddo
Caddo
Culture Club. Archived 2009-07-04 at the Wayback Machine. Caddo
Caddo
Nation: Heritage and Culture. (retrieved 13 Sept 2009) ^ Background. Kiwat Hasinay Foundation.(retrieved 13 Sept 2009) ^ a b c "Tejas- Caddo
Caddo
Fundamentals- Caddo
Caddo
Timeline". Retrieved 2010-02-04.  ^ Carter, 17=8 ^ Fforde et al., 154 ^ "Great Drought". (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica. (Retrieved September 30, 2008). Encyclopædia Britannica Online ^ "Tejas- Caddo
Caddo
Fundamentals-Caddoan Languages and Peoples". Retrieved 2010-02-04.  ^ a b Sturtevant, 625 ^ a b c d e Meredith, Howard. " Caddo
Caddo
(Kadohadacho)," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society, Accessed July 9, 2015. ^ Sturtevant, 626 ^ a b Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Archived January 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 2009 ^ Sturtevant, 616–617 ^ Sturtevant, 619 ^ Peter Kastor, The Nation's Crucible: The Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase and the Creation of America,(New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004) 159-160. ^ Bolton 2002:63–64 ^ Stewart, 86–88 ^ "Art on the Prairies". All About Shoes. Bata Shoe Museum. 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2015.  ^ Caddo
Caddo
Nation Constitutional Amendments. Archived 2010-06-02 at the Wayback Machine. Caddo
Caddo
Nation. (retrieved 14 Sept 2009) ^ M. Scott Carpenter, " Caddo
Caddo
Nation fight stops tribal government", The Journal Record, 1 October 2013, retrieved 10 Oct 2013 (subscription required) ^ " Caddo
Caddo
Nation told to prepare for new election for all positions", Indianz.com, 7 October 2014 ^ Scott Rains, " Caddo
Caddo
Tribe To Get New Leadership", The Lawton Constitution, 10 October 2014, retrieved 2 Feb 2015 ^ "Women take chair and top tribal positions in Caddo
Caddo
Nation results", Indianz.com, 14 January 2015, accessed 14 January 2016

References[edit]

Bolton, Herbet E. The Hasinais: Southern Caddoans As Seen by the Earliest Europeans. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8061-3441-3. Carter, Cecile Elkins. Caddo
Caddo
Indians: Where We Come From, Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8061-3318-X Fford, Cressida, Jane Hubert, and Paul Turnbull. The Dead and their Possessions: Repatriation in Principle, Policy and Practice, New York: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-34449-4. Stewart, Omer Call. Peyote
Peyote
Religion: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-8061-2457-5. Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0.

Further reading[edit]

Dorsey, George Amos. Traditions of the Caddo. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8032-6602-2 LaVere, David. The Caddo
Caddo
Chiefdoms: Caddo
Caddo
Economics and Politics, 1700–1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8032-2927-5 Newkumet, Vynola Beaver and Howard L. Meredith. Hasinai: A Traditional History of the Caddo
Caddo
People. College Station: Texas
Texas
A&M Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89096-342-8 Perttula, Timothy K. The Caddo
Caddo
Nation: Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Perspectives. Austin: University of Texas
Texas
Press, 1997. ISBN 0-292-76574-6 Smith, F. Todd. The Caddo
Caddo
Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542–1854. College Station: Texas
Texas
A&M Press, 1995. ISBN 0-89096-981-7 Swanton, John R. "Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo
Caddo
Indians." Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 132. (1942) ASIN B000NLBAPK

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caddo.

Caddo
Caddo
Nation of Oklahoma, official website Caddo
Caddo
Heritage Museum, Binger, OK Kiwat Hasinay Foundation – Caddo
Caddo
Language for Caddo
Caddo
People Caddo
Caddo
Legacy from Caddo
Caddo
People, arts and humanities Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture – Caddo
Caddo
(Kadohadacho)

v t e

Caddo
Caddo
Confederacy

Hasinai

Hainai Nabedache Nabiti Nacogdoche Nacono Nadaco Nasoni
Nasoni
(Lower) Nechaui Neche

Kadohadacho

Kadohadacho Nanatsoho Nasoni
Nasoni
(Upper) Natchitoches (Upper)

Natchitoches

Doustioni Natchitoches (Lower)

Other groups

Adai Cahinnio Eyeish Ouachita Tula Yatasi

Related topics Caddo
Caddo
language Caddoan Mississippian culture Caddoan village bundle Dush-toh Spiro Mounds Turkey dance

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee (Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere (Iowa and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wic

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