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Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista. The historic centre was named a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in Spain
Spain
and Europe, with average high temperatures around 37 °C (99 °F) in July and August.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory, antiquity and Roman foundation of the city 1.2 Umayyad rule 1.3 Modern history

2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Architecture

4.1 Roman 4.2 Islamic

4.2.1 Great Mosque of Córdoba 4.2.2 Minaret of San Juan 4.2.3 Mills of the Guadalquivir 4.2.4 Medina Azahara 4.2.5 Caliphal Baths 4.2.6 Calahorra Tower

4.3 Jewish Quarter 4.4 Christian

4.4.1 Fernandine churches 4.4.2 Other religious structures 4.4.3 Sculptures and memorials 4.4.4 Bridges

5 Gardens, parks and natural environments 6 Museums 7 Theatres 8 Festivals 9 Politics and government 10 People 11 Sports 12 Transport 13 Twin towns – sister cities 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Córdoba, Spain Prehistory, antiquity and Roman foundation of the city[edit] The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC.[8] In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos
Tartessos
period, a pre-urban settlement existed.[citation needed] The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy.[citation needed] The first historical mention of a settlement dates to the Carthaginian
Carthaginian
expansion across the Guadalquivir, when general Hamilcar Barca
Hamilcar Barca
renamed it Kartuba, from Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba", a Numidian
Numidian
commander who had died in a battle nearby.[citation needed] Córdoba was conquered by the Romans in 206 BC. In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who had governed both Further and Hither Spain, founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement.[9] Between 143 and 141 BC the town was besieged by Viriatus. A Roman forum is known to have existed in the city in 113 BC.[citation needed] The famous Cordoba Treasure, with mixed local and Roman artistic traditions, was buried in the city at this time; it is now in the British Museum.[10] It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC.[11] It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, and settled with veterans by Augustus. It became capital of Baetica and had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples. It was the chief center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain). Its republican poets were succeeded by Seneca and Lucan. At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. The great Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger,[12] his father, the orator Seneca the Elder,[13] and his nephew, the poet Lucan[14] came from Roman Cordoba. In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius (Ossius) was the dominant figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent.[15] Later, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the Byzantine Empire (552–572) and under the Visigoths, who conquered it in the late 6th century.[16] Umayyad rule[edit] Main articles: Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
and Caliphate of Córdoba Córdoba was captured in 711[17] by the Umayyad army. Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule. The new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus; in Arabic it was known as قرطبة (Qurṭuba). Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I. Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766 Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Umayyad emirate, later caliphate, of al-Andalus. By 800 the megacity of Cordoba supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global population. During the apogee of the caliphate (1000 AD), Córdoba had a population of about 500,000 inhabitants;[18] estimates range from 350,000 to 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world, and a great cultural, political, financial and economic centre.[19] The Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the situation changed quickly. The vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on philosophy to please the Moorish clergy; most of the others were sold off or perished in the civil strife not long after.[20] In the ninth and tenth centuries, Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world." In it, "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city."[21] Regarding Córdoba's importance, Reinhardt Dozy wrote:[22]

The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun Hroswitha, famous in the last half of the 10th century for her Latin poems and dramas, called it the "Ornament of the World". — Reinhardt Dozy

Córdoba had a prosperous economy with its "skilled artisans and agricultural infrastructure," The manufactured goods for sale included "leather and metal work, glazed tiles and textiles." The agricultural produce included fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and raw materials such as "cotton, flax and silk."[23] Córdoba was also famous as "a centre of learning." Education was "taken seriously." Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
had a large library. Knowledge in the fields of "medicine, mathematics, astronomy, botany" exceeded the rest of Europe.[23] Roger Collins wrote:[24]

The Arab conquest created the conditions for a state of almost permanent warfare in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
... and in scale and intensity exceeded anything to be found elsewhere in Western Europe in these centuries. —  Roger Collins in "Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031"

In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the area of Rioja when he died. His death was the beginning of the end of Córdoba. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008, possibly assassinated. Sanchuelo, Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded him. While Sanchuelo was away fighting Alfonso V of Leon, a revolution made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph. Sanchuelo sued for pardon but he was killed when he returned to Cardova. The slaves revolted against Mahdi, killed him in 1009, and replaced him with Hisham II
Hisham II
in 1010. Hisham II
Hisham II
kept a male harem and was forced out of office. In 1012 the Berbers
Berbers
"sacked Cardova." In 1016 the slaves captured Cardova and searched for Hisham II, but he had escaped to Asia. This event was followed by a fight for power until Hisham III, the last of the Umayyads, was routed from Córdoba in 1031.[25] After 1031, Córdoba lost its prosperity and fame and became an isolated city. The "ruling elite" were well known for their "disinterest in the outside world ... and intellectual laziness." [23] Modern history[edit]

A city map of Córdoba, Andalusia
Andalusia
in 1851 (Spanish language edition)

During the process known as the Spanish Reconquista, Córdoba was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile
on 29 June 1236, after a siege of several months. The city was divided into 14 colaciones, and numerous new church buildings were added. The centre of the mosque was converted into a large Catholic cathedral. The city declined, especially after Renaissance
Renaissance
times. In the 18th century it was reduced to just 20,000 inhabitants. The population and economy started to increase again only in the early 20th century. With the most extensive historical heritages in the world declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
(on 17 December 1984), the city also has a number of modern areas, including the districts of Zoco and the railway station district. The regional government (the Junta de Andalucía) has for some time[when?] been studying the creation of a Córdoba Metropolitan Area that would comprise, in addition to the capital itself, the towns of Villafranca de Córdoba, Obejo, La Carlota, Villaharta, Villaviciosa, Almodóvar del Río
Almodóvar del Río
and Guadalcázar. The combined population of such an area would be around 351,000. The Plano de Córdoba was also known for its books and how they created it. Geography[edit] The city is on the banks of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
river, and its easy access to the mining resources of the Sierra Morena
Sierra Morena
(coal, lead, zinc) satisfies the population's needs. The city is in a depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. In the north is the Sierra Morena, which defines the borders of the municipal area. Córdoba is one of the few cities in the world that has a near-exact antipodal city – Hamilton, New Zealand. Climate[edit] Córdoba has a Subtropical- Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification Csa).[26] It has the highest summer average daily temperatures in Europe (averaging 36.9 °C (98 °F) in July) and days with temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) are common in the summer months. August's 24-hour average of 28.0 °C (82 °F) is also among the highest in Europe, despite relatively cool nightly temperatures. Winters are mild, yet cooler than other low lying cities in southern Spain
Spain
due to its interior location, wedged between the Sierra Morena and the Penibaetic System. Precipitation
Precipitation
is concentrated in the coldest months; this is due to the Atlantic coastal influence. Precipitation
Precipitation
is generated by storms from the west that occur most frequently from December to February. This Atlantic characteristic then gives way to a hot summer with significant drought more typical of Mediterranean climates. Annual rain surpasses 600 mm (24 in), although it is recognized to vary from year to year. The registered maximum temperature at the Córdoba Airport, located at 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city, was 46.9 °C (116.4 °F) on 13 July 2017. The lowest registered temperature was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F), on 28 January 2005.[27]

Climate data for Córdoba (1981-2010), extremes (1949-present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.9 (73.2) 27.8 (82) 33.0 (91.4) 34.0 (93.2) 41.2 (106.2) 45.0 (113) 46.9 (116.4) 46.2 (115.2) 45.4 (113.7) 36.0 (96.8) 29.7 (85.5) 23.5 (74.3) 46.9 (116.4)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 22.6 (72.7) 28.2 (82.8) 30.6 (87.1) 35.2 (95.4) 40.4 (104.7) 42.5 (108.5) 42.0 (107.6) 38.2 (100.8) 31.5 (88.7) 24.4 (75.9) 19.8 (67.6) 43.1 (109.6)

Average high °C (°F) 14.9 (58.8) 17.4 (63.3) 21.3 (70.3) 22.8 (73) 27.4 (81.3) 32.8 (91) 36.9 (98.4) 36.5 (97.7) 31.6 (88.9) 25.1 (77.2) 19.1 (66.4) 15.3 (59.5) 25.1 (77.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 11.1 (52) 14.4 (57.9) 16.0 (60.8) 20.0 (68) 24.7 (76.5) 28.0 (82.4) 28.0 (82.4) 24.2 (75.6) 19.1 (66.4) 13.5 (56.3) 10.4 (50.7) 18.3 (64.9)

Average low °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 4.9 (40.8) 7.4 (45.3) 9.3 (48.7) 12.6 (54.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 19.4 (66.9) 16.9 (62.4) 13.0 (55.4) 7.8 (46) 5.5 (41.9) 11.4 (52.5)

Mean minimum °C (°F) −2.0 (28.4) −0.6 (30.9) 1.8 (35.2) 4.2 (39.6) 7.3 (45.1) 11.8 (53.2) 14.4 (57.9) 15.1 (59.2) 12.9 (55.2) 7.3 (45.1) 1.7 (35.1) −0.6 (30.9) −2.6 (27.3)

Record low °C (°F) −8.2 (17.2) −5.0 (23) −4.2 (24.4) 0.2 (32.4) 2.4 (36.3) 7.0 (44.6) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 6.0 (42.8) 1.0 (33.8) −3.6 (25.5) −7.8 (18) −8.2 (17.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66 (2.6) 55 (2.17) 49 (1.93) 55 (2.17) 40 (1.57) 13 (0.51) 2 (0.08) 5 (0.2) 35 (1.38) 86 (3.39) 80 (3.15) 111 (4.37) 605 (23.82)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7 6 5 7 5 1 0 1 3 7 6 8 57

Average relative humidity (%) 76 71 64 60 55 48 41 43 52 66 73 79 60

Mean monthly sunshine hours 174 186 218 235 289 323 363 336 248 205 180 148 2,905

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[27]

Architecture[edit] Córdoba has the second largest Old town in Europe, the largest urban area in the world declared World Heritage by UNESCO. Roman[edit]

Roman Mausoleum in the Paseo de la Victoria.

The Roman Bridge, over the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
River, links the area of Campo de la Verdad with Barrio de la Catedral. It was the only bridge of the city for twenty centuries, until the construction of the San Rafael Bridge in the mid-20th century. Built in the early 1st century BC, during the period of Roman rule in Córdoba, probably replacing a more primitive wooden one, it has a length of about 250 m and has 16 arches. Other Roman remains include the Roman Temple, the Theatre, Mausoleum, the Colonial Forum, the Forum Adiectum, an amphitheater and the remains of the Palace of Emperor Maximian
Maximian
in the archaeological site of Cercadilla. Islamic[edit]

Interior of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba.

The Tower of Calahorra
Tower of Calahorra
to one side of the Roman Bridge.

Great Mosque of Córdoba[edit] Main article: Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba From 784- 786 AD, Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I
built the Mezquita, or Great Mosque, of Córdoba, in the Umayyad style of architecture with variations inspired by indigenous Roman and Christian Visigothic structures. Later caliphs extended the mosque with more domed bays, arches, intricate mosaics and a minaret, making it one of the four wonders of the medieval Islamic world. After the Christian reconquest of Andalucía, a cathedral was built in the heart of the mosque, however much of the original structure remains. It can be found in the Historic Centre of Córdoba, a recognized World Heritage Site.[28][29][30][31] Minaret of San Juan[edit] Built in 930 AD, the mosque that this minaret adorned has been replaced by a church and the minaret re-purposed as a tower. Even so, it retains the characteristics of Islamic architecture in the region, including two ornamental arches.[30][32] Mills of the Guadalquivir[edit] Along the banks of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
are the Mills of the Guadalquivir, Moorish-era buildings that used the water flow to grind flour. They include the Albolafia, Alegría, Carbonell, Casillas, Enmedio, Lope García, Martos, Pápalo, San Antonio, San Lorenzo and San Rafael mills.[33] Medina Azahara[edit] On the outskirts of the city lies the archaeological site of the city of Medina Azahara, which, together with the Alhambra
Alhambra
in Granada, is one of the main examples of Spanish-Muslim architecture in Spain. Caliphal Baths[edit] Near the stables are located, along the walls, the medieval Baths of the Umayyad Caliphs. Calahorra Tower[edit] Jewish Quarter[edit]

Calleja de las Flores, with the Great Cathedral in the background.

Near the cathedral is the old Jewish quarter, which consists of many irregular streets, such as Calleja de las Flores
Calleja de las Flores
and Calleja del Pañuelo, and which is home to the Synagogue and the Sephardic House. Christian[edit]

Puerta del Puente.

Surrounding the large Old town are the Roman walls: gates include the Puerta de Almodóvar, the Puerta de Sevilla and Puerta del Puente, which are the only three gates remaining from the original thirteen. Towers and fortresses include the Malmuerta Tower, Torre de Belén
Torre de Belén
and the Puerta del Rincón's Tower. In the south of the Old town and east of the great cathedral, in the Plaza del Potro, is the Posada del Potro, a row of inns mentioned in literary works including Don Quixote and La Feria de los Discretos, and which remained active until 1972. Both the plaza and the inn get their name from the fountain in the centre of the plaza, which represents a foal (potro). Not far from this plaza is the Arco del Portillo (a 14th-century arch). In the extreme southwest of the Old Town is the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, a former royal property and the seat of the Inquisition; adjacent to it are the Royal Stables, where Andalusian horses are bred. Palace buildings in the Old Town include the Palacio de Viana (14th century) and the Palacio de la Merced among others. Other sights include the Cuesta del Bailío (a staircase connecting the upper and lower part of the city). Fernandine churches[edit] The city is home to 12 Christian churches that were built (many as transformations of mosques) by Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile
after the reconquest of the city in the 13th century. They were to act both as churches and as the administrative centres in the neighborhoods into which the city was divided in medieval times. Some of those that remain are:

Iglesia de Santa Marina de Aguas Santas, built in the 13th century.

San Nicolás de la Villa. San Miguel. San Juan y Todos los Santos
San Juan y Todos los Santos
(also known as Iglesia de la Trinidad). Santa Marina de Aguas Santas. San Agustín. Begun in 1328, it has now an 18th-century appearance. The façade bell tower, with four bells, dates to the 16th century. San Andrés, largely renovated in the 14th and 15th centuries. It has a Renaissance
Renaissance
portal (1489) and a bell tower from the same period, while the high altar is a Baroque work by Pedro Duque Cornejo. San Lorenzo. Church of Santiago. San Pedro. Santa María Magdalena. Like the others, it combines Romanesque, Mudéjar
Mudéjar
and Gothic elements. San Pablo. In the church's garden in the 1990s the ruins of an ancient Roman circus were discovered.[34]

Other religious structures[edit]

Main façade of the Iglesia de San Hipólito.

Iglesia de San Hipólito. It houses the tombs of Ferdinand IV and Alfonso XI of Castile, kings of Castile and León. Iglesia de San Francisco Iglesia de San Salvador y Santo Domingo de Silos Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Linares Torre de Santo Domingo de Silos Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta Chapel of San Bartolomé Convent of Santa Clara Convent of Santa Cruz Convent of Santa Marta

Sculptures and memorials[edit] Scattered throughout the city are ten statues of the Archangel Raphael, protector and custodian of the city. These are called the Triumphs of Saint Raphael, and are located in landmarks such as the Roman Bridge, the Puerta del Puente
Puerta del Puente
and the Plaza del Potro. In the western part of the Historic Centre are the statue of Seneca (near the Puerta de Almodóvar, a gate of Islamic origin, (the Statue of Averroes
Averroes
(next to the Puerta de la Luna), and Maimonides
Maimonides
(in the plaza de Tiberiades). Further south, near the Puerta de Sevilla, are the sculpture to the poet Ibn Zaydún and the sculpture of the writer and poet Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
and, inside the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, the monument to the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
and Christopher Columbus. There are also several sculptures in plazas of the Old Town. In the central Plaza de las Tendillas is the equestrian statue of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, in the Plaza de Capuchinos is the Cristo de los Faroles, in Plaza de la Trinidad is the statue of Luis de Góngora, in the Plaza del Cardenal Salazar is the bust of Ahmad ibn Muhammad abu Yafar al-Gafiqi, in the Plaza de Capuchinas is the statue to the bishop Osio, in Plaza del Conde de Priego is the monument to Manolete
Manolete
and the Campo Santo de los Mártires is a statue to Al-Hakam II and the monument to the lovers. In the Jardines de la Agricultura is the monument to the painter Julio Romero de Torres, a bust by sculptor Mateo Inurria, a bust of the poet Julio Aumente and the sculpture dedicated to the gardener Aniceto García Roldán, who was killed in the park. Further south, in the Gardens of the Duke of Rivas, is a statue of writer and poet Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas by sculptor Mariano Benlliure. In the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
river, near the San Rafael Bridge is the Island of the sculptures, an artificial island with a dozen stone sculptures executed during the International Sculpture Symposium. Up the river, near the Miraflores bridge, is the "Hombre Río", a sculpture of a swimmer looking to the sky and whose orientation varies depending from the current. Bridges[edit]

San Rafael Bridge, consisting of eight arches of 25 m span and a length of 217 m. The width is between parapets, divided into 12 m of cobblestone for four circulations and two tiled concrete sidewalks. It was inaugurated on 29 April 1953 joining the Avenue Corregidor with Plaza de Andalucía. In January 2004 the plaques reading "His Excellency the Head of State and Generalissimo of all the Armies, Francisco Franco Bahamonde, opened this bridge of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
on 29 April 1953", which were on both sides of each of the entrances of the bridge, were removed. Andalusia
Andalusia
Bridge, a suspension bridge. Puente de Miraflores, known as "the rusty bridge". This bridge links the Street San Fernando and Ronda de Isasa with the Miraflores peninsula. It was designed by Herrero, Suárez and Casado and inaugurated on 2 May 2003. At first, in 1989, a proposal by architect-engineer Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
was considered[35] that would look like the Lusitania Bridge of Mérida, but this was eventually discarded because its height would obscure the view of the Great Mosque. Autovía del Sur Bridge. Abbas Ibn Firnas Bridge, Inaugurated in January 2011 It is part of the variant west of Córdoba. Puente del Arenal, connecting Avenue Campo de la Verdad with the Recinto Ferial (fairground) of Cordoba.

Gardens, parks and natural environments[edit]

Parque de Miraflores. In the background is the sculpture entitled "Salam".

Paseo de Córdoba.

Fuente de los Jardines de Colón.

Gardens of the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos.

Jardines de la Victoria. Within the gardens there are two newly renovated facilities, the old Caseta del Círculo de la Amistad, today Caseta Victoria, and the Kiosko de la música, as well as a small Modernist fountain from the early 20th century. The northern section, called Jardines of Duque de Rivas, features a pergola of neoclassical style, designed by the architect Carlos Sáenz de Santamaría; it is used as an exhibition hall and a café bar. Jardines de la Agricultura, located between the Jardines de la Victoria and the Paseo de Córdoba: it includes numerous trails that radially converge to a round square which has a fountain or pond. This is known as the duck pond, and, in the centre, has an island with a small building in which these animals live. Scattered throughout the garden are numerous sculptures such as the sculpture in memory of Julio Romero de Torres, the sculpture to the composer Julio Aumente and the bust of Mateo Inurria. In the north is a rose garden in form of a labyrinth. Parque de Miraflores, located on the south bank of the river Guadalquivir. It was designed by the architect Juan Cuenca Montilla as a series of terraces. Among other points of interest as the Salam and Miraflores Bridge and a sculpture by Agustín Ibarrola. Parque Cruz Conde, located southwest of the city, is an open park and barrier-free park in English gardens style.[36] Paseo de Cordoba. Located on the underground train tracks, it is a long tour of several km in length with more than 434,000 m². The tour has numerous fountains, including six formed by a portico of falling water which form a waterfall to a pond with four levels. Integrated into the tour is a pond of water from the Roman era, and the building of the old train station of RENFE, now converted into offices of Canal Sur. Jardines Juan Carlos I, in the Ciudad Jardín neighborhood. It is a fortress which occupies an area of about 12,500 square metres. Jardines del Conde de Vallellano, located on both sides of the avenue of the same name. It includes a large L-shaped pond with a capacity of 3,000 m3 (105,944.00 cu ft) and archaeological remains embedded in the gardens, among which is a Roman cistern from the second half of the 1st century BC. Parque de la Asomadilla, with a surface of 27 hectares, is the second largest park in Andalusia.[37] The park recreates a Mediterranean forest vegetation, such as hawthorn, pomegranate, hackberry, oak, olive, tamarisk, cypress, elms, pines, oaks and carob trees among others. Balcón del Guadalquivir Jardines de Colón Sotos de la Albolafia. Declared Natural monument by the Andalusian Autonomous Government, it is located in a stretch of the Guadalquivir river from the Roman Bridge and the San Rafael Bridge, with an area of 21.36 hectares.[38] Host a large variety of birds and is an important point of migration for many birds. Parque periurbano Los Villares

Museums[edit]

The Magdalena by Julio Romero de Torres.

The Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba is a provincial museum located in near the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
River. [39] The museum was officially opened in 1867 and shared space with the Museum of Fine Arts until 1920. In 1960, the museum was relocated to the Renaissance Palace of Páez de Castillo where it remains to present day. The Archaeological and Ethnological Museum has eight halls which contain pieces from the middle to late bronze age, to Roman culture, visigothic art, and Islamic culture. [40] The Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
Museum is located next to the Guadalquivir River and was opened in November of 1931. [41] The home of Julio Romero de Torres, has undergone many renovations and been turned into a museum and it has also been home to several other historical institutions such as the Archaeological Museum (1868-1917) and the Museum of Fine Arts. Many of the works include paintings and motifs done by Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
himself. [42] The Museum of Fine Arts is located next to the Julio Romero de Torres Museum which it shares a courtyard with. [43] The building originally was for the old Hospital for Charity but after that the building went under many renovations and renewals to become the renaissance style building it is today. [44][45] The Museum of Fine Arts contains many works from the baroque period, medieval renaissance art, work from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, drawings, mannerist art and other unique works. [46] The Diocesan Museum is located in the Episcopal Palace, Cordoba
Episcopal Palace, Cordoba
which was built upon a formerly Arabic castle. The collection within houses many paintings, sculptures and furniture. [47] Other notable museums within Córdoba:

The Arab Baths of the Fortress Califal Botanical Museum of Cordova Three Cultures Museum Bullfighting Museum Molino de Martos Hydraulic Museum Museo Palacio de Viana

Theatres[edit]

Gran Teatro de Córdoba Teatro Axerquía Teatro Góngora

Festivals[edit]

Typical setting of a patio during the Patios Festival

Tourism is especially intense in Córdoba during May as this month hosts three of the most important annual festivals in the city.[48] Las Cruces de Mayo (The May Crosses Festival) takes place at the beginning of the month. During three or four days, crosses of around 3 m height are placed in many squares and streets and decorated with flowers and a contest is held to choose the most beautiful one. Usually there is regional food and music near the crosses. Los Patios de Córdoba (The Patios Festiva)l is celebrated during the second and third week of the month. Many houses of the historic center open their private patios to the public and compete in a contest. Both the architectonic value and the floral decorations are taken into consideration to choose the winners. It is usually very difficult and expensive to find accommodation in the city during the festival. La Feria de Córdoba (Córdoba's Fair) takes place at the ending of the month and is similar to the better known Sevilla Fair with some differences, mainly that the Sevilla one has only private casetas, while the Córdoba one has both public and private ones. Politics and government[edit]

Local administration

As of 2018[update] Isabel Ambrosio Palos (PSOE) is the mayor of Córdoba. The City Council of Córdoba is divided into different areas: the Presidency; Human Resources, Management, Tax and Public Administration; City Planning, Infraestructure, and Environment; Social; and Development.[49] The Council holds regular plenary sessions once a month, but can hold extraordinary plenary session to discuss issues and problems affecting the city.[50] The Governing Board, chaired by the mayor, consists of four IU councillors, three of PSOE, and three non-elected member.[51][52] The municipal council consists of 29 members: 11 of PP, 7 of PSOE, 4 of IU, 4 of Ganemos Córdoba, 2 of Ciudadanos and 1 of Unión Cordobesa.

List of mayors since the democratic elections of 1979

Legislature Name Party

1979–1983 Julio Anguita PCE

1983–1987 Julio Anguita
Julio Anguita
(until February 1, 1986) Herminio Trigo PCE(IU)

1987–1991 Herminio Trigo IU

1991–1995 Herminio Trigo IU

Manuel Pérez Pérez IU

1995–1999 Rafael Merino PP

1999–2003 Rosa Aguilar IU

2003–2007 Rosa Aguilar IU

2007–2011 Rosa Aguilar
Rosa Aguilar
(until April 23, 2009) Andrés Ocaña IU

2011–2015 José Antonio Nieto Ballesteros PP

2015 Isabel Ambrosio Palos PSOE-IU-Ganemos Córdoba

Administrative division

Since July 2008, the city is divided into 10 administrative districts, coordinated by the Municipal district boards, which in turn are subdivided into neighbourhoods

District District Location

Centro Poniente-Sur

Levante Sur

Noroeste Sureste

Norte-Sierra Periurbano Este-Campiña

Poniente-Norte Periurbano Oeste-Sierra

People[edit] Córdoba was the birthplace of the following philosophers and religious scholars:

In Roman times the Stoic philosopher Seneca In Islamic times

Abd Allah al-Qaysi, an early jurist responsible for spreading the Zahirite school Ibn Hazm, a major Muslim theologian and legal jurist, Averroes, an important figure in both Muslim and Western philosophy, Mundhir bin Sa'īd al-Ballūṭī, a prominent judge for the Caliph
Caliph
of Cordoba, Ibn Maḍāʾ, the first linguist to write about dependency grammar, al-Qurtubi, a leading jurist of the Maliki
Maliki
school, and Moses Maimonides, a rabbi who radically changed the direction of Jewish philosophy.

Córdoba was also the birthplace of

The Roman poet Lucan, The medieval Spanish poet Juan de Mena The Renaissance
Renaissance
poet Luis de Góngora, who lived most of his life and wrote all his most important works but one in Córdoba.

The Renaissance
Renaissance
philosopher Abraham Cohen de Herrera and the Jewish mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero
both descended from families which lived in Córdoba before the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The painter Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
(1874–1930). More recently, several flamenco artists were born here as well, including

Vicente Amigo Joaquín Cortés Fosforito Paco Peña Juan Serrano

Also recently

Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez (Manolete), matador Fernando Tejero, actor Gabi Delgado-López, musician

Sports[edit]

Segunda División
Segunda División
match between Córdoba C.F. and C.D. Leganés (2:3) at Estadio Nuevo Arcángel, January 2016.

Córdoba's main sports team is its association football team, Córdoba CF, which plays in the Spanish Segunda División
Segunda División
following a brief one-season tenure in La Liga
La Liga
during the 2014-15 season. Home matches are played at the Estadio Nuevo Arcángel, which has 20,989 seats. Córdoba also has a professional futsal team, Itea Córdoba CF
Córdoba CF
Futsal, which plays in the Segunda División
Segunda División
de Futsal
Futsal
as well as a basketball team, Yosíquesé Basket, which plays in the Liga EBA. Both teams play the majority of their home games at the 3,500 seat Palacio Municipal de Deportes Vista Alegre. Transport[edit] The city is connected by high speed trains to the following Spanish cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Seville, Málaga
Málaga
and Zaragoza. More than 20 trains per day connect the downtown area, in 54 minutes, with Málaga María Zambrano station, which provides interchange capability to destinations along the Costa del Sol, including Málaga
Málaga
Airport. The city is also well connected by highways with the rest of the country and Portugal. Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Córdoba is twinned with:[53]

Córdoba, Argentina, since 1969 Kairouan, Tunisia, since 1969 A Coruña, A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, since 1976 Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico, since 1980 Fes, Morocco, since 1982 Smara, Morocco, since 1987 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil[54][55] La Habana Vieja, Cuba, since 2000 Damascus, Syria, since 2001

Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, since 2010 León, León, Castile and León, Spain, since 2010 Faisalabad, Pakistan Lahore, Pakistan[56] Bukhara, Uzbekistan Manchester, England, United Kingdom Bethlehem, State of Palestine Adana, Turkey Derna, Libya La Louvière, Hainaut, Belgium

References[edit]

^ "La Alcaldesa". Ayuntamiento de Córdoba. Retrieved 16 May 2017.  ^ a b "Extensión superficial, altitud y población de hecho de las provincias, capitales y municipios de más de 20.000 habitantes. Península, Islas Baleares y Canarias". Anuario 1996. 1996. Retrieved 16 May 2017.  ^ "Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain). Retrieved 17 May 2017.  ^ Former name: Arabic: قُرطبة‎, DIN: Qurṭubah. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Córdoba (conventional Cordova) ^ "Muslim Spain
Spain
(711-1492)". BBC. Retrieved 29 January 2017.  ^ "Standard climate values for Córdoba". Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 11 April 2015.  ^ "Neanderthals Died Out Earlier Than Thought". Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 389. The date is contested; it could have been founded in 152. ^ "Cordoba Treasure". The British Museum. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary 2003, 389 ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 96-98 ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 95-96 ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 94-95 ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, 389 ^ Reed, Tony. "History of Cordoba Spain". Infocordoba. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ "Córdoba History". Retrieved 16 July 2009.  ^ J. Bradford De Long and Andrei Shleifer (October 1993), "Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution" (PDF), The Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, 36 (2): 671–702 [678], doi:10.1086/467294  ^  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Cordova". New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
(1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2014.  ^ Amir Hussain, “Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue,” in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 257 (Oneworld Publications, 2003). ^ " Spain
Spain
from the 6th to 12th Century History". Archived from the original on 18 October 2007.  ^ a b c Córdoba: Historical Overview. Archived 30 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031, ISBN 978-0-631-18184-2  ^ “10th C. Al-Andalus: Al-Mansur.” and Daniel Eisenberg, “Homosexuality” in Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Michael Gerli (Routledge, 2003), 398. and J. B. Bury, The Cambridge Medieval History vol 3 - Germany
Germany
and the Western Empire (CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2011), 378-379. ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ a b "Valores climatológicos extremos. Córdoba" (in Spanish). Aemet.es. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.  ^ Jayyusi, Salma Khadra (1994). The legacy of Muslim Spain
Spain
(2nd ed. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 129–135. ISBN 9004099549. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. "Historic Centre of Cordoba". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b Michell, George (1978). Architecture of the Islamic world its history and social meaning ; with a complete survey of key monuments (2011 ed.). London: Thames & Hudson. p. 212. ISBN 9780500278475.  ^ Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S. (2009). The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195309911.  ^ "Minaret of San Juan". Tourism of Cordoba. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Reina, Carmen. "Los eternos jornaleros del Guadalquivir". El Diario.  ^ "Discovery of a Roman Circus in Cordoba". Artencordoba.co.uk. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "Projects of Santiago Calatrava". Soloarquitectura.com. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ Parque Cruz Conde Archived 8 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ El parque de La Asomadilla se inicia con la apertura de pozos, Diario Córdoba website. ^ Los Sotos de la Albolafia, Inventario de Humedales de Andalucía. ^ TURESPAÑA (2007-04-23). "Museums in Spain: Cordoba Archaeological Museum in Córdoba, Spain
Spain
spain.info USA". Spain.info. Retrieved 2018-02-25.  ^ "Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba Guided Tours. Retrieved 2018-02-25.  ^ "Mapa del Museo - Museo de Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
Visita Virtual". www.museojulioromero.cordoba.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Museum of Julio Romero de Torres, Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba Guided Tours. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ Abdulhameed, Ahmed M (2013). Discover Spain. Lulu Press. ISBN 9781447876564.  ^ "Tourism of Cordoba". english.turismodecordoba.org. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Cordoba: Museum of Fine Arts, Cordoba - TripAdvisor". www.tripadvisor.com. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Museum of Fine Arts of Córdoba". ArtenCórdoba Guided Tours. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Tourism of Cordoba". english.turismodecordoba.org. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Mayocordobes.es". Mayocordobes.es. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ Áreas de Gobierno [Areas of Governance]. Ayuntamiento de Córdoba (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ "Reglamento Orgánico General del Ayuntamiento de Córdoba" (PDF), B.O.P (in Spanish) (29), p. 1044, 2009, retrieved 13 February 2018  ^ Local governing board of the City Council of Córdoba, official website of the City Council of Córdoba Archived 28 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Municipal Elections 2007 in Córdoba: Cargos en la Corporación Municipal – Article of Cordobapedia published in Castilian, GFDL license. ^ "Hermanamientos". Ayuncordoba.es. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation - No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo
São Paulo
14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese) ^ Aslam, Talat, ed. (2007-04-27). "Musharraf for Lahore-Cordoba liaison to promote ties with Spain". The News International. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Córdoba, Spain

Published in the 19th century

Arthur de Capell Brooke (1831), "Cordova", Sketches in Spain
Spain
and Morocco, London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, OCLC 13783280  Richard Ford (1855), "Cordova", A Handbook for Travellers in Spain (3rd ed.), London: J. Murray, OCLC 2145740  John Lomas, ed. (1889), "Cordova", O'Shea's Guide to Spain
Spain
and Portugal (8th ed.), Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black 

Published in the 20th century

"Cordova", Spain
Spain
and Portugal (3rd ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1908, OCLC 1581249  Trudy Ring, ed. (1996). "Cordoba". Southern Europe. International Dictionary of Historic Places. 3. Fitzroy Dearborn. OCLC 31045650. 

Published in the 21st century

C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Cordova". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.  Barbara Messina, Geometrie in pietra. La moschea di Cordova. Giannini editore, Napoli 2004, ISBN 9788874312368

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Córdoba, Spain.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Córdoba (city, Spain).

Ayuntamiento de Córdoba [Córdoba's City Council] (in Spanish).  "Córdoba". Tourism of Córdoba.  "Córdoba24".  Córdoba travel information. "Natural Monument Sotos de la Albolafia". Junta de Andalucia.  "168. Cordoba – The City that Changed Thought". The Tudung Traveller.  "Tourism in Córdoba in Andalusia, Spain
Spain
spain.info USA". Tourist Offices of Spain.  "Córdoba Archnet". archnet.org. MIT School of Architecture and Planning.  Emmet Scott. "Myth of Spain's Islamic Golden Age".  About lack of archaeological evidence between 711 and 911. Cordoba Travel Pictures

v t e

Capitals of provinces of Spain

A Coruña Albacete Alicante Almería Ávila Badajoz Barcelona Bilbao Burgos Cáceres Cádiz Castellón de la Plana Ciudad Real Córdoba Cuenca Donostia-San Sebastián Girona Granada Guadalajara Huelva Huesca Jaén Logroño Las Palmas León Lleida Lugo Madrid Málaga Murcia Ourense Oviedo Palencia Palma Pamplona Pontevedra Salamanca Santander Santa Cruz Segovia Seville Soria Tarragona Teruel Toledo Valencia Valladolid Vitoria-Gasteiz Zamora Zaragoza

v t e

Comarcas of Andalusia

Almería

Alpujarra Almeriense Comarca Metropolitana de Almería Filabres-Tabernas Levante Almeriense Poniente Almeriense Valle del Almanzora Los Vélez

Cádiz

Bay of Cádiz Campiña de Jerez Campo de Gibraltar Costa Noroeste de Cádiz La Janda Sierra de Cádiz

Córdoba

Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Sur Córdoba Subbética Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir

Granada

Alpujarra Granadina Alhama Baza Guadix Huéscar Costa Granadina Loja Los Montes Valle de Lecrín Vega de Granada

Huelva

Andévalo Comarca Metropolitana de Huelva El Condado Costa Occidental Cuenca Minera Sierra de Huelva

Jaén

Campiña de Jaén Sierra Morena Comarca Metropolitana de Jaén El Condado La Loma Sierra de Cazorla Sierra de Segura Sierra Mágina Sierra Sur de Jaén Las Villas

Málaga

Axarquía Antequera Costa del Sol Occidental Comarca Nororiental Guadalteba Màlaga-Costa del Sol Serranía de Ronda Sierra de las Nieves Valle del Guadalhorce

Sevilla

El Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña de Carmona Campiña de Morón y Marchena Écija Comarca Metropolitana de Sevilla Los Alcores Sierra Norte Sierra Sur de Sevilla Vega del Guadalquivir

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157115300 LCCN: n81058

.