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CABLE NEWS NETWORK (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Turner Broadcasting System , a division of Time Warner . CNN
CNN
was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN
CNN
was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage , and was the first all-news television channel in the United States.

While the news channel has numerous affiliates , CNN
CNN
primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City
New York City
, and studios in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta
Atlanta
is only used for weekend programming. CNN
CNN
is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. (or CNN
CNN
DOMESTIC ) to distinguish the American channel from its international sister network, CNN International . As of August 2010, CNN
CNN
is available in over 100 million U.S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U.S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on cable and satellite providers throughout Canada
Canada
. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN
CNN
International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories.

As of July 2015, CNN
CNN
is available to about 96,374,000 cable, satellite, and telco television households (82.8% of households with at least one television set) in the United States.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history

* 1.2 Major events

* 1.2.1 Gulf War
Gulf War
* 1.2.2 September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
* 1.2.3 2008 U.S. election * 1.2.4 2016 U.S. election

* 1.3 Acquisition of Time Warner by AT"> Replica of the newsroom at CNN
CNN
Center.

Gulf War

The first Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN
CNN
that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three " American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN
CNN
was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq
Iraq
during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad
Baghdad
by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett . Operation Desert Storm as captured live on a CNN
CNN
night vision camera with reporters narrating.

The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN
CNN
by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows:

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside. ... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad
Baghdad
have been illuminated. ... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

Because it was unable to immediately broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War
Gulf War
had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS
CBS
news anchor Edward R. Murrow 's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London
London
during World War II
World War II
. Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN
CNN
being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide.

The Gulf War
Gulf War
experience brought CNN
CNN
some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of previously obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University , Robert Thompson , stated that having turned 20, CNN
CNN
was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer (now host of _The Situation Room _) and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour . Amanpour's presence in Iraq
Iraq
was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn in the role of the ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film _Three Kings _. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO later produced a television movie , _Live from Baghdad
Baghdad
_, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War.

Coverage of the first Gulf War
Gulf War
and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu ) led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect " to describe the perceived impact of real time , 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government .

September 11 Attacks

CNN
CNN
was the first cable news channel to break the news of the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center , and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center
CNN Center
right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center.

Sean Murtagh, CNN
CNN
vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employee on the air. He called into CNN Center
CNN Center
from his office at CNN's New York City
New York City
bureau and reported that a commercial jet had hit the Trade Center.

Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time as the second plane hit the North Tower of the World Trade Center and through an interview with CNN
CNN
correspondent David Ensor , reported the news that U.S. officials determined "that this is a terrorist act." Later, Aaron Brown and Judy Woodruff anchored through the day and night as the attacks unfolded, winning an Edward R. Murrow award for the network. Brown had just joined CNN
CNN
from ABC to serve as the breaking news anchor.

CNN
CNN
has made archival files of much of the day's broadcast available in five segments, plus an overview.

2008 U.S. Election

The stage for the second 2008 CNN- YouTube
YouTube
presidential debate .

Leading up to the 2008 U.S. presidential election
2008 U.S. presidential election
, CNN
CNN
devoted large amounts of its coverage to politics, including hosting candidate debates during the Democratic and Republican primary seasons. On June 3 and 5, CNN
CNN
teamed up with Saint Anselm College to sponsor the New Hampshire Republican and Democratic Debates. Later in 2007, the channel hosted the first CNN-YouTube presidential debates , a non-traditional format where viewers were invited to pre-submit questions over the internet via the YouTube
YouTube
video-sharing service. In 2008, CNN
CNN
partnered with the _ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times _ to host two primary debates leading up to its coverage of Super Tuesday . CNN's debate and election night coverage led to its highest ratings of the year, with January 2008 viewership averaging 1.1 million viewers, a 41% increase over the previous year.

2016 U.S. Election

Driven by live coverage of the year's US presidential election , 2016 was CNN's most-watched year in its history. Throughout the campaign, the network aired unedited coverage of many of the Trump campaign rallies . Aides for Republican candidates Marco Rubio , Jeb Bush , and Ted Cruz
Ted Cruz
accused CNN
CNN
president Jeff Zucker of undermining their candidates during the Republican primaries . Zucker acknowledged that it had been a mistake to air so many of the campaign rallies. CNN also drew criticism during the election for hiring former Trump campaign manager Corey Lewandowski , who was still being paid by and was effectively working on behalf of the campaign.

ACQUISITION OF TIME WARNER BY AT&T

Main article: Time Warner

On October 22, 2016, AT&T reached a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. If approved by federal regulators, the merger would bring Time Warner's properties, including CNN, under the same umbrella as AT"> The CNN
CNN
Election Express bus, used for broadcasts.

CNN's political coverage in HD was first given mobility by the introduction of the CNN
CNN
Election Express bus in October 2007. The Election Express vehicle, capable of five simultaneous HD feeds, was used for the channel's CNN-YouTube presidential debates and for presidential candidate interviews.

In December 2008, CNN
CNN
introduced a comprehensive redesign of its on-air appearance, which replaced an existing style that had been used since 2004. On-air graphics took a rounded, flat look in a predominantly black, white, and red color scheme, and the introduction of a new box next to the CNN
CNN
logo for displaying show logos and segment-specific graphics, rather than as a large banner above the lower-third. The redesign also replaced the scrolling ticker with a static "flipper", which could either display a feed of news headlines (both manually inserted and taken from the RSS
RSS
feeds of CNN.com), or "topical" details related to a story.

CNN's next major redesign was introduced on January 10, 2011, replacing the dark, flat appearance of the 2008 look with a glossier, blue and white color scheme, and moving the secondary logo box to the opposite end of the screen. Additionally, the network began to solely produce its programming in the 16:9 aspect ratio, with standard definition feeds using a letterboxed version of the HD feed. On February 18, 2013, the "flipper" was dropped and reverted to a scrolling ticker; originally displayed as a blue background with white text, the ticker was reconfigured a day later with blue text on a white background to match the look of the 'flipper'.

On August 11, 2014, CNN
CNN
introduced its most recent graphics package, dropping the glossy appearance for a flat, rectangular scheme incorporating red, white, and black colors, and the Gotham typeface. The ticker now alternates between general headlines and financial news from CNNMoney
CNNMoney
, and the secondary logo box was replaced with a smaller box below the CNN
CNN
bug, which displays either the title, hashtag , or Twitter handle for the show being aired or its anchor. In April 2016, CNN
CNN
began to introduce a new corporate typeface, known as " CNN
CNN
Sans", across all of its platforms. Inspired by Helvetica Neue and commissioned after consultations with Troika Design Group , the font family consists of 30 different versions with varying weights and widths to facilitate use across print, television, and digital mediums.

In August 2016, CNN
CNN
announced the launch of its new initiative, CNN Aerial Imagery and Reporting ( CNN
CNN
AIR). It is a drone-based news collecting operation to integrate aerial imagery and reporting across all CNN
CNN
networks and platforms, along with Turner Broadcasting
Broadcasting
and Time Warner entities.

STAFF

Main article: List of CNN anchors _ Anderson Cooper , anchor of AC 360°_ Richard Quest, New York-based correspondent

On July 27, 2012, CNN
CNN
president Jim Walton announced that he was quitting, after a 30-year tenure at the network. Walton remained with CNN
CNN
until the end of that year. In January 2013, former NBCUniversal president Jeff Zucker replaced Walton.

On January 29, 2013, longtime political analysts James Carville and Mary Matalin
Mary Matalin
, and fellow political contributor Erick Erickson were let go by CNN.

OTHER PLATFORMS

ONLINE

International version in April 2011

CNN
CNN
launched its website, CNN.com (initially an experiment known as _ CNN
CNN
Interactive_), on August 30, 1995. The site attracted growing interest over its first decade and is now one of the most popular news websites in the world. The widespread growth of blogs, social media and user-generated content have influenced the site, and blogs in particular have focused CNN's previously scattershot online offerings, most noticeably in the development and launch of CNN Pipeline in late 2005.

In April 2009, CNN.com ranked third place among online global news sites in unique users in the U.S., according to Nielsen/NetRatings; with an increase of 11% over the previous year.

CNN Pipeline was the name of a paid subscription service, its corresponding website, and a content delivery client that provided streams of live video from up to four sources (or "pipes"), on-demand access to CNN
CNN
stories and reports, and optional pop-up "news alerts" to computer users. The installable client was available to users of PCs running Microsoft Windows . There was also a browser-based "web client" that did not require installation. The service was discontinued in July 2007, and was replaced with a free streaming service.

The topical news program _Judy Woodruff\'s Inside Politics
Inside Politics
_ was the first CNN
CNN
program to feature a round-up of blogs in 2005. Blog coverage was expanded when _ Inside Politics
Inside Politics
_ was folded into _The Situation Room_ (_Inside Politics_ later returned to CNN
CNN
in 2014, this time hosted by the network's chief national correspondent John King. ). In 2006, CNN
CNN
launched CNN
CNN
Exchange and CNN iReport , initiatives designed to further introduce and centralize the impact of everything from blogging to citizen journalism within the CNN
CNN
brand. CNN
CNN
iReport which features user-submitted photos and video, has achieved considerable traction, with increasingly professional-looking reports filed by amateur journalists, many still in high school or college. The iReport gained more prominence when observers of the Virginia Tech shootings sent-in first hand photos of what was going on during the shootings.

In early 2008, CNN
CNN
began maintaining a live streaming broadcast available to cable and satellite subscribers who receive CNN
CNN
at home (a precursor to the TV Everywhere services that would become popularized by cable and satellite providers beginning with Time Warner's incorporation of the medium). CNN International is broadcast live, as part of the RealNetworks SuperPass subscription service outside the U.S. CNN
CNN
also offers several RSS
RSS
feeds and podcasts .

On April 18, 2008, CNN.com was targeted by Chinese hackers in retaliation for the channel's coverage on the 2008 Tibetan unrest . CNN
CNN
reported that they took preventative measures after news broke of the impending attack.

The company was honored at the 2008 Technology the revamped site included the addition of a new "sign up" option, in which users can create their own username and profile, and a new " CNN
CNN
Pulse" (beta) feature, along with a new red color theme. However, most of the news stories archived on the website were deleted. As of 2016, there are four versions of the website: the American version, the International version, the Spanish version, and the Arabic version. Readers can choose their preferred version, but, in the absence of a selection, the server determines an edition according to the requesting IP address.

CNN
CNN
also has a channel in the popular video-sharing site YouTube
YouTube
, but its videos can only be viewed in the United States, a source of criticism among YouTube
YouTube
users worldwide. In 2014, CNN
CNN
launched a radio version of their popular Television programming on TuneIn Radio.

In April 2010, CNN
CNN
announced via Twitter that it would launch a food blog called "Eatocracy," which will "cover all news related to food – from recalls to health issues to culture." CNN
CNN
had an internet relay chat (IRC) network at chat.cnn.com. CNN
CNN
placed a live chat with Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
on the network in 1998.

CNNHealth consists of expert doctors answering viewers' questions online at CNN's "The Chart" blog website. Contributors include Drs. Sanjay Gupta
Sanjay Gupta
(Chief Medical Correspondent), Charles Raison (Mental Health Expert), Otis Brawley (Conditions Expert), Melina Jampolis (Diet and Fitness Expert), Jennifer Shu (Living Well Expert), and Elizabeth Cohen (Senior Medical Correspondent).

On March 7, 2017, CNN
CNN
announced the official launch of its virtual reality unit named CNNVR. It will produce 360 videos to its Android and iOS apps within CNN
CNN
Digital. It is planning to cover major news events with the online, and digital news team in New York City
New York City
, Atlanta
Atlanta
, London
London
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, San Francisco
San Francisco
, Dubai
Dubai
, Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, Tokyo
Tokyo
, and Beijing
Beijing
.

BEME

Main article: Beme

On November 28, 2016, CNN
CNN
announced the acquisition of Beme for a reported $25 million. On November 29, 2016, Matt Hackett, co-founder of Beme, announced via an email to its users that the Beme app would be shutting down on January 31, 2017. Since the shutdown of the app, it was announced that CNN
CNN
intended to use the current talent behind Beme to work on a separate start-up endeavor. Beme's current team will retain full creative control of the new project which is slated to release in the summer of 2017. Beme have also brought on other internet stars such as the host of Vsauce 3, Jake Roper, as Head of production, who features prominently in Beme's co-founder, Casey Neistat\'s vlogs.

FILMS

Main article: CNN Films

In October 2012, CNN
CNN
formed a film division called CNN Films to distribute and produce made-for-TV and feature documentaries . Its first acquisition was a documentary entitled _Girl Rising_, a documentary narrated by Meryl Streep that focused on the struggles of girls' education.

RADIO

In July 2014, Cumulus Media announced that it would end its partnership with ABC News Radio , and enter into a new partnership with CNN
CNN
to syndicate national and international news content for its stations through Westwood One beginning in 2015, including access to a wire service, and digital content for its station websites. This service is unbranded, allowing individual stations to integrate the content with their own news brands.

SPECIALIZED CHANNELS

See also: Specialty channel CNN en Español televised debate for the 2005 Chilean elections. Post production editing offices in Atlanta.

Over the years, CNN
CNN
has launched spin-off networks in the United States and other countries. Channels that currently operate as of 2014 include:

* CNN Airport
CNN Airport
* CNN Chile – a Chilean news channel that launched on December 4, 2008. * CNN en Español * CNN International * CNN TÜRK – a Turkish media outlet. * CNN-IBN – an Indian news channel. * CNN Indonesia – an Indonesian news channel that launched on August 17, 2015. (co-owned with Trans Corp ) * CNNj – a Japanese news outlet. * CNN Philippines – a Filipino news channel launched on March 16, 2015. * HLN

FORMER CHANNELS

CNN
CNN
has also launched television and online ventures that are no longer in operation, including:

* CNN Checkout Channel (out-of-home place-based custom channel for grocery stores that started in 1991 and shuttered in 1993) * CNN
CNN
Italia (an Italian news website launched in partnership with the publishing company Gruppo Editoriale L\'Espresso , and after with the financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore , it launched on November 15, 1999 and closed on September 12, 2003) * CNN Pipeline (24-hour multi-channel broadband online news service, replaced with CNN.com Live) * CNN Sports Illustrated (also known as CNNSI; U.S. sports news channel, closed in 2002) * CNN+
CNN+
(a partner channel in Spain, launched in 1999 with Sogecable ) * CNN.com Live * CNNfn (financial channel, closed in December 2004)

EXPERIMENTS

CNN
CNN
launched two specialty news channels for the American market which would later close amid competitive pressure: the sports news channel CNNSI shut down in 2002, while business news channel CNNfn shut down after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNN
CNN
had a partnership with _ Sports Illustrated _ through the sports website CNNSI.com, but sold the domain name in May 2015. CNNfn's former website now redirects to money.cnn.com, a product of CNN's strategic partnership with _Money _ magazine. _Money_ and _Sports Illustrated_ were both Time Warner properties until 2014, when the company's magazine division was spun off into the separate Time Inc.

BUREAUS

CNN
CNN
bureau locations The CNN Center
CNN Center
in Atlanta
Atlanta
CNN in New York City
New York City
CNN Center
CNN Center
studios

CNN
CNN
operates bureaus in the following cities as of February 2017 . BOLDFACE indicates that the city is home to one of CNN's original bureaus, meaning it has been in operation since the network's founding.

UNITED STATES

* ATLANTA (WORLD HEADQUARTERS ) * CHICAGO * Dallas
Dallas
* Denver
Denver
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Miami
Miami
* New York City
New York City
* San Francisco
San Francisco
* Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

WORLDWIDE

CNN
CNN
has regional headquarters in Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, and London
London
. Other bureau locations include:

* Amman
Amman
* Bangkok
Bangkok
* Beijing
Beijing
* Beirut
Beirut
* Berlin
Berlin
* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* Cairo
Cairo
* Dubai
Dubai
* Havana
Havana
* Islamabad
Islamabad
* Istanbul
Istanbul
* Jakarta
Jakarta
* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Johannesburg
Johannesburg
* Kabul
Kabul
* Lagos
Lagos
* Madrid
Madrid
* Mexico City
Mexico City
* Moscow
Moscow
* Mumbai
Mumbai
* Nairobi
Nairobi
* New Delhi
New Delhi
* Paris
Paris
* Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Rome
Rome
* Santiago
Santiago
* Seoul
Seoul
* Tokyo
Tokyo

In parts of the world without a CNN
CNN
bureau, reports from local affiliate station the network will be used to file a story.

CONTROVERSIES

Main article: CNN controversies

In a joint study by the Joan Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University
Harvard University
and the Project for Excellence in Journalism, the authors found disparate treatment by the three major cable channels of Republican and Democratic candidates during the earliest five months of presidential primaries in 2007:

The CNN
CNN
programming studied tended to cast a negative light on Republican candidates – by a margin of three-to-one. Four-in-ten stories (41%) were clearly negative while just 14% were positive and 46% were neutral. The network provided negative coverage of all three main candidates with McCain faring the worst (63% negative) and Romney faring a little better than the others only because a majority of his coverage was neutral. It's not that Democrats, other than Obama, fared well on CNN
CNN
either. Nearly half of the Illinois
Illinois
Senator's stories were positive (46%), vs. just 8% that were negative. But both Clinton and Edwards ended up with more negative than positive coverage overall. So while coverage for Democrats overall was a bit more positive than negative, that was almost all due to extremely favorable coverage for Obama.

CNN
CNN
President Walter Isaacson met with Republican Party leaders in Washington, DC in 2001 saying afterwards "I was trying to reach out to a lot of Republicans who feel that CNN
CNN
has not been as open covering Republicans, and I wanted to hear their concerns," As said by CNN founder Ted Turner, "There really isn't much of a point getting some Tom, Dick or Harry off the streets to report on when we can snag a big name whom everyone identifies with. After all, it's all part of the business." However, in April 2008, Turner criticized the direction that CNN
CNN
has taken.

In October 2016, WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
published emails from John Podesta which showed CNN
CNN
contributor Donna Brazile passing the questions for a CNN-sponsored debate to the Clinton campaign. In the email, Brazile discussed her concern of Clinton's ability to field a question regarding the death penalty. The following day Clinton would receive the question about the death penalty, verbatim from an audience member at the CNN-hosted Town Hall event. According to a CNNMoney investigation, the debate moderator Roland Martin of TV One "did not deny sharing information with Brazile." CNN
CNN
severed ties with Brazile on October 14, 2016. . CNN
CNN
has been accused of bias during the 2016 U.S. Presidential election between now 45th U.S. President Donald Trump (who has targeted the network multiple times) and former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
. . U.S. President Donald Trump openly referred to CNN
CNN
as the "Clinton News Network" during the 2017 Conservative Political Action Conference .

On June 26, 2017, CNN
CNN
made widespread headlines after accepting the resignations of three network investigative journalists working with their company; Thomas Frank, Eric Lichtblau, and Lex Haris. All three journalists chose to resign from CNN
CNN
over a retracted President Trump -Russia story, published on the CNN
CNN
website, that incorrectly connected Trump aide Anthony Scaramucci to a $10 billion Russian investment fund. The network apologized to Scaramucci and admitted that the online story did not meet their editorial standards . . CEO Jeff Zucker responded by stressing that the network needs to "play error-free ball" when it comes to any future stories about President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
.

AWARDS AND HONORS

In 1998, CNN
CNN
received the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech.

SEE ALSO

* Broadcasting
Broadcasting
* Corporate media * Journalistic objectivity * List of CNN personnel * List of programs broadcast by CNN * Mass media * TeleSUR * News media
News media
* News media
News media
in the United States * Television studio

* Television in the United States portal * Journalism portal * Companies portal * 1980s portal * 1990s portal * 2000s portal

REFERENCES

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Broadcasting
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CNN
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CNN
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CNN
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Chicago
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