AMC11 at 131.0°W
C-SPAN (Analog) (SD)
110: C-SPAN2 (SD)
111: C-SPAN3 (SD)
Available on most other U.S. cable systems
Consult your local cable provider for channel availability
231: C-SPAN2 (SD)
232: C-SPAN3 (SD)
Available to current cable/satellite subscribers
and on demand
C-SPAN (/ˈsiːˌspæn/), an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public
Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network
that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public
C-SPAN televises many proceedings of the United States
federal government, as well as other public affairs programming. The
C-SPAN network includes three television channels (C-SPAN, C-SPAN2 and
C-SPAN3), one radio station (WCSP-FM) and a group of websites that
provide streaming media and archives of
C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's
television channels are available to approximately 100 million cable
and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM, also
C-SPAN Radio, is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D.C., and
is available throughout the U.S. on XM Satellite Radio, via Internet
streaming, and through apps for iOS,
BlackBerry and Android devices.
The network televises U.S. political events, particularly live and
"gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U.S. Congress as well as occasional
proceedings of the Canadian, Australian and British Parliaments
(including the weekly Prime Minister's Questions), as well as other
major events worldwide. Its coverage of political and policy events is
unedited, thereby providing viewers (or listeners) with unfiltered
information about politics and government. Non-political coverage
includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction
books, and interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated
with public policy.
C-SPAN is a private, nonprofit organization,
funded by a 6¢ per subscriber affiliate fee paid by its cable and
satellite affiliates, and does not have advertisements on any of its
networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it ever solicit
donations or pledges. The network operates independently, and neither
the cable industry nor Congress has control of the content of its
1.3 Scope and limitations of coverage
1.4 Expansion and technology
2.1 Senate and House of Representatives
2.2 Public affairs
C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 flagship programs
2.6 Radio broadcasts
2.7 Availability online
3 Organization and operations
5 Public and media opinion
7 Other services
8 See also
10 External links
Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer,
first conceived the concept of
C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the
Washington, D.C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine
Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable
television channels available in the United States, and Lamb
envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising
sessions of the U.S. Congress and other public affairs event and
policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable
executives, who helped him launch the network. Among them were Bob
Rosencrans who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979 and
John D. Evans who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed
for the distribution of the
C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first
televised session made available by the House of Representatives,
beginning with a speech by then-
Tennessee representative Al
Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for
C-SPAN, and the network had just three employees. The second
C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U.S. Senate
permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent
expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001,
and shows other public policy and government-related live events on
weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the
successor of a digital channel called
C-SPAN Extra, which was launched
in the Washington D.C. area in 1997, and televised live and recorded
political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time
Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar
events as the television networks and often simulcasting their
programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP (90.1 FM) in
Washington, D.C., is also available on
XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio channel 120
and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was formerly available on
Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006.
Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd
anniversary, and gave executive control of the network to his two
lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain.
On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and
replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT for
approximately 10 minutes.
C-SPAN announced that they were
troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption
that it was an internal routing issue."
C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour
retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the
network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an
unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of
re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858,
which were televised from August to October 1994, and have been
rebroadcast from time to time ever since. Five years later, the
series American Presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award,
served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th
Robert Byrd (right), C-SPAN's founder
Brian Lamb (left) and Paul
FitzPatrick flip the switch for C-SPAN2 on June 2, 1986. FitzPatrick
C-SPAN president at the time.
C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the
flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70
million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the
C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor
debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the
month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with
journalists who had appeared on
C-SPAN during its early years.
Also included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers
to write in about how
C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding
community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about
how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his
charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who
To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005,
C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 p.m. Eastern
Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time
on Saturday, October 8. The network also had a viewer essay contest,
the winner of which was invited to host an hour of the broadcast from
Capitol Hill studios.
Scope and limitations of coverage
C-SPAN continues to expand its coverage of government proceedings,
with a history of requests to government officials for greater access,
especially to the U.S. Supreme Court. In December 2009, Lamb wrote
to leaders in the House and Senate, requesting that negotiations for
health care reform be televised by C-SPAN. Committee meetings on
health care were broadcast subsequently by
C-SPAN and may be viewed on
C-SPAN website. In November 2010, Lamb wrote to incoming House
John Boehner requesting changes to restrictions on cameras in
the House. In particular,
C-SPAN asked to add some of its own
robotically operated cameras to the existing government-controlled
cameras in the House chamber. In February 2011, Boehner denied the
request. A previous request to Speaker Designate
Nancy Pelosi in
2006, to add C-SPAN's cameras in the House chamber to record floor
proceedings, was also denied. Although
C-SPAN uses the
congressional chamber feed cables, the cameras are owned and
controlled by each respective body of Congress. Requests by C-SPAN
for camera access to non-government events such as the annual dinner
Gridiron Club have also been denied.
On June 22 and into June 23, 2016,
C-SPAN took video footage of the
House floor from individual House representatives via streaming
services Periscope and
Facebook Live during a sit-in by House
Democrats asking for a vote on gun control measures after the 2016
Orlando nightclub shooting. This needed to be done because—as the
sit-in was done out of formal session and while the House was in
official recess—the existing House cameras could not be utilized for
coverage of the event by rule.  Although the use of electronic
devices to create the Periscope feeds by House Democrats violated
House rules that prohibit their use on the floor,
C-SPAN did not
state why it chose to broadcast those feeds. The network ran
disclaimers on-air and on their official social media feeds noting the
Expansion and technology
Since the late 1990s,
C-SPAN has significantly expanded its online
presence. In January 1997,
C-SPAN began real-time streaming of C-SPAN
and C-SPAN2 on its website, the first time that Congress had been live
streamed online. To cover the Democratic and Republican
conventions and the presidential debates of 2008,
C-SPAN created two
standalone websites: the Convention Hub and the Debate Hub. In
addition to real-time streams of C-SPAN's television networks online,
c-span.org features further live programming such as committee
hearings and speeches that are broadcast later in the day, after the
House and Senate have left.
C-SPAN began promoting audience interaction early in its history, by
the regular incorporation of viewer telephone calls in its
programming. It has since expanded into social media. In March
2009, viewers began submitting questions live via
guests on C-SPAN's morning call-in show Washington Journal. The
network also has a
Facebook page to which it added occasional live
streaming in January 2011. The live stream is intended to show
selected well-publicized events of Congress. In June 2010, C-SPAN
joined with the website Foursquare to provide users of the application
with access to geotagged
C-SPAN content at various locations in
C-SPAN began a transition to high definition telecasts,
planned to take place over an 18-month period. The network provided
C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 in high definition on June 1, 2010, and C-SPAN3 in
Senate and House of Representatives
C-SPAN network's core programming is live coverage of the U.S.
House and Senate, with the
C-SPAN channel emphasizing the United
States House of Representatives. Between 1979 and May 2011, the
network televised more than 24,246 hours of floor action. C-SPAN2,
the first of the
C-SPAN spin-off networks, provides uninterrupted live
coverage of the
United States Senate. With coverage of the House
and Senate, viewers can track legislation as it moves through both
bodies of Congress. Important debates in Congress that
covered live include the Persian Gulf conflict during 1991, and the
House impeachment vote and Senate trial of President
Bill Clinton in
1998 and 1999. When the House or Senate are not in session, C-SPAN
channels broadcast other public affairs programming.
The public affairs coverage on the
C-SPAN networks other than the
House and Senate floor debates is wide-ranging.
C-SPAN is considered a
useful source of information for journalists, lobbyists, educators and
government officials as well as casual viewers interested in politics,
due to its unedited coverage of political events.
C-SPAN has been
described by media observers as a "window into the world of Washington
politics" and it characterizes its own mission as being "to provide
public access to the political process". The networks cover
U.S. political campaigns, including the Republican, Democratic, and
Libertarian presidential nominating conventions in their entirety.
Coverage of presidential campaign events are provided during the
duration of the campaign, both by a weekly television program, Road to
the White House, and at its dedicated politics website. C-SPAN
also covers midterm elections.
C-SPAN broadcasts the beginning of the 112th Congress on January 5,
All three channels televise events such as congressional hearings,
White House press briefings and presidential speeches, as well as
other government meetings including Federal Communications Commission
hearings and Pentagon press conferences. Other U.S. political
State of the Union
State of the Union speeches, and presidential
press conferences. According to the results of a survey after the 1992
presidential election, 85% of
C-SPAN viewers voted in that
election. The results of a similar survey in 2013 found that 89%
C-SPAN viewers voted in the 2012 presidential election. In
addition to this political coverage, the network broadcasts press
conferences and meetings of various news media and nonprofit
organizations, including those at the National Press Club, public
policy seminars and the White House Correspondents' Dinner. While
C-SPAN does not have video access to the Supreme Court, the network
has used the Court's audio recordings accompanied by still photographs
of the justices and lawyers to cover the Court in session on
significant cases, and has covered individual Supreme Court justices'
Occasionally, proceedings of the Parliament of Australia, Parliament
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom (usually Prime Minister's
Questions and the State Opening of Parliament) and other governments
are shown on
C-SPAN when they discuss matters of importance to viewers
in the U.S. Similarly, the networks will sometimes broadcast
news reports from around the world when major events occur – for
CBC Television coverage of the September 11
C-SPAN also covers lying in state in the Capitol Rotunda
and funerals of former presidents and other notable
individuals. In 2005,
Hurricane Katrina through NBC
WDSU in New Orleans, as well as coverage of Hurricane Ike
CBS affiliate KHOU in Houston.
C-SPAN also carries CBC
coverage during events that affect Canadians, such as the Canadian
federal elections, the death and state funeral of Pierre
Trudeau, and the 2003 North America blackout. During early
C-SPAN carried broadcasts by
Al Jazeera to cover the events in
Egypt, Tunisia, and other Arab nations. Additionally, C-SPAN
NASA Space Shuttle mission launches and landings live,
using video footage and audio sourced from
With its public affairs programming,
C-SPAN intends to offer different
points of view, by allowing time for multiple opinions to be discussed
on a given topic. For example, in 2004
C-SPAN intended to televise a
Deborah Lipstadt adjacent to a speech by
Holocaust denier David Irving, who had unsuccessfully sued Lipstadt
for libel in the
United Kingdom four years earlier;
criticized for its use of the word "balance" to describe the plan to
cover both Lipstadt and Irving. When Lipstadt ended media
access to her speech,
C-SPAN canceled coverage of both.
The network strives for neutrality and a lack of bias; in all
programming when on-camera hosts are present their role is simply to
facilitate and explain proceedings to the viewer. Due to this
C-SPAN hosts do not state their names on television. 
C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 flagship programs
While many hours of programming on
C-SPAN are dedicated to coverage of
the House, the network's daily programming begins with the political
telephone call-in and interview program
Washington Journal every
morning from 7:00 to 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time. Washington
Journal premiered on January 4, 1995 and has been broadcast every
weekday morning since then, with guests including elected officials,
government administrators, and journalists. The program covers current
events, with guests answering questions on topics provided by the
hosts as well as from members of the general public. On the
weekend schedule, C-SPAN's main programs are: America and the Courts,
which is shown each Saturday at 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time,
Newsmakers, a Sunday morning interview program with newsworthy
guests; Q&A, a Sunday evening interview program hosted by
Brian Lamb, with guests including journalists, politicians, authors,
and other public figures; and The Communicators, which features
interviews with journalists, government officials, and businesspeople
involved with the communications industry and related legislation.
On weekends C-SPAN2 dedicates its schedule to Book TV, which is 48
hours of programming about non-fiction books, book events, and
Book TV was first launched in September 1998.
originally broadcast from 1989 to 2004, as a one-hour one-on-one
interview of a non-fiction author. Repeats of the interviews
remain a regular part of the
Book TV schedule with the title Encore
Book TV programs feature political and historical
books and biographies of public figures. These include In Depth, a
live, monthly, three-hour interview with a single author, and After
Words, an author interview program featuring guest hosts
interviewing authors on topics with which both are familiar. After
Words was developed as a new type of author interview program after
the end of production of Booknotes. Weekend programming on Book TV
also includes coverage of book events such as panel discussions, book
fairs, book signings, readings by authors and tours of bookstores
around the U.S.
The programming on C-SPAN3 from Monday through Friday features
uninterrupted live public affairs events, in particular political
events from Washington, D.C. Each weekend since January 8, 2011,
the network has broadcast 48 hours of programming dedicated to the
history of the United States, under the umbrella title American
History TV. The programming covers the history of the U.S.
from the founding of the nation through the late 20th century.
Programs include American Artifacts, which is dedicated to exploring
museums, archives and historical sites, and Lectures in History,
featuring major university history professors giving lectures on U.S.
history. In 2009, C-SPAN3 aired an eight-installment series of
interviews from the
Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics
Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics at the
University of Kansas, which featured historian Richard Norton Smith
and Vice President Walter Mondale, among other interviewees.
C-SPAN has occasionally produced spinoff programs from Booknotes
focusing on specific topics. In 1994,
Booknotes collaborated with
Harold Holzer to produce re-creations of the seven
Lincoln–Douglas debates. Several years later, a similar series
retraced the journey of
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville described in Democracy
in America. Another special series was American Writers, a 38-week
tour of the U.S. based on the works of 40 famous American writers.
During 2008 and 2009, as part of programming specially commissioned
for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln, C-SPAN
produced a series titled Lincoln 200 Years, which featured episodes on
a variety of topics relating to the life of Lincoln including his
career, his homes and his opinions of slavery.
The network has also produced special feature documentaries of
American institutions and historical landmarks, exploring their
history to the present day. These programs include: The Capitol
emphasizing the history, art, and architecture of the U.S. Capitol
Building; The White House, featuring film footage inside the White
House and exploring the history of the building and its occupants;
The Supreme Court, focusing on the history and personalities of the
court; and Inside Blair House, an examination of the president's
C-SPAN introduced a new program, First Ladies: Influence
& Image. 35 episodes profiling the
First Ladies are planned for
the series, which was created with support from the White House
In addition to the three television networks,
C-SPAN also broadcasts
C-SPAN Radio, which is carried on their owned-and-operated station
WCSP (90.1 FM) in the
Washington, D.C. area with all three cable
network feeds airing via
HD Radio subchannels, and nationwide on XM
Satellite Radio. Its programming is also livestreamed at
c-span.org and is available via apps for iPhone,
C-SPAN Radio has a selective policy regarding
its broadcast content, rather than duplicating the television network
programming, although it does offer some audio simulcasts of programs
such as Washington Journal. Unique programming on the radio
station includes oral histories, and some committee meetings and press
conferences not shown on television due to programming commitments.
The station also compiles the
Sunday morning talk shows for a same-day
rebroadcast without commercials, in rapid succession.
Home page of the
C-SPAN Video Library
C-SPAN archival video is available through the
C-SPAN Video Library,
maintained at the
Purdue Research Park
Purdue Research Park in West Lafayette, Indiana.
First unveiled in August 2007, the
C-SPAN Video Library contains
all of the network's programming since 1987, totaling more than
160,000 hours at its completion of digitization and public debut in
March 2010. Older
C-SPAN programming continues to be added to
the library, dating back to the beginning of the network in 1979,
and some limited earlier footage from the National Archives, such as
film clips of Richard Nixon's 1972 trip to China, is available as
well. Most of the recordings before 1987 (when the
was established) were not saved, except for approximately 10,000 hours
of video which are slated to be made available online. As of June
C-SPAN Video Library held approximately 200,000 hours of
programming. Described by media commentators as a major
educational service and a valuable resource for researchers of
politics and history, the
C-SPAN Video Library has also
had a major role in media and opposition research in several U.S.
political campaigns. It won a
Peabody Award in 2010 "for creating
an enduring archive of the history of American policymaking, and for
providing it as a free, user-friendly public service."
Prior to the initiation of the
C-SPAN Video Library, websites such as
Metavid and voterwatch.org hosted House and Senate video records,
C-SPAN contested Metavid's usage of
footage. The result was Metavid's removal of portions of the archive
produced with C-SPAN's cameras, while preserving its archive of
C-SPAN also engaged in actions to
stop parties from making unauthorized uses of its content online,
including its video of House and Senate proceedings. Most notably, in
C-SPAN requested the removal of Stephen Colbert's
performance at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner from
YouTube. After concerns by some webloggers,
Google Video to host the full event. On March 7,
C-SPAN liberalized its copyright policy for current, future, and
past coverage of any official events sponsored by Congress and any
federal agency and now allows for attributed non-commercial copying,
sharing, and posting of
C-SPAN video on the Internet,
excluding re-syndication of live video streams. The new policy did not
affect the public's right to use the public domain video coverage of
the floor proceedings of the U.S. House and Senate.
In 2008, C-SPAN's online political coverage was expanded just prior to
the elections, with the introduction of three special pages on the
C-SPAN website: the
C-SPAN Convention Hubs and
C-SPAN Debate Hub,
which offered video of major events as well as discussion from weblogs
and social media about the major party conventions and candidate
C-SPAN brought back the Convention Hub for the 2012
In addition to the programming available in the
C-SPAN Video Library,
C-SPAN programming is available as a live feed streamed on its
Flash Video format.
On July 29, 2014,
C-SPAN announced that it would begin restricting
access to the live feeds of the main channel, C-SPAN2 and C-SPAN3 to
subscribers of cable or satellite providers later that summer, citing
concerns with the slow shift in viewing habits from cable television
to the internet due to its reliance on carriage fees from cable and
satellite providers. However, it will continue to allow all government
meetings, hearings and conferences to be streamed live online and via
archived on the
C-SPAN Video Library without requiring an
authenticated login by a provider. The decision drew some criticism
from public interest and government transparency advocates, citing the
C-SPAN was designed as a public service.
Organization and operations
Brian Lamb in 2012 flanked by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan
National Cable Satellite Corporation
November 14, 1978; 39 years ago (1978-11-14)
Tax ID no.
501(c)(3) nonprofit organization
C-SPAN Education Foundation
C-SPAN is operated by the National Cable Satellite Corporation, a
nonprofit organization, the board of directors of which consists
primarily of representatives of the largest cable companies.
Early chairmen of
C-SPAN include Bob Rosencrans, John Saeman, Ed Allen
and Gene Schneider. Funding for
C-SPAN does not derive from
advertising; instead, it receives nearly all of its funding from
subscriber fees charged to cable and direct-broadcast satellite (DBS)
As of 2012,
C-SPAN received 6¢ of each subscriber's cable bill for an
annual budget of $60 million. As the network is an independent
entity, neither the cable industry nor Congress controls the content
of its programming.
As of January 2013[update], the network has 282 employees.
C-SPAN is led by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. Founder and
Brian Lamb serves as the executive chairman of the board of
directors. The majority of C-SPAN's employees are based at
C-SPAN's headquarters located on
Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.,
however in 2003 television studios were opened in
New York City
New York City and
Denver, Colorado. These studios use digital equipment that can be
controlled from Washington.
C-SPAN also maintains archives in
West Lafayette, Indiana
West Lafayette, Indiana at the
Purdue Research Park
Purdue Research Park under the direction of Dr. Robert X.
C-SPAN networks are available in more than 100 million households
as of 2010[update], not including access to the C-SPAN
websites. More than 7,000 telephone callers have participated
with discussion on
Washington Journal as of March 18,
2009[update]. There are not any official viewing statistics for
C-SPAN because the network, which has no commercials or underwriting
advertisements, does not use the Nielsen ratings. However, there
have been a number of surveys providing estimates:
A 1994 survey found that 8.6% of the U.S. population regularly watched
In 2004 this figure increased to 12% of the U.S. population, according
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center survey, while 31% of the population was
categorized as occasional viewers. More than 28 million people
said they watched
C-SPAN programming each week.
A March 2009 Hart Research survey found that 20% of homes with cable
C-SPAN at least once a week, for an estimated 39
A 2010 poll conducted by
Penn Schoen Berland
Penn Schoen Berland estimates that
79 million adults in the U.S. watched
C-SPAN at some time from 2009 to
In January 2013, Hart Research conducted another survey which showed
that 47 million adults, or 24% of adults with access to cable
C-SPAN weekly. Of the 47 million regular
C-SPAN viewers, 51% are male and 49% female; 26% are liberal, 31%
conservative, and 39% moderate. About half are college graduates. 28%
of 18-to-49-year-olds report watching at least once a week, as do 19%
of 50- to 64-year-olds, and 22% of those over age 65.
BBC Parliament channel in the UK take some
Washington Journal on Sundays.
Public and media opinion
C-SPAN survey of viewers found that the network's most-valued
attribute was its balanced programming. The survey's respondents were
a mixed group, with 31% describing themselves as "liberal," while 28%
described themselves as "conservative", and the survey found that
C-SPAN viewers are an equal mixture of men and women of all age
C-SPAN's public service nature has been praised as an enduring
contribution to national knowledge. In 1987, Andrew Rosenthal
The New York Times
The New York Times about C-SPAN's influence in political
elections, arguing that C-SPAN's "blanket coverage" had expanded
television journalism "into areas once shielded from general
view". The network has received positive media coverage for
providing public access to proceedings such as the Goldman Sachs
Senate hearings, and the U.S. 2010 Healthcare Summit, while
its everyday programming has been credited with providing the media
and the general public with an intimate knowledge of U.S. political
proceedings and people. The ability of
provide this service without federal funding, advertising or
soliciting viewer contributions has been remarked by local newspapers
and online news services, with the
Daily Beast terming C-SPAN's $55
million annual budget (in 2009), "an astounding bargain." In
an article on the 25th anniversary of the network, The Washington Post
noted that C-SPAN's programming has been copied by television networks
worldwide and credits the network with providing information about
foreign politics to American viewers. According to The New York
Times, C-SPAN's mission to record official events in Washington, D.C.
makes it "one of a kind", particularly in the creation of the C-SPAN
Video Library, which received significant press coverage.
Despite its stated commitment to providing politically balanced
C-SPAN and its shows such as Washington Journal,
Booknotes, Q & A, and
After Words have been accused by some
liberal organizations of having a conservative bias. In 2005, the
media criticism organization
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR)
released a study of C-SPAN's morning telephone call-in show Washington
Journal, showing that Republicans were favored as guests over
Democrats by a two-to-one margin during a six-month period that year,
and that people of color are underrepresented. A 2007 survey
released by the
Center for Economic and Policy Research
Center for Economic and Policy Research reported that
C-SPAN covered conservative think tanks more than left-of-center think
In 1992, Congress passed must-carry regulations, which required cable
carriers to allocate spectrum to local broadcasters. This affected the
C-SPAN in some areas, in particular C-SPAN2, as some
providers chose to discontinue carriage of the channel
altogether. Between 1993 and 1994, cable systems in 95 U.S.
cities dropped or reduced broadcasts of
C-SPAN and C-SPAN2, following
the implementation of the must-carry regulations. Viewers
protested these decisions, especially when the changes coincided with
matters of local interest occurring in the House or Senate. Some
communities, such as
Eugene, Oregon and Alexandria, Virginia, were
successful in restoring
C-SPAN availability was
later restored as technological developments that resulted in the
expansion of channel capacity on cable providers allowed for mandatory
stations and the
C-SPAN networks both to be broadcast.
C-SPAN Digital Bus, which tours the U.S. educating the public about
C-SPAN offers a number of public services related to the network's
public affairs programming.
C-SPAN Classroom, a free membership
service for teachers, began in July 1987 and offers help using C-SPAN
resources for classes or research. The
C-SPAN School Bus,
introduced in November 1993, traveled around the U.S. educating the
public about government and politics using
C-SPAN resources, and
served as a mobile television studio. The bus also recorded video
footage of the places that it visited. A second bus was
introduced in 1996. The two original buses were retired in 2010,
C-SPAN Digital Bus was inaugurated, introducing the public to
C-SPAN's enhanced digital products.
C-SPAN has also equipped six
Local Content Vehicles (LCVs) to travel the country and record unique
political and historical stories, with each vehicle containing
production and web-based technologies to produce on-the-spot
C-SPAN has published ten books based on its programming; these contain
original material and text taken from interview transcripts. The first
C-SPAN book, C-SPAN: America's Town Hall, was published in 1988.
C-SPAN books include: Gavel to Gavel: A
C-SPAN Guide to
Congress; Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?, a guide to the grave
sites of U.S. presidents;
Abraham Lincoln - Great American
Historians On Our Sixteenth President, a collection of essays based on
C-SPAN interviews with American historians; and The Supreme
Court, which features biographies and interviews with past Supreme
Court judges together with commentary from legal experts. Five
books have been drawn from the former
Booknotes program: Booknotes:
Life Stories; Booknotes: On American Character; Booknotes:
Stories from American History; Booknotes: America's Finest
Authors on Reading, Writing and the Power of Ideas, the latter a
compilation of short monologues taken from the transcripts of Lamb's
interviews; and a companion book to the series on Tocqueville,
Traveling Tocqueville's America: A Tour Book.
Television in the
United States portal
Public, educational, and government access
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forecast for November;
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used for educational purposes.
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C-SPAN Classroom – Educator resources
Appearances of People by C-SPAN
Road to the White House
Prime Minister's Questions
programs by month
American Presidents: Life Portraits
American Writers: A Journey Through History
First Ladies: Influence & Image
The Lincoln–Douglas Debates
C-SPAN Video Library
C-SPAN Bus program
Robert X. Browning
John D. Evans
Parliamentary and public affairs broadcasters
EuroparlTV (European Union)
Europe by Satellite
Europe by Satellite (European Union)
UN Web TV (United Nations)
AM Network (New Zealand)
BBC Parliament (United Kingdom)
Camera dei Deputati (Italy)
Canal del Congreso (Mexico)
Canal Parlamento (Spain)
Sangsad Television (Bangladesh)
CBC Radio (Barbados)
Chamber TV (Luxembourg)
La Chaîne parlementaire
La Chaîne parlementaire (France)
C-SPAN (United States)
Al Jazeera Mubasher Al-‘Amma (Middle East)
Knesset Channel (Israel)
Lok Sabha TV (India)
Rajya Sabha TV
Rajya Sabha TV (India)
Houses of the Oireachtas Channel (Ireland)
Parliamentary Channel 1 & Parliamentary Channel 2 (Taiwan)
PTV News (Pakistan)
Parliament TV (New Zealand)
Rada TV (Ukraine)
Radio Radicale (Italy)
Rai GR Parlamento
Rai GR Parlamento (Italy)
TV Senado (Brazil)
TV Câmara (Brazil)
Senato Italiano (Italy)
Q 100.7 FM (Barbados)
Vouli Tileorasi (Greece)
TVP Parlament (Poland)
National Assembly Television (South Korea)
Television news in the United States
BBC World News
CNN en Español
One America News
Free Speech TV
The Weather Channel
Independent News Network
Weather Services International
ABC News Now
Al Jazeera America
All News Channel
NBC Weather Plus
CBC Newsworld International
The Weather Cast
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