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AT"> Sen. Robert Byrd (right), C-SPAN's founder Brian Lamb (left) and Paul FitzPatrick flip the switch for C-SPAN2 on June 2, 1986. FitzPatrick was C-SPAN
C-SPAN
president at the time.

In 2004, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN
C-SPAN
during its early years. Also included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind.

To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8. The network also had a viewer essay contest, the winner of which was invited to host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol Hill
Capitol Hill
studios.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF COVERAGE

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
continues to expand its coverage of government proceedings, with a history of requests to government officials for greater access, especially to the U.S. Supreme Court . In December 2009, Lamb wrote to leaders in the House and Senate, requesting that negotiations for health care reform be televised by C-SPAN. Committee meetings on health care were broadcast subsequently by C-SPAN
C-SPAN
and may be viewed on the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
website. In November 2010, Lamb wrote to incoming House Speaker John Boehner requesting changes to restrictions on cameras in the House. In particular, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
asked to add some of its own robotically operated cameras to the existing government-controlled cameras in the House chamber. In February 2011, Boehner denied the request. A previous request to Speaker Designate Nancy Pelosi in 2006, to add C-SPAN's cameras in the House chamber to record floor proceedings, was also denied. Although C-SPAN
C-SPAN
uses the congressional chamber feed cables, the cameras are owned and controlled by each respective body of Congress. Requests by C-SPAN
C-SPAN
for camera access to non-government events such as the annual dinner by the Gridiron Club have also been denied.

On June 22 and into June 23, 2016, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
took video footage of the House floor from individual House representatives via streaming services Periscope and Facebook
Facebook
Live during a sit-in by House Democrats asking for a vote on gun control measures after the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting . This needed to be done because—as the sit-in was done out of formal session and while the House was in official recess—the existing House cameras could not be utilized for coverage of the event by rule. Although the use of electronic devices to create the Periscope feeds by House Democrats violated House rules that prohibit their use on the floor, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
did not state why it chose to broadcast those feeds. The network ran disclaimers on-air and on their official social media feeds noting the restrictions.

EXPANSION AND TECHNOLOGY

Since the late 1990s, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has significantly expanded its online presence. In January 1997, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
began real-time streaming of C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 on its website, the first time that Congress had been live streamed online. To cover the Democratic and Republican conventions and the presidential debates of 2008, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
created two standalone websites: the Convention Hub and the Debate Hub. In addition to real-time streams of C-SPAN's television networks online, c-span.org features further live programming such as committee hearings and speeches that are broadcast later in the day, after the House and Senate have left.

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
began promoting audience interaction early in its history, by the regular incorporation of viewer telephone calls in its programming. It has since expanded into social media. In March 2009, viewers began submitting questions live via Twitter to guests on C-SPAN's morning call-in show Washington Journal . The network also has a Facebook
Facebook
page to which it added occasional live streaming in January 2011. The live stream is intended to show selected well-publicized events of Congress. In June 2010, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
joined with the website Foursquare to provide users of the application with access to geotagged C-SPAN
C-SPAN
content at various locations in Washington, D.C.

In 2010, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
began a transition to high definition telecasts, planned to take place over an 18-month period. The network provided C-SPAN
C-SPAN
and C-SPAN2 in high definition on June 1, 2010, and C-SPAN3 in July 2010.

PROGRAMMING

SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

The C-SPAN
C-SPAN
network's core programming is live coverage of the U.S. House and Senate, with the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
channel emphasizing the United States House of Representatives . Between 1979 and May 2011, the network televised more than 24,246 hours of floor action. C-SPAN2, the first of the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
spin-off networks, provides uninterrupted live coverage of the United States Senate . With coverage of the House and Senate, viewers can track legislation as it moves through both bodies of Congress. Important debates in Congress that C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has covered live include the Persian Gulf conflict during 1991, and the House impeachment vote and Senate trial of President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in 1998 and 1999. When the House or Senate are not in session, C-SPAN channels broadcast other public affairs programming.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS

The public affairs coverage on the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
networks other than the House and Senate floor debates is wide-ranging. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
is considered a useful source of information for journalists, lobbyists, educators and government officials as well as casual viewers interested in politics, due to its unedited coverage of political events. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has been described by media observers as a "window into the world of Washington politics" and it characterizes its own mission as being "to provide public access to the political process". The networks cover U.S. political campaigns, including the Republican , Democratic , and Libertarian presidential nominating conventions in their entirety. Coverage of presidential campaign events are provided during the duration of the campaign, both by a weekly television program, Road to the White House , and at its dedicated politics website. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
also covers midterm elections . C-SPAN
C-SPAN
broadcasts the beginning of the 112th Congress on January 5, 2011

All three channels televise events such as congressional hearings , White House press briefings and presidential speeches, as well as other government meetings including Federal Communications Commission hearings and Pentagon press conferences. Other U.S. political coverage includes State of the Union speeches, and presidential press conferences. According to the results of a survey after the 1992 presidential election , 85% of C-SPAN
C-SPAN
viewers voted in that election. The results of a similar survey in 2013 found that 89% of C-SPAN viewers voted in the 2012 presidential election. In addition to this political coverage, the network broadcasts press conferences and meetings of various news media and nonprofit organizations, including those at the National Press Club , public policy seminars and the White House Correspondents\' Dinner . While C-SPAN
C-SPAN
does not have video access to the Supreme Court, the network has used the Court's audio recordings accompanied by still photographs of the justices and lawyers to cover the Court in session on significant cases, and has covered individual Supreme Court justices' speaking engagements.

Occasionally, proceedings of the Parliament of Australia , Parliament of Canada
Canada
, Parliament of the United Kingdom (usually Prime Minister\'s Questions and the State Opening of Parliament ) and other governments are shown on C-SPAN
C-SPAN
when they discuss matters of importance to viewers in the U.S. Similarly, the networks will sometimes broadcast news reports from around the world when major events occur – for instance, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
broadcast CBC Television coverage of the September 11 attacks . C-SPAN
C-SPAN
also covers lying in state in the Capitol Rotunda and funerals of former presidents and other notable individuals. In 2005, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
covered Hurricane Katrina through NBC affiliate WDSU in New Orleans
New Orleans
, as well as coverage of Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike
via CBS
CBS
affiliate KHOU in Houston
Houston
. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
also carries CBC coverage during events that affect Canadians , such as the Canadian federal elections , the death and state funeral of Pierre Trudeau , and the 2003 North America blackout . During early 2011, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
carried broadcasts by Al Jazeera to cover the events in Egypt , Tunisia , and other Arab nations. Additionally, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
simulcasts NASA
NASA
Space Shuttle mission launches and landings live, using video footage and audio sourced from NASA
NASA
TV .

With its public affairs programming, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
intends to offer different points of view, by allowing time for multiple opinions to be discussed on a given topic. For example, in 2004 C-SPAN
C-SPAN
intended to televise a speech by Holocaust
Holocaust
historian Deborah Lipstadt adjacent to a speech by Holocaust
Holocaust
denier David Irving , who had unsuccessfully sued Lipstadt for libel in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
four years earlier; C-SPAN
C-SPAN
was criticized for its use of the word "balance" to describe the plan to cover both Lipstadt and Irving. When Lipstadt ended media access to her speech, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
canceled coverage of both.

The network strives for neutrality and a lack of bias ; in all programming when on-camera hosts are present their role is simply to facilitate and explain proceedings to the viewer. Due to this policy, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
hosts do not state their names on television.

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
AND C-SPAN2 FLAGSHIP PROGRAMS

While many hours of programming on C-SPAN
C-SPAN
are dedicated to coverage of the House, the network's daily programming begins with the political telephone call-in and interview program Washington Journal every morning from 7:00 to 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time. Washington Journal premiered on January 4, 1995 and has been broadcast every weekday morning since then, with guests including elected officials, government administrators, and journalists. The program covers current events, with guests answering questions on topics provided by the hosts as well as from members of the general public. On the weekend schedule, C-SPAN's main programs are: America and the Courts, which is shown each Saturday at 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Newsmakers, a Sunday morning interview program with newsworthy guests; Q and The Communicators, which features interviews with journalists, government officials, and businesspeople involved with the communications industry and related legislation.

On weekends C-SPAN2 dedicates its schedule to Book TV , which is 48 hours of programming about non-fiction books, book events, and authors. Book TV was first launched in September 1998. Booknotes was originally broadcast from 1989 to 2004 , as a one-hour one-on-one interview of a non-fiction author. Repeats of the interviews remain a regular part of the Book TV schedule with the title Encore Booknotes. Other Book TV programs feature political and historical books and biographies of public figures. These include In Depth , a live, monthly, three-hour interview with a single author, and After Words , an author interview program featuring guest hosts interviewing authors on topics with which both are familiar. After Words was developed as a new type of author interview program after the end of production of Booknotes. Weekend programming on Book TV also includes coverage of book events such as panel discussions, book fairs, book signings, readings by authors and tours of bookstores around the U.S.

C-SPAN3

The programming on C-SPAN3 from Monday through Friday features uninterrupted live public affairs events, in particular political events from Washington, D.C. Each weekend since January 8, 2011, the network has broadcast 48 hours of programming dedicated to the history of the United States, under the umbrella title American History TV. The programming covers the history of the U.S. from the founding of the nation through the late 20th century. Programs include American Artifacts, which is dedicated to exploring museums, archives and historical sites, and Lectures in History, featuring major university history professors giving lectures on U.S. history. In 2009, C-SPAN3 aired an eight-installment series of interviews from the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics at the University of Kansas , which featured historian Richard Norton Smith and Vice President Walter Mondale , among other interviewees.

SPECIAL PROGRAMMING

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has occasionally produced spinoff programs from Booknotes focusing on specific topics. In 1994, Booknotes collaborated with Lincoln scholar Harold Holzer to produce re-creations of the seven Lincoln–Douglas debates . Several years later, a similar series retraced the journey of Alexis de Tocqueville described in Democracy in America . Another special series was American Writers , a 38-week tour of the U.S. based on the works of 40 famous American writers.

During 2008 and 2009, as part of programming specially commissioned for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
, C-SPAN produced a series titled Lincoln 200 Years, which featured episodes on a variety of topics relating to the life of Lincoln including his career, his homes and his opinions of slavery.

The network has also produced special feature documentaries of American institutions and historical landmarks, exploring their history to the present day. These programs include: The Capitol emphasizing the history, art, and architecture of the U.S. Capitol Building; The White House, featuring film footage inside the White House and exploring the history of the building and its occupants; The Supreme Court, focusing on the history and personalities of the court; and Inside Blair House, an examination of the president\'s guest house .

In 2013, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
introduced a new program, First Ladies: Influence "> Home page of the C-SPAN Video Library

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
archival video is available through the C-SPAN Video Library , maintained at the Purdue Research Park in West Lafayette, Indiana . First unveiled in August 2007, the C-SPAN Video Library contains all of the network's programming since 1987, totaling more than 160,000 hours at its completion of digitization and public debut in March 2010. Older C-SPAN
C-SPAN
programming continues to be added to the library, dating back to the beginning of the network in 1979, and some limited earlier footage from the National Archives , such as film clips of Richard Nixon 's 1972 trip to China, is available as well. Most of the recordings before 1987 (when the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Archive was established) were not saved, except for approximately 10,000 hours of video which are slated to be made available online. As of June 2013, the C-SPAN Video Library held approximately 200,000 hours of programming. Described by media commentators as a major educational service and a valuable resource for researchers of politics and history, the C-SPAN Video Library has also had a major role in media and opposition research in several U.S. political campaigns. It won a Peabody Award in 2010 "for creating an enduring archive of the history of American policymaking, and for providing it as a free, user-friendly public service."

Prior to the initiation of the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Video Library, websites such as Metavid and voterwatch.org hosted House and Senate video records, however C-SPAN
C-SPAN
contested Metavid's usage of C-SPAN
C-SPAN
copyrighted footage. The result was Metavid's removal of portions of the archive produced with C-SPAN's cameras, while preserving its archive of government-produced content. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
also engaged in actions to stop parties from making unauthorized uses of its content online, including its video of House and Senate proceedings. Most notably, in May 2006, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
requested the removal of Stephen Colbert\'s performance at the White House Correspondents\' Association Dinner from YouTube . After concerns by some webloggers, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
gave permission for Google Video to host the full event. On March 7, 2007 C-SPAN
C-SPAN
liberalized its copyright policy for current, future, and past coverage of any official events sponsored by Congress and any federal agency and now allows for attributed non-commercial copying, sharing, and posting of C-SPAN
C-SPAN
video on the Internet, excluding re-syndication of live video streams. The new policy did not affect the public's right to use the public domain video coverage of the floor proceedings of the U.S. House and Senate.

In 2008, C-SPAN's online political coverage was expanded just prior to the elections, with the introduction of three special pages on the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
website: the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Convention Hubs and C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Debate Hub, which offered video of major events as well as discussion from weblogs and social media about the major party conventions and candidate debates. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
brought back the Convention Hub for the 2012 presidential election .

In addition to the programming available in the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Video Library, all C-SPAN
C-SPAN
programming is available as a live feed streamed on its website in Flash Video format.

On July 29, 2014, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
announced that it would begin restricting access to the live feeds of the main channel, C-SPAN2 and C-SPAN3 to subscribers of cable or satellite providers later that summer, citing concerns with the slow shift in viewing habits from cable television to the internet due to its reliance on carriage fees from cable and satellite providers. However, it will continue to allow all government meetings, hearings and conferences to be streamed live online and via archived on the C-SPAN Video Library without requiring an authenticated login by a provider. The decision drew some criticism from public interest and government transparency advocates, citing the fact that C-SPAN
C-SPAN
was designed as a public service.

ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS

Founder Brian Lamb in 2012 flanked by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain ‹ The template Infobox organization is being considered for merging . ›

National Cable Satellite Corporation FOUNDED November 14, 1978; 38 years ago (1978-11-14)

TAX ID NO. 84-0751854

LEGAL STATUS 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization

HEADQUARTERS Washington, D.C.

CHAIRMAN , PRESIDENT Brian Lamb

AFFILIATIONS C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Education Foundation

REVENUE (2014) $73,244,854

EXPENSES (2014) $63,409,586

EMPLOYEES (2013) 337

MISSION To produce, distribute, and archive video and audio coverage of governmental and public affairs events.

WEBSITE www.c-span.org

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
is operated by the National Cable Satellite Corporation, a nonprofit organization , the board of directors of which consists primarily of representatives of the largest cable companies. Early chairmen of C-SPAN
C-SPAN
include Bob Rosencrans, John Saeman, Ed Allen and Gene Schneider. Funding for C-SPAN
C-SPAN
does not derive from advertising; instead, it receives nearly all of its funding from subscriber fees charged to cable and direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) operators.

As of 2012, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
received 6¢ of each subscriber's cable bill for an annual budget of $60 million. As the network is an independent entity, neither the cable industry nor Congress controls the content of its programming.

As of January 2013 , the network has 282 employees. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
is led by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. Founder and former CEO Brian Lamb serves as the executive chairman of the board of directors. The majority of C-SPAN's employees are based at C-SPAN's headquarters located on Capitol Hill
Capitol Hill
in Washington, D.C., however in 2003 television studios were opened in New York City
New York City
and Denver, Colorado . These studios use digital equipment that can be controlled from Washington.

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
also maintains archives in West Lafayette, Indiana at the Purdue Research Park under the direction of Dr. Robert X. Browning .

AVAILABILITY

The C-SPAN
C-SPAN
networks are available in more than 100 million households as of 2010 , not including access to the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
websites. More than 7,000 telephone callers have participated with discussion on Washington Journal as of March 18, 2009 . There are not any official viewing statistics for C-SPAN
C-SPAN
because the network, which has no commercials or underwriting advertisements, does not use the Nielsen ratings . However, there have been a number of surveys providing estimates:

* A 1994 survey found that 8.6% of the U.S. population regularly watched C-SPAN. * In 2004 this figure increased to 12% of the U.S. population, according to a Pew Research Center survey, while 31% of the population was categorized as occasional viewers. More than 28 million people said they watched C-SPAN
C-SPAN
programming each week. * A March 2009 Hart Research survey found that 20% of homes with cable television watch C-SPAN
C-SPAN
at least once a week, for an estimated 39 million Americans. * A 2010 poll conducted by C-SPAN
C-SPAN
and Penn Schoen Berland estimates that 79 million adults in the U.S. watched C-SPAN
C-SPAN
at some time from 2009 to 2010. * In January 2013, Hart Research conducted another survey which showed that 47 million adults, or 24% of adults with access to cable television, watch C-SPAN
C-SPAN
weekly. Of the 47 million regular C-SPAN viewers, 51% are male and 49% female; 26% are liberal, 31% conservative, and 39% moderate. About half are college graduates. 28% of 18-to-49-year-olds report watching at least once a week, as do 19% of 50- to 64-year-olds, and 22% of those over age 65. * BBC Parliament channel in the UK take some C-SPAN
C-SPAN
programming, including Washington Journal on Sundays.

PUBLIC AND MEDIA OPINION

A 2009 C-SPAN
C-SPAN
survey of viewers found that the network's most-valued attribute was its balanced programming. The survey's respondents were a mixed group, with 31% describing themselves as "liberal ," while 28% described themselves as "conservative ", and the survey found that C-SPAN
C-SPAN
viewers are an equal mixture of men and women of all age groups.

C-SPAN's public service nature has been praised as an enduring contribution to national knowledge. In 1987, Andrew Rosenthal wrote for The New York Times about C-SPAN's influence in political elections, arguing that C-SPAN's "blanket coverage" had expanded television journalism "into areas once shielded from general view". The network has received positive media coverage for providing public access to proceedings such as the Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
Senate hearings, and the U.S. 2010 Healthcare Summit, while its everyday programming has been credited with providing the media and the general public with an intimate knowledge of U.S. political proceedings and people. The ability of C-SPAN
C-SPAN
to provide this service without federal funding, advertising or soliciting viewer contributions has been remarked by local newspapers and online news services, with the Daily Beast terming C-SPAN's $55 million annual budget (in 2009), "an astounding bargain." In an article on the 25th anniversary of the network, The Washington Post noted that C-SPAN's programming has been copied by television networks worldwide and credits the network with providing information about foreign politics to American viewers. According to The New York Times, C-SPAN's mission to record official events in Washington, D.C. makes it "one of a kind", particularly in the creation of the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Video Library, which received significant press coverage.

Despite its stated commitment to providing politically balanced programming, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
and its shows such as Washington Journal, Booknotes, Q "> C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Digital Bus, which tours the U.S. educating the public about C-SPAN
C-SPAN
resources

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
offers a number of public services related to the network's public affairs programming. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Classroom, a free membership service for teachers, began in July 1987 and offers help using C-SPAN resources for classes or research. The C-SPAN School Bus , introduced In November 1993, traveled around the U.S. educating the public about government and politics using C-SPAN
C-SPAN
resources, and served as a mobile television studio. The bus also recorded video footage of the places that it visited. A second bus was introduced in 1996. The two original buses were retired in 2010, and the C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Digital Bus was inaugurated, introducing the public to C-SPAN's enhanced digital products. C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has also equipped six Local Content Vehicles (LCVs) to travel the country and record unique political and historical stories, with each vehicle containing production and web-based technologies to produce on-the-spot content.

C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has published ten books based on its programming; these contain original material and text taken from interview transcripts. The first C-SPAN
C-SPAN
book, C-SPAN: America's Town Hall, was published in 1988. Other C-SPAN
C-SPAN
books include: Gavel to Gavel: A C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Guide to Congress; Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?, a guide to the grave sites of U.S. presidents; Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
- Great American Historians On Our Sixteenth President, a collection of essays based on C-SPAN interviews with American historians; and The Supreme Court, which features biographies and interviews with past Supreme Court judges together with commentary from legal experts. Five books have been drawn from the former Booknotes program: Booknotes: Life Stories; Booknotes: On American Character; Booknotes: Stories from American History; Booknotes: America's Finest Authors on Reading, Writing and the Power of Ideas, the latter a compilation of short monologues taken from the transcripts of Lamb's interviews; and a companion book to the series on Tocqueville, Traveling Tocqueville's America: A Tour Book.

SEE ALSO

* Politics portal * Television in the United States portal * Public, educational, and government access * Legislature broadcaster

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C "How to Listen to C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Radio". c-span.org. C-SPAN. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2013. * ^ "AMC 10 at 135.0°W". lyngsat.com. LyngSat. June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013. * ^ Booth, David R. (2010). Peer Participation and Software: What Mozilla Has to Teach Government. MIT Press . p. 81. ISBN 978-0-262-51461-3 . * ^ A B C D E Barnhart, Aaron (May 3, 2003). "Win like a lamb; C-SPAN
C-SPAN
remains a reliable source thanks to founder\'s fair approach". Kansas City Star . p. F1. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D "C-SPAN: The Other Washington Monument". tvnewscheck.com. News Check Media. April 20, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010. * ^ Mixon, Franklin G. (2003). Legislative Television As Political Advertising: A Public Choice Approach. iUniverse . p. 2. ISBN 978-0-595-27086-6 . * ^ "Original Cable Guy". college.columbia.edu. Columbia College . Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2008. * ^ Paddock, Travis (April 8, 1998). " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
chief says network has \'extended the gallery\'". The University Record. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan. Retrieved October 8, 2012. * ^ Frantzich, Stephen E.; John Sullivan (1996). The C-SPAN Revolution. University of Oklahoma Press . p. 30. ISBN 0-8061-2870-4 .

* ^ "Lamb opened government with C-SPAN". Journal & Courier . Lafayette, Indiana. November 3, 2007. p. 6A. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
By the Numbers". The Washington Post . March 14, 2004. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ Frantzich, Stephen E.; John Sullivan (1996). The C-SPAN Revolution. University of Oklahoma Press . p. 23. ISBN 0-8061-2870-4 .

* ^ A B Ruth Marcus (March 18, 2004). "Confessions of a C-SPAN Junkie". The Washington Post . p. A31. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D E Chris Wallace
Chris Wallace
(August 15, 2004). "Power Player of the Week Brian Lamb". Fox News Network . Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C Tom Shales (April 3, 1989). "C-SPAN, America\'s Town Hall; Looking Back on the Decade That Brought Government Home". The Washington Post . Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D Ragsdale, Shirley (March 14, 1999). " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
has taken viewers on tour of history, government for 20 years". Argus Leader . Sioux Falls, South Dakota. p. 10C. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D E F G H " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Milestones". c-span.org. C-SPAN. Retrieved October 8, 2010. * ^ A B Moss, Linda (February 19, 2001). "Time Warner Gives Lift to C-SPAN3". Multichannel News . Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A.B. Stoddard (October 15, 1997). "Rosty to be Released from Custody Today". The Hill . Washington, D.C. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B Babington, Charles (March 19, 2007). "Radio Deal Could Face Technical Difficulties; XM, Sirius Systems Already Strained". The Washington Post . Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ A B C D E Stelter, Brian (March 15, 2010). " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Puts Full Archives on the Web". The New York Times . Retrieved September 27, 2010. * ^ Bromwich, Jonah Engel (January 12, 2017). "C-Span Online Broadcast Interrupted by Russian Network". The New York Times. * ^ C-SPAN
C-SPAN
(January 12, 2017). "This afternoon the online feed for C-SPAN
C-SPAN
was briefly interrupted by RT programming." (Tweet) – via Twitter . * ^ A B C D Hodges, Ann (March 19, 1994). "Historic debates will mark 15 years of C-SPAN". The Houston
Houston
Chronicle . p. 4. Retrieved May 22, 2013. * ^ "American Presidents: Life Portraits". C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016. * ^ 59th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2000. * ^ " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
25th Anniversary Essay Winner". c-span.org. C-SPAN. Retrieved February 27, 2004. * ^ "C-SPAN\'s 24-Hour Call-In Marathon". c-span.org. C-SPAN. Retrieved June 4, 2011. * ^ David G. Savage (November 15, 2011). " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
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