Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]), also
called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English, is a city in
Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of
Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies
in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate,
and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian
Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created
goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the
Islamic Golden Age.
Caliph Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many
medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making
Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the
center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a
second-class status. It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236,
during the Reconquista. The historic centre was named a
Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in
Spain and Europe, with
average high temperatures around 37 °C (99 °F) in July and
1.1 Prehistory, antiquity and Roman foundation of the city
1.2 Umayyad rule
1.3 Modern history
4.2.1 Great Mosque of Córdoba
4.2.2 Minaret of San Juan
4.2.3 Mills of the Guadalquivir
4.2.4 Medina Azahara
4.2.5 Caliphal Baths
4.2.6 Calahorra Tower
4.3 Jewish Quarter
4.4.1 Fernandine churches
4.4.2 Other religious structures
4.4.3 Sculptures and memorials
5 Gardens, parks and natural environments
9 Politics and government
13 Twin towns – sister cities
15 Further reading
16 External links
See also: Timeline of Córdoba, Spain
Prehistory, antiquity and Roman foundation of the city
The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a
Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC. In the 8th
century BC, during the ancient
Tartessos period, a pre-urban
settlement existed. The population gradually learned
copper and silver metallurgy. The first historical
mention of a settlement dates to the
Carthaginian expansion across the
Guadalquivir, when general
Hamilcar Barca renamed it Kartuba, from
Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba", a
Numidian commander who had
died in a battle nearby. Córdoba was conquered by
the Romans in 206 BC.
In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus Claudius
Marcellus, who had governed both Further and Hither Spain, founded a
Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. Between
143 and 141 BC the town was besieged by Viriatus. A Roman forum is
known to have existed in the city in 113 BC. The
famous Cordoba Treasure, with mixed local and Roman artistic
traditions, was buried in the city at this time; it is now in the
It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC.
It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, and
settled with veterans by Augustus. It became capital of Baetica and
had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples. It was the chief
center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior (Further
Spain). Its republican poets were succeeded by Seneca and Lucan.
At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman
province of Hispania Baetica. The great Roman philosopher Seneca the
Younger, his father, the orator Seneca the Elder, and his
nephew, the poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba.
In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius (Ossius) was the dominant
figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent.
Later, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of
the Byzantine Empire (552–572) and under the Visigoths, who
conquered it in the late 6th century.
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba and Caliphate of Córdoba
Córdoba was captured in 711 by the Umayyad army. Unlike other
Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken
by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule. The
new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in
716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of
Damascus; in Arabic it was known as قرطبة (Qurṭuba).
Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent
Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the
Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I. Abd
al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and
purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766
Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Umayyad emirate,
later caliphate, of al-Andalus. By 800 the megacity of Cordoba
supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global
population. During the apogee of the caliphate (1000 AD), Córdoba had
a population of about 500,000 inhabitants; estimates range from
350,000 to 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one
of the most advanced cities in the world, and a great cultural,
political, financial and economic centre. The Great Mosque of
Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the
situation changed quickly. The vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler
of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on
philosophy to please the Moorish clergy; most of the others were sold
off or perished in the civil strife not long after.
In the ninth and tenth centuries, Córdoba was "one of the most
important cities in the history of the world." In it, "Christians and
Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the
Regarding Córdoba's importance, Reinhardt Dozy wrote:
The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun
Hroswitha, famous in the last half of the 10th century for her Latin
poems and dramas, called it the "Ornament of the World".
— Reinhardt Dozy
Córdoba had a prosperous economy with its "skilled artisans and
agricultural infrastructure," The manufactured goods for sale included
"leather and metal work, glazed tiles and textiles." The agricultural
produce included fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and raw materials
such as "cotton, flax and silk."
Córdoba was also famous as "a centre of learning." Education was
Al-Hakam II had a large library. Knowledge in the
fields of "medicine, mathematics, astronomy, botany" exceeded the rest
Roger Collins wrote:
The Arab conquest created the conditions for a state of almost
permanent warfare in the
Iberian Peninsula ... and in scale and
intensity exceeded anything to be found elsewhere in Western Europe in
Roger Collins in "Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031"
In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the
area of Rioja when he died. His death was the beginning of the end of
Córdoba. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded
to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008, possibly
assassinated. Sanchuelo, Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded
Sanchuelo was away fighting Alfonso V of Leon, a revolution
made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph.
Sanchuelo sued for pardon but he
was killed when he returned to Cardova. The slaves revolted against
Mahdi, killed him in 1009, and replaced him with
Hisham II in 1010.
Hisham II kept a male harem and was forced out of office. In 1012 the
Berbers "sacked Cardova." In 1016 the slaves captured Cardova and
searched for Hisham II, but he had escaped to Asia. This event was
followed by a fight for power until Hisham III, the last of the
Umayyads, was routed from Córdoba in 1031.
After 1031, Córdoba lost its prosperity and fame and became an
isolated city. The "ruling elite" were well known for their
"disinterest in the outside world ... and intellectual laziness." 
A city map of Córdoba,
Andalusia in 1851 (Spanish language edition)
During the process known as the Spanish Reconquista, Córdoba was
captured by King
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile on 29 June 1236, after a
siege of several months. The city was divided into 14 colaciones, and
numerous new church buildings were added. The centre of the mosque was
converted into a large Catholic cathedral.
The city declined, especially after
Renaissance times. In the 18th
century it was reduced to just 20,000 inhabitants. The population and
economy started to increase again only in the early 20th century.
With the most extensive historical heritages in the world declared
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO (on 17 December 1984), the city also has
a number of modern areas, including the districts of Zoco and the
railway station district.
The regional government (the Junta de Andalucía) has for some
time[when?] been studying the creation of a Córdoba Metropolitan Area
that would comprise, in addition to the capital itself, the towns of
Villafranca de Córdoba, Obejo, La Carlota, Villaharta, Villaviciosa,
Almodóvar del Río
Almodóvar del Río and Guadalcázar. The combined population of such
an area would be around 351,000. The Plano de Córdoba was also known
for its books and how they created it.
The city is on the banks of the
Guadalquivir river, and its easy
access to the mining resources of the
Sierra Morena (coal, lead, zinc)
satisfies the population's needs.
The city is in a depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. In the
north is the Sierra Morena, which defines the borders of the municipal
Córdoba is one of the few cities in the world that has a near-exact
antipodal city – Hamilton, New Zealand.
Córdoba has a Subtropical-
Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate
classification Csa). It has the highest summer average daily
temperatures in Europe (averaging 36.9 °C (98 °F) in July)
and days with temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) are common
in the summer months. August's 24-hour average of 28.0 °C
(82 °F) is also among the highest in Europe, despite relatively
cool nightly temperatures.
Winters are mild, yet cooler than other low lying cities in southern
Spain due to its interior location, wedged between the Sierra Morena
and the Penibaetic System.
Precipitation is concentrated in the
coldest months; this is due to the Atlantic coastal influence.
Precipitation is generated by storms from the west that occur most
frequently from December to February. This Atlantic characteristic
then gives way to a hot summer with significant drought more typical
of Mediterranean climates. Annual rain surpasses 600 mm
(24 in), although it is recognized to vary from year to year.
The registered maximum temperature at the Córdoba Airport, located at
6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city, was 46.9 °C
(116.4 °F) on 13 July 2017. The lowest registered temperature
was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F), on 28 January 2005.
Climate data for Córdoba (1981-2010), extremes (1949-present)
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Córdoba has the second largest Old town in Europe, the largest urban
area in the world declared World Heritage by UNESCO.
Roman Mausoleum in the Paseo de la Victoria.
The Roman Bridge, over the
Guadalquivir River, links the area of Campo
de la Verdad with Barrio de la Catedral. It was the only bridge of the
city for twenty centuries, until the construction of the San Rafael
Bridge in the mid-20th century. Built in the early 1st century BC,
during the period of Roman rule in Córdoba, probably replacing a more
primitive wooden one, it has a length of about 250 m and has 16
Other Roman remains include the Roman Temple, the Theatre, Mausoleum,
the Colonial Forum, the Forum Adiectum, an amphitheater and the
remains of the Palace of Emperor
Maximian in the archaeological site
Interior of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba.
Tower of Calahorra
Tower of Calahorra to one side of the Roman Bridge.
Great Mosque of Córdoba
Main article: Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba
From 784- 786 AD,
Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I built the Mezquita, or Great Mosque,
of Córdoba, in the Umayyad style of architecture with variations
inspired by indigenous Roman and Christian Visigothic structures.
Later caliphs extended the mosque with more domed bays, arches,
intricate mosaics and a minaret, making it one of the four wonders of
the medieval Islamic world. After the Christian reconquest of
Andalucía, a cathedral was built in the heart of the mosque, however
much of the original structure remains. It can be found in the
Historic Centre of Córdoba, a recognized World Heritage
Minaret of San Juan
Built in 930 AD, the mosque that this minaret adorned has been
replaced by a church and the minaret re-purposed as a tower. Even so,
it retains the characteristics of Islamic architecture in the region,
including two ornamental arches.
Mills of the Guadalquivir
Along the banks of the
Guadalquivir are the Mills of the Guadalquivir,
Moorish-era buildings that used the water flow to grind flour. They
include the Albolafia, Alegría, Carbonell, Casillas, Enmedio, Lope
García, Martos, Pápalo, San Antonio, San Lorenzo and San Rafael
On the outskirts of the city lies the archaeological site of the city
of Medina Azahara, which, together with the
Alhambra in Granada, is
one of the main examples of Spanish-Muslim architecture in Spain.
Near the stables are located, along the walls, the medieval Baths of
the Umayyad Caliphs.
Calleja de las Flores, with the Great Cathedral in the background.
Near the cathedral is the old Jewish quarter, which consists of many
irregular streets, such as
Calleja de las Flores
Calleja de las Flores and Calleja del
Pañuelo, and which is home to the Synagogue and the Sephardic House.
Puerta del Puente.
Surrounding the large Old town are the Roman walls: gates include the
Puerta de Almodóvar, the Puerta de Sevilla and Puerta del Puente,
which are the only three gates remaining from the original thirteen.
Towers and fortresses include the Malmuerta Tower,
Torre de Belén
Torre de Belén and
the Puerta del Rincón's Tower.
In the south of the Old town and east of the great cathedral, in the
Plaza del Potro, is the Posada del Potro, a row of inns mentioned in
literary works including Don Quixote and La Feria de los Discretos,
and which remained active until 1972. Both the plaza and the inn get
their name from the fountain in the centre of the plaza, which
represents a foal (potro). Not far from this plaza is the Arco del
Portillo (a 14th-century arch). In the extreme southwest of the Old
Town is the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, a former royal property
and the seat of the Inquisition; adjacent to it are the Royal Stables,
where Andalusian horses are bred. Palace buildings in the Old Town
include the Palacio de Viana (14th century) and the Palacio de la
Merced among others. Other sights include the Cuesta del Bailío (a
staircase connecting the upper and lower part of the city).
The city is home to 12 Christian churches that were built (many as
transformations of mosques) by
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile after the
reconquest of the city in the 13th century. They were to act both as
churches and as the administrative centres in the neighborhoods into
which the city was divided in medieval times. Some of those that
Iglesia de Santa Marina de Aguas Santas, built in the 13th century.
San Nicolás de la Villa.
San Juan y Todos los Santos
San Juan y Todos los Santos (also known as Iglesia de la Trinidad).
Santa Marina de Aguas Santas.
San Agustín. Begun in 1328, it has now an 18th-century appearance.
The façade bell tower, with four bells, dates to the 16th century.
San Andrés, largely renovated in the 14th and 15th centuries. It has
Renaissance portal (1489) and a bell tower from the same period,
while the high altar is a Baroque work by Pedro Duque Cornejo.
Church of Santiago.
Santa María Magdalena. Like the others, it combines Romanesque,
Mudéjar and Gothic elements.
San Pablo. In the church's garden in the 1990s the ruins of an ancient
Roman circus were discovered.
Other religious structures
Main façade of the Iglesia de San Hipólito.
Iglesia de San Hipólito. It houses the tombs of Ferdinand IV and
Alfonso XI of Castile, kings of Castile and León.
Iglesia de San Francisco
Iglesia de San Salvador y Santo Domingo de Silos
Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Linares
Torre de Santo Domingo de Silos
Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta
Chapel of San Bartolomé
Convent of Santa Clara
Convent of Santa Cruz
Convent of Santa Marta
Sculptures and memorials
Scattered throughout the city are ten statues of the Archangel
Raphael, protector and custodian of the city. These are called the
Triumphs of Saint Raphael, and are located in landmarks such as the
Roman Bridge, the
Puerta del Puente
Puerta del Puente and the Plaza del Potro.
In the western part of the Historic Centre are the statue of Seneca
(near the Puerta de Almodóvar, a gate of Islamic origin, (the Statue
Averroes (next to the Puerta de la Luna), and
Maimonides (in the
plaza de Tiberiades). Further south, near the Puerta de Sevilla, are
the sculpture to the poet
Ibn Zaydún and the sculpture of the writer
Ibn Hazm and, inside the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos,
the monument to the
Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus.
There are also several sculptures in plazas of the Old Town. In the
central Plaza de las Tendillas is the equestrian statue of Gonzalo
Fernández de Córdoba, in the Plaza de Capuchinos is the Cristo de
los Faroles, in Plaza de la Trinidad is the statue of Luis de
Góngora, in the Plaza del Cardenal Salazar is the bust of Ahmad ibn
Muhammad abu Yafar al-Gafiqi, in the Plaza de Capuchinas is the statue
to the bishop Osio, in Plaza del Conde de Priego is the monument to
Manolete and the Campo Santo de los Mártires is a statue to Al-Hakam
II and the monument to the lovers.
In the Jardines de la Agricultura is the monument to the painter Julio
Romero de Torres, a bust by sculptor Mateo Inurria, a bust of the poet
Julio Aumente and the sculpture dedicated to the gardener Aniceto
García Roldán, who was killed in the park. Further south, in the
Gardens of the Duke of Rivas, is a statue of writer and poet Ángel de
Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas by sculptor Mariano Benlliure.
Guadalquivir river, near the San Rafael Bridge is the Island of
the sculptures, an artificial island with a dozen stone sculptures
executed during the International Sculpture Symposium. Up the river,
near the Miraflores bridge, is the "Hombre Río", a sculpture of a
swimmer looking to the sky and whose orientation varies depending from
San Rafael Bridge, consisting of eight arches of 25 m span and a
length of 217 m. The width is between parapets, divided into
12 m of cobblestone for four circulations and two tiled concrete
sidewalks. It was inaugurated on 29 April 1953 joining the Avenue
Corregidor with Plaza de Andalucía. In January 2004 the plaques
reading "His Excellency the Head of State and Generalissimo of all the
Armies, Francisco Franco Bahamonde, opened this bridge of the
Guadalquivir on 29 April 1953", which were on both sides of each of
the entrances of the bridge, were removed.
Andalusia Bridge, a suspension bridge.
Puente de Miraflores, known as "the rusty bridge". This bridge links
the Street San Fernando and Ronda de Isasa with the Miraflores
peninsula. It was designed by Herrero, Suárez and Casado and
inaugurated on 2 May 2003. At first, in 1989, a proposal by
Santiago Calatrava was considered that would
look like the Lusitania Bridge of Mérida, but this was eventually
discarded because its height would obscure the view of the Great
Autovía del Sur Bridge.
Abbas Ibn Firnas Bridge, Inaugurated in January 2011 It is part of the
variant west of Córdoba.
Puente del Arenal, connecting Avenue Campo de la Verdad with the
Recinto Ferial (fairground) of Cordoba.
Gardens, parks and natural environments
Parque de Miraflores. In the background is the sculpture entitled
Paseo de Córdoba.
Fuente de los Jardines de Colón.
Gardens of the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos.
Jardines de la Victoria. Within the gardens there are two newly
renovated facilities, the old Caseta del Círculo de la Amistad, today
Caseta Victoria, and the Kiosko de la música, as well as a small
Modernist fountain from the early 20th century. The northern section,
called Jardines of Duque de Rivas, features a pergola of neoclassical
style, designed by the architect Carlos Sáenz de Santamaría; it is
used as an exhibition hall and a café bar.
Jardines de la Agricultura, located between the Jardines de la
Victoria and the Paseo de Córdoba: it includes numerous trails that
radially converge to a round square which has a fountain or pond. This
is known as the duck pond, and, in the centre, has an island with a
small building in which these animals live. Scattered throughout the
garden are numerous sculptures such as the sculpture in memory of
Julio Romero de Torres, the sculpture to the composer Julio Aumente
and the bust of Mateo Inurria. In the north is a rose garden in form
of a labyrinth.
Parque de Miraflores, located on the south bank of the river
Guadalquivir. It was designed by the architect Juan Cuenca Montilla as
a series of terraces. Among other points of interest as the Salam and
Miraflores Bridge and a sculpture by Agustín Ibarrola.
Parque Cruz Conde, located southwest of the city, is an open park and
barrier-free park in English gardens style.
Paseo de Cordoba. Located on the underground train tracks, it is a
long tour of several km in length with more than 434,000 m². The
tour has numerous fountains, including six formed by a portico of
falling water which form a waterfall to a pond with four levels.
Integrated into the tour is a pond of water from the Roman era, and
the building of the old train station of RENFE, now converted into
offices of Canal Sur.
Jardines Juan Carlos I, in the Ciudad Jardín neighborhood. It is a
fortress which occupies an area of about 12,500 square metres.
Jardines del Conde de Vallellano, located on both sides of the avenue
of the same name. It includes a large L-shaped pond with a capacity of
3,000 m3 (105,944.00 cu ft) and archaeological remains
embedded in the gardens, among which is a Roman cistern from the
second half of the 1st century BC.
Parque de la Asomadilla, with a surface of 27 hectares, is the second
largest park in Andalusia. The park recreates a Mediterranean
forest vegetation, such as hawthorn, pomegranate, hackberry, oak,
olive, tamarisk, cypress, elms, pines, oaks and carob trees among
Balcón del Guadalquivir
Jardines de Colón
Sotos de la Albolafia. Declared Natural monument by the Andalusian
Autonomous Government, it is located in a stretch of the Guadalquivir
river from the Roman Bridge and the San Rafael Bridge, with an area of
21.36 hectares. Host a large variety of birds and is an important
point of migration for many birds.
Parque periurbano Los Villares
The Magdalena by Julio Romero de Torres.
The Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba is a provincial
museum located in near the
Guadalquivir River.  The museum was
officially opened in 1867 and shared space with the Museum of Fine
Arts until 1920. In 1960, the museum was relocated to the Renaissance
Palace of Páez de Castillo where it remains to present day. The
Archaeological and Ethnological Museum has eight halls which contain
pieces from the middle to late bronze age, to Roman culture,
visigothic art, and Islamic culture. 
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres Museum is located next to the Guadalquivir
River and was opened in November of 1931.  The home of Julio
Romero de Torres, has undergone many renovations and been turned into
a museum and it has also been home to several other historical
institutions such as the Archaeological Museum (1868-1917) and the
Museum of Fine Arts. Many of the works include paintings and motifs
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres himself. 
The Museum of Fine Arts is located next to the Julio Romero de Torres
Museum which it shares a courtyard with.  The building originally
was for the old Hospital for Charity but after that the building went
under many renovations and renewals to become the renaissance style
building it is today.  The Museum of Fine Arts contains many
works from the baroque period, medieval renaissance art, work from the
18th, 19th and 20th centuries, drawings, mannerist art and other
unique works. 
The Diocesan Museum is located in the
Episcopal Palace, Cordoba
Episcopal Palace, Cordoba which
was built upon a formerly Arabic castle. The collection within houses
many paintings, sculptures and furniture. 
Other notable museums within Córdoba:
The Arab Baths of the Fortress Califal
Botanical Museum of Cordova
Three Cultures Museum
Molino de Martos Hydraulic Museum
Museo Palacio de Viana
Gran Teatro de Córdoba
Typical setting of a patio during the Patios Festival
Tourism is especially intense in Córdoba during May as this month
hosts three of the most important annual festivals in the city.
Las Cruces de Mayo (The May Crosses Festival) takes place at the
beginning of the month. During three or four days, crosses of around 3
m height are placed in many squares and streets and decorated with
flowers and a contest is held to choose the most beautiful one.
Usually there is regional food and music near the crosses.
Los Patios de Córdoba (The Patios Festiva)l is celebrated during the
second and third week of the month. Many houses of the historic center
open their private patios to the public and compete in a contest. Both
the architectonic value and the floral decorations are taken into
consideration to choose the winners. It is usually very difficult and
expensive to find accommodation in the city during the festival.
La Feria de Córdoba (Córdoba's Fair) takes place at the ending of
the month and is similar to the better known Sevilla Fair with some
differences, mainly that the Sevilla one has only private casetas,
while the Córdoba one has both public and private ones.
Politics and government
As of 2018[update] Isabel Ambrosio Palos (PSOE) is the mayor of
The City Council of Córdoba is divided into different areas: the
Presidency; Human Resources, Management, Tax and Public
Administration; City Planning, Infraestructure, and Environment;
Social; and Development. The Council holds regular plenary
sessions once a month, but can hold extraordinary plenary session to
discuss issues and problems affecting the city.
The Governing Board, chaired by the mayor, consists of four IU
councillors, three of PSOE, and three non-elected member. The
municipal council consists of 29 members: 11 of PP, 7 of PSOE, 4 of
IU, 4 of Ganemos Córdoba, 2 of Ciudadanos and 1 of Unión Cordobesa.
List of mayors since the democratic elections of 1979
Julio Anguita (until February 1, 1986)
Manuel Pérez Pérez
Rosa Aguilar (until April 23, 2009)
José Antonio Nieto Ballesteros
Isabel Ambrosio Palos
Since July 2008, the city is divided into 10 administrative districts,
coordinated by the Municipal district boards, which in turn are
subdivided into neighbourhoods
Córdoba was the birthplace of the following philosophers and
In Roman times the Stoic philosopher Seneca
In Islamic times
Abd Allah al-Qaysi, an early jurist responsible for spreading the
Ibn Hazm, a major Muslim theologian and legal jurist,
Averroes, an important figure in both Muslim and Western philosophy,
Mundhir bin Sa'īd al-Ballūṭī, a prominent judge for the
Ibn Maḍāʾ, the first linguist to write about dependency grammar,
al-Qurtubi, a leading jurist of the
Maliki school, and
Moses Maimonides, a rabbi who radically changed the direction of
Córdoba was also the birthplace of
The Roman poet Lucan,
The medieval Spanish poet Juan de Mena
Renaissance poet Luis de Góngora, who lived most of his life and
wrote all his most important works but one in Córdoba.
Abraham Cohen de Herrera and the Jewish
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero both descended from families which
lived in Córdoba before the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres (1874–1930).
More recently, several flamenco artists were born here as well,
Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez (Manolete), matador
Fernando Tejero, actor
Gabi Delgado-López, musician
Segunda División match between Córdoba C.F. and C.D. Leganés (2:3)
at Estadio Nuevo Arcángel, January 2016.
Córdoba's main sports team is its association football team, Córdoba
CF, which plays in the Spanish
Segunda División following a brief
one-season tenure in
La Liga during the 2014-15 season. Home matches
are played at the Estadio Nuevo Arcángel, which has 20,989 seats.
Córdoba also has a professional futsal team, Itea
Córdoba CF Futsal,
which plays in the
Segunda División de
Futsal as well as a basketball
team, Yosíquesé Basket, which plays in the Liga EBA. Both teams play
the majority of their home games at the 3,500 seat Palacio Municipal
de Deportes Vista Alegre.
The city is connected by high speed trains to the following Spanish
cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Seville,
Málaga and Zaragoza. More than 20
trains per day connect the downtown area, in 54 minutes, with Málaga
María Zambrano station, which provides interchange capability to
destinations along the Costa del Sol, including
Málaga Airport. The
city is also well connected by highways with the rest of the country
Twin towns – sister cities
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2016) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Córdoba is twinned with:
Córdoba, Argentina, since 1969
Kairouan, Tunisia, since 1969
A Coruña, A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, since 1976
Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico, since 1980
Fes, Morocco, since 1982
Smara, Morocco, since 1987
São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
La Habana Vieja, Cuba, since 2000
Damascus, Syria, since 2001
Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, since 2010
León, León, Castile and León, Spain, since 2010
Manchester, England, United Kingdom
Bethlehem, State of Palestine
La Louvière, Hainaut, Belgium
^ "La Alcaldesa". Ayuntamiento de Córdoba. Retrieved 16 May
^ a b "Extensión superficial, altitud y población de hecho de las
provincias, capitales y municipios de más de 20.000 habitantes.
Península, Islas Baleares y Canarias". Anuario 1996. 1996. Retrieved
16 May 2017.
^ "Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del
Padrón municipal a 1 de enero". Instituto Nacional de Estadística
(Spain). Retrieved 17 May 2017.
^ Former name: Arabic: قُرطبة, DIN: Qurṭubah.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Córdoba (conventional Cordova)
Spain (711-1492)". BBC. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
^ "Standard climate values for Córdoba". Agencia Estatal de
Meteorología. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
^ "Neanderthals Died Out Earlier Than Thought". Retrieved 9 June
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 389. The date is contested; it
could have been founded in 152.
^ "Cordoba Treasure". The British Museum. Retrieved 20 August
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary 2003, 389
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 96-98
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 95-96
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 94-95
^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 389
^ Reed, Tony. "History of Cordoba Spain". Infocordoba. Retrieved 16
^ "Córdoba History". Retrieved 16 July 2009.
^ J. Bradford De Long and Andrei Shleifer (October 1993), "Princes and
Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution"
(PDF), The Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press,
36 (2): 671–702 , doi:10.1086/467294
^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905).
New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd,
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
Retrieved 14 April 2014.
^ Amir Hussain, “Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue,” in
Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi,
257 (Oneworld Publications, 2003).
Spain from the 6th to 12th Century History". Archived from the
original on 18 October 2007.
^ a b c Córdoba: Historical Overview. Archived 30 October 2013 at the
^ Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031,
^ “10th C. Al-Andalus: Al-Mansur.” and Daniel Eisenberg,
“Homosexuality” in Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Michael
Gerli (Routledge, 2003), 398. and J. B. Bury, The Cambridge Medieval
History vol 3 -
Germany and the Western Empire (CreateSpace
Independent Publishing, 2011), 378-379.
^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol.
Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved April 22,
^ a b "Valores climatológicos extremos. Córdoba" (in Spanish).
Aemet.es. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
^ Jayyusi, Salma Khadra (1994). The legacy of Muslim
Spain (2nd ed.
ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 129–135.
ISBN 9004099549. CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Historic Centre of Cordoba".
whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
^ a b Michell, George (1978). Architecture of the Islamic world its
history and social meaning ; with a complete survey of key
monuments (2011 ed.). London: Thames & Hudson. p. 212.
^ Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S. (2009). The Grove encyclopedia
of Islamic art and architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ "Minaret of San Juan". Tourism of Cordoba. Retrieved 30 January
^ Reina, Carmen. "Los eternos jornaleros del Guadalquivir". El
^ "Discovery of a Roman Circus in Cordoba". Artencordoba.co.uk.
Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January
^ "Projects of Santiago Calatrava". Soloarquitectura.com. Retrieved 7
^ Parque Cruz Conde Archived 8 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ El parque de La Asomadilla se inicia con la apertura de pozos,
Diario Córdoba website.
^ Los Sotos de la Albolafia, Inventario de Humedales de Andalucía.
^ TURESPAÑA (2007-04-23). "Museums in Spain: Cordoba Archaeological
Museum in Córdoba,
Spain spain.info USA". Spain.info. Retrieved
^ "Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba
Guided Tours. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
^ "Mapa del Museo - Museo de
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres Visita Virtual".
www.museojulioromero.cordoba.es (in Spanish). Retrieved
^ "Museum of Julio Romero de Torres, Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba Guided
Tours. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
^ Abdulhameed, Ahmed M (2013). Discover Spain. Lulu Press.
^ "Tourism of Cordoba". english.turismodecordoba.org. Retrieved
^ "Cordoba: Museum of Fine Arts, Cordoba - TripAdvisor".
www.tripadvisor.com. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
^ "Museum of Fine Arts of Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba Guided Tours.
^ "Tourism of Cordoba". english.turismodecordoba.org. Retrieved
^ "Mayocordobes.es". Mayocordobes.es. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 7
^ Áreas de Gobierno [Areas of Governance]. Ayuntamiento de Córdoba
(in Spanish). Retrieved 13 February 2018.
^ "Reglamento Orgánico General del Ayuntamiento de Córdoba" (PDF),
B.O.P (in Spanish) (29), p. 1044, 2009, retrieved 13 February
^ Local governing board of the City Council of Córdoba, official
website of the City Council of Córdoba Archived 28 June 2012 at the
^ Municipal Elections 2007 in Córdoba: Cargos en la Corporación
Municipal – Article of Cordobapedia published in Castilian, GFDL
^ "Hermanamientos". Ayuncordoba.es. Archived from the original on 20
September 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" [Research Municipal
Legislation - No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo
[Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived
from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
^ Lei Municipal de
São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese)
^ Aslam, Talat, ed. (2007-04-27). "Musharraf for Lahore-Cordoba
liaison to promote ties with Spain". The News International. Karachi,
Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Córdoba, Spain
Published in the 19th century
Arthur de Capell Brooke (1831), "Cordova", Sketches in
Morocco, London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley,
Richard Ford (1855), "Cordova", A Handbook for Travellers in Spain
(3rd ed.), London: J. Murray, OCLC 2145740
John Lomas, ed. (1889), "Cordova", O'Shea's Guide to
Portugal (8th ed.), Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black
Published in the 20th century
Spain and Portugal (3rd ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1908,
Trudy Ring, ed. (1996). "Cordoba". Southern Europe. International
Dictionary of Historic Places. 3. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Published in the 21st century
C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Cordova". Historic Cities of the
Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.
Barbara Messina, Geometrie in pietra. La moschea di Cordova. Giannini
editore, Napoli 2004, ISBN 9788874312368
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Córdoba, Spain.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Córdoba (city, Spain).
Ayuntamiento de Córdoba [Córdoba's City Council] (in Spanish).
"Córdoba". Tourism of Córdoba.
"Córdoba24". Córdoba travel information.
"Natural Monument Sotos de la Albolafia". Junta de Andalucia.
"168. Cordoba – The City that Changed Thought". The Tudung
"Tourism in Córdoba in Andalusia,
Spain spain.info USA". Tourist
Offices of Spain.
"Córdoba Archnet". archnet.org. MIT School of Architecture and
Emmet Scott. "Myth of Spain's Islamic Golden Age". About lack of
archaeological evidence between 711 and 911.
Cordoba Travel Pictures
Capitals of provinces of Spain
Castellón de la Plana
Comarcas of Andalusia
Comarca Metropolitana de Almería
Valle del Almanzora
Bay of Cádiz
Campiña de Jerez
Campo de Gibraltar
Costa Noroeste de Cádiz
Sierra de Cádiz
Campiña de Baena
Valle del Guadiato
Valle Medio del Guadalquivir
Valle de Lecrín
Vega de Granada
Comarca Metropolitana de Huelva
Sierra de Huelva
Campiña de Jaén
Comarca Metropolitana de Jaén
Sierra de Cazorla
Sierra de Segura
Sierra Sur de Jaén
Costa del Sol Occidental
Màlaga-Costa del Sol
Serranía de Ronda
Sierra de las Nieves
Valle del Guadalhorce
Campiña de Carmona
Campiña de Morón y Marchena
Comarca Metropolitana de Sevilla
Sierra Sur de Sevilla
Vega del Guadalquivir