CóRDOBA (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/ , Spanish: ), also called CORDOVA
(/ˈkɔːrdəvə/ ) in English , is a city in
Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in
* 1 History
* 1.1 Prehistory, antiquity and Roman foundation of the city * 1.2 Islamic rule * 1.3 Modern history
* 2 Geography * 3 Climate
* 4 Main sights
* 4.1 Historic architecture * 4.2 Fernandine churches * 4.3 Other religious structures * 4.4 Sculptures and memorials * 4.5 Gardens, parks and natural environments * 4.6 Bridges
* 5 Politics and government * 6 Museums * 7 Theatres * 8 May celebrations * 9 People * 10 Transport * 11 Twin towns – sister cities * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
See also: Timeline of Córdoba,
PREHISTORY, ANTIQUITY AND ROMAN FOUNDATION OF THE CITY
The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a
Neanderthal Man , dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC. In the 8th
century BC, during the ancient
In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus
Claudius Marcellus , who had governed both Further and Hither Spain,
founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement.
Between 143 and 141 BC the town was besieged by
It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC. It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, and settled with veterans by Augustus. It became capital of Baetica and had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples. It was the chief center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain). Its republican poets were succeeded by Seneca and Lucan.
At the time of
In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius (Ossius) was the dominant
figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent. Later,
it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the
Byzantine Empire (552–572) and under the
Córdoba was captured in 711 by a Moorish army. Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Moorish rule. The new Moorish commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus ; in Arabic it was known as قرطبة (Qurṭubah).
Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christian and Moors, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I . Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766 Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Muslim emirate, later caliphate , of al-Andalus . By 800 the megacity of Cordoba supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global population. During the apogee of the caliphate (1000 AD), Córdoba had a population of about 500,000 inhabitants; estimates range from 350,000 to 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world, and a great cultural, political, financial and economic centre. The Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the situation changed quickly. The vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on philosophy to please the Moorish clergy; most of the others were sold off or perished in the civil strife not long after.
In the ninth and tenth centuries, Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world." In it, "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city."
Regarding Córdoba's importance, Reinhardt Dozy wrote:
The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun Hroswitha , famous in the last half of the 10th century for her Latin poems and dramas, called it the Ornament of the World. — Reinhardt Dozy
Córdoba had a prosperous economy with its "skilled artisans and agricultural infrastructure," The manufactured goods for sale included "leather and metal work, glazed tiles and textiles." The agricultural produce included fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and raw materials such as "cotton, flax and silk."
Córdoba was also famous as "a centre of learning." Education was "taken seriously." Al-Hakam II had a large library. Knowledge in the fields of "medicine, mathematics, astronomy, botany" exceeded the rest of Europe.
Roger Collins wrote:
The Arab conquest created the conditions for a state of almost
permanent warfare in the
In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the
area of Rioja when he died. His death was the beginning of the end of
Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar , al-Mansur's older son, succeeded
to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008, possibly
Sanchuelo , Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded
Sanchuelo was away fighting
Alfonso V of Leon , a
revolution made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph.
Sanchuelo sued for
pardon but he was killed when he returned to Cardova. The slaves
revolted against Mahdi, killed him in 1009, and replaced him with
Hisham II in 1010.
Hisham II wore a veil, used makeup, kept a male
harem, and was forced out of office. In 1012 the
After 1031, Córdoba lost its prosperity and fame and became an isolated city. The "ruling elite" were well known for their "disinterest in the outside world ... and intellectual laziness."
A city map of Córdoba,
During the process known as the Spanish Reconquista, Córdoba was
captured by King
Ferdinand III of Castile
The city declined, especially after
With the most extensive historical heritages in the world declared
World Heritage Site
The regional government (the Junta de Andalucía ) has for some time been studying the creation of a Córdoba Metropolitan Area that would comprise, in addition to the capital itself, the towns of Villafranca de Córdoba , Obejo , La Carlota , Villaharta , Villaviciosa , Almodóvar del Río and Guadalcázar . The combined population of such an area would be around 351,000.
The city is in a depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. In the north is the Sierra Morena, which defines the borders of the municipal area.
Córdoba is one of the few cities in the world that has a near-exact antipodal city – Hamilton , New Zealand.
Córdoba has a
Winters are mild, yet cooler than other low lying cities in southern
Registered maximum temperatures at the Córdoba Airport (6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city) are 46.9 °C (116.4 °F) (13 July 2017) and 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) (23 July 1995). The lowest temperature ever recorded was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) (28 January 2005).
CLIMATE DATA FOR CóRDOBA (1981-2010), EXTREMES (1949-PRESENT)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 22.9 (73.2) 27.8 (82) 33.0 (91.4) 34.0 (93.2) 41.2 (106.2) 45.0 (113) 46.9 (116.4) 46.2 (115.2) 45.4 (113.7) 36.0 (96.8) 29.7 (85.5) 23.5 (74.3) 46.9 (116.4)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 14.9 (58.8) 17.4 (63.3) 21.3 (70.3) 22.8 (73) 27.4 (81.3) 32.8 (91) 36.9 (98.4) 36.5 (97.7) 31.6 (88.9) 25.1 (77.2) 19.1 (66.4) 15.3 (59.5) 25.1 (77.2)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 11.1 (52) 14.4 (57.9) 16.0 (60.8) 20.0 (68) 24.7 (76.5) 28.0 (82.4) 28.0 (82.4) 24.2 (75.6) 19.1 (66.4) 13.5 (56.3) 10.4 (50.7) 18.3 (64.9)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 4.9 (40.8) 7.4 (45.3) 9.3 (48.7) 12.6 (54.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 19.4 (66.9) 16.9 (62.4) 13.0 (55.4) 7.8 (46) 5.5 (41.9) 11.4 (52.5)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −8.2 (17.2) −5.0 (23) −4.2 (24.4) 0.2 (32.4) 2.4 (36.3) 7.0 (44.6) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 6.0 (42.8) 1.0 (33.8) −3.6 (25.5) −7.8 (18) −8.2 (17.2)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 66 (2.6) 55 (2.17) 49 (1.93) 55 (2.17) 40 (1.57) 13 (0.51) 2 (0.08) 5 (0.2) 35 (1.38) 86 (3.39) 80 (3.15) 111 (4.37) 605 (23.82)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 7 6 5 7 5 1 0 1 3 7 6 8 57
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 76 71 64 60 55 48 41 43 52 66 73 79 60
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 174 186 218 235 289 323 363 336 248 205 180 148 2,905
Córdoba has the second largest Old town in Europe, the largest urban
area in the world declared World Heritage by UNESCO. The most
important building and symbol of the city, the Great Mosque of
Córdoba and current cathedral, and the Roman bridge , are the city's
best-known features. Other Roman remains include the Roman Temple ,
the Theatre , Mausoleum , the Colonial Forum, the Forum Adiectum, an
amphitheater and the remains of the Palace of Emperor
Near the cathedral is the old Jewish quarter , which consists of many irregular streets, such as Calleja de las Flores and Calleja del Pañuelo, and which is home to the Synagogue and the Sephardic House. In the extreme southwest of the Old Town is the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos , a former royal property and the seat of the Inquisition ; adjacent to it are the Royal Stables , where Andalusian horses are bred. Near the stables are located, along the walls, the medieval Baths of the Caliphate. In the south of the Old town and east of the great cathedral, in the Plaza del Potro , is the Posada del Potro, a row of inns mentioned in literary works including Don Quixote and La Feria de los Discretos, and which remained active until 1972. Both the plaza and the inn get their name from the fountain in the centre of the plaza, which represents a foal (potro). Not far from this plaza is the Arco del Portillo (a 14th-century arch).
Along the banks of the Guadalquivir are the Mills of the Guadalquivir , Moorish-era buildings that used the water flow to grind flour. They include the Albolafia, Alegría, Carbonell, Casillas, Enmedio, Lope García, Martos, Pápalo, San Antonio, San Lorenzo and San Rafael mills.
Surrounding the large Old town are the Roman walls : gates include the Puerta de Almodóvar, the Puerta de Sevilla and Puerta del Puente , which are the only three gates remaining from the original thirteen. Towers and fortresses include the Malmuerta Tower , the Belén Tower and the Puerta del Rincón's Tower, and the fortress of the Calahorra Tower and of the Donceles Tower.
Palace buildings in the Old Town include the Palacio de Viana (14th
century) and the
Palacio de la Merced among others. On the outskirts
of the city lies the archaeological site of the city of Medina Azahara
, which, together with the
Other sights are the Cuesta del Bailío (a staircase connecting the upper and lower part of the city) and the Minaret of San Juan , once part of a mosque.
The city is home to 12 Christian churches that were built (many as
transformations of mosques) by
Ferdinand III of Castile
San Nicolás de la Villa .
* San Miguel .
San Juan y Todos los Santos (also known as Iglesia de la
* Santa Marina de Aguas Santas .
* San Agustín. Begun in 1328, it has now an 18th-century
appearance. The façade bell tower, with four bells, dates to the 16th
* San Andrés, largely renovated in the 14th and 15th centuries. It
OTHER RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES
Main façade of the Iglesia de San Hipólito.
* San Hipólito . It houses the tombs of Ferdinand IV and Alfonso XI of Castile , kings of Castile and León . * San Francisco * San Salvador y Santo Domingo de Silos * Shrine of Nuestra Señora de Linares * Tower of Santo Domingo de Silos * Shrine of Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta * Chapel of San Bartolomé * Convent of Santa Clara * Convent of Santa Cruz * Convent of Santa Marta
SCULPTURES AND MEMORIALS
Scattered throughout the city are ten statues of the Archangel Raphael , protector and custodian of the city. These are called Triumphs of Saint Raphael , and are located in landmarks such as the Roman Bridge, the Puerta del Puente and the Plaza del Potro.
In the western part of the Historic Centre are the statue of Seneca
(near the Puerta de Almodóvar, a gate of Islamic origin, (the Statue
Averroes (next to the Puerta de la Luna), and
There are also several sculptures in plazas of the Old Town. In the central Plaza de las Tendillas is the equestrian statue of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba , in the Plaza de Capuchinos is the Cristo de los Faroles , in Plaza de la Trinidad is the statue of Luis de Góngora , in the Plaza del Cardenal Salazar is the bust of Ahmad ibn Muhammad abu Yafar al-Gafiqi, in the Plaza de Capuchinas is the statue to the bishop Osio, in Plaza del Conde de Priego is the monument to Manolete and the Campo Santo de los Mártires is a statue to Al-Hakam II and the monument to the lovers.
In the Jardines de la Agricultura is the monument to the painter Julio Romero de Torres , a bust by sculptor Mateo Inurria , a bust of the poet Julio Aumente and the sculpture dedicated to the gardener Aniceto García Roldán, who was killed in the park. Further south, in the Gardens of the Duke of Rivas, is a statue of writer and poet Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas by sculptor Mariano Benlliure .
In the Guadalquivir river, near the San Rafael Bridge is the Island of the sculptures, an artificial island with a dozen stone sculptures executed during the International Sculpture Symposium. Up the river, near the Miraflores bridge, is the "Hombre Río ", a sculpture of a swimmer looking to the sky and whose orientation varies depending from the current.
GARDENS, PARKS AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS
Parque de Miraflores. In the background is the sculpture entitled "Salam". Paseo de Córdoba. Fuente de los Jardines de Colón. Gardens of the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos .
* Jardines de la Victoria . Within the gardens there are two newly renovated facilities, the old Caseta del Círculo de la Amistad, today Caseta Victoria, and the Kiosko de la música, as well as a small Modernist fountain from the early 20th century. The northern section, called Jardines of Duque de Rivas , features a pergola of neoclassical style, designed by the architect Carlos Sáenz de Santamaría; it is used as an exhibition hall and a café bar. * Jardines de la Agricultura , located between the Jardines de la Victoria and the Paseo de Córdoba: it includes numerous trails that radially converge to a round square which has a fountain or pond. This is known as the duck pond, and, in the centre, has an island with a small building in which these animals live. Scattered throughout the garden are numerous sculptures such as the sculpture in memory of Julio Romero de Torres , the sculpture to the composer Julio Aumente and the bust of Mateo Inurria . In the north is a rose garden in form of a labyrinth. * Parque de Miraflores, located on the south bank of the river Guadalquivir . It was designed by the architect Juan Cuenca Montilla as a series of terraces. Among other points of interest as the Salam and Miraflores Bridge and a sculpture by Agustín Ibarrola . * Parque Cruz Conde, located southwest of the city, is an open park and barrier-free park in English gardens style. * Paseo de Cordoba. Located on the underground train tracks, it is a long tour of several km in length with more than 434,000 m². The tour has numerous fountains, including six formed by a portico of falling water which form a waterfall to a pond with four levels. Integrated into the tour is a pond of water from the Roman era , and the building of the old train station of RENFE, now converted into offices of Canal Sur . * Jardines Juan Carlos I, in the Ciudad Jardín neighborhood. It is a fortress which occupies an area of about 12,500 square metres. * Jardines del Conde de Vallellano, located on both sides of the avenue of the same name. It includes a large L-shaped pond with a capacity of 3,000 m3 (105,944.00 cu ft) and archaeological remains embedded in the gardens, among which is a Roman cistern from the second half of the 1st century BC. * Parque de la Asomadilla, with a surface of 27 hectares, is the second largest park in Andalusia. The park recreates a Mediterranean forest vegetation, such as hawthorn, pomegranate, hackberry, oak, olive, tamarisk, cypress, elms, pines, oaks and carob trees among others. * Balcón del Guadalquivir * Jardines de Colón' * Sotos de la Albolafia. Declared Natural monument by the Andalusian Autonomous Government, it is located in a stretch of the Guadalquivir river from the Roman Bridge and the San Rafael Bridge, with an area of 21.36 hectares. Host a large variety of birds and is an important point of migration for many birds. * Parque periurbano Los Villares
Córdoba has seven bridges. The Tower of Calahorra to one side of the Roman Bridge .
* Roman Bridge , over the
Guadalquivir River. It links the area of
Campo de la Verdad with Barrio de la Catedral. It was the only bridge
of the city for twenty centuries, until the construction of the San
Rafael Bridge in the mid-20th century. Built in the early 1st century
BC, during the period of Roman rule in Córdoba, probably replacing a
more primitive wooden one, it has a length of about 250 m and has 16
* San Rafael Bridge, consisting of eight arches of 25 m span and a
length of 217 m. The width is between parapets, divided into 12 m of
cobblestone for four circulations and two tiled concrete sidewalks. It
was inaugurated on 29 April 1953 joining the Avenue Corregidor with
Plaza de Andalucía. In January 2004 the plaques reading "His
Excellency the Head of State and Generalissimo of all the Armies,
Francisco Franco Bahamonde, opened this bridge of the
29 April 1953", which were on both sides of each of the entrances of
the bridge, were removed.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
Puerta del Puente . Former Royal Hospital San Sebastián, now Congress hall of Córdoba . Local administration
As of 2017 Isabel Ambrosio (PSOE ) was the mayor of Córdoba.
The City Council of Córdoba is divided into different areas: the Presidency, Security, Mobility, Equality and Participation; Planning, Housing, Infrastructure and Environment; Economy, Trade, Employment and Management; Social; Cultural Services and Tourism. The council holds regular plenary session once a month, but often holds extraordinary plenary session to discuss issues and problems affecting the city.
The Governing Board, chaired by the mayor, consists of four Spanish Socialist Workers (IU) councillors, three of United Left (PSOE), three non-elected member. The municipal council consists of 29 members: 11 of People\'s Party , 7 of PSOE, 4 of IU, 4 of Ganemos Córdoba, 2 of Ciudadanos and 1 of Unión Cordobesa.
List of mayors since the democratic elections of 1979 LEGISLATURE NAME PARTY
1979–1983 Julio Anguita PCE
1983–1987 Julio Anguita (until February 1, 1986) Herminio Trigo PCE (IU )
1987–1991 Herminio Trigo IU
1991–1995 Herminio Trigo IU
Manuel Pérez Pérez IU
1995–1999 Rafael Merino PP
1999–2003 Rosa Aguilar IU
2003–2007 Rosa Aguilar IU
2007–2011 Rosa Aguilar (until April 23, 2009) Andrés Ocaña IU
2011–2015 José Antonio Nieto Ballesteros PP
2015 Isabel Ambrosio Palos PSOE -IU -Ganemos Córdoba
Since July 2008, the city is divided into 10 administrative districts, coordinated by the Municipal district boards, which in turn are subdivided into neighbourhoods
DISTRICT DISTRICT LOCATION
Norte-Sierra Periurbano Este-Campiña
Poniente-Norte Periurbano Oeste-Sierra
* Archeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba * Julio Romero de Torres Museum * Museum of Fine Arts * Dioceses Museum * Baths of the Fortress Califal * Botanical Museum of Cordova * Three Cultures Museum * Bullfighting Museum * Molino de Martos Hydraulic Museum * Museo Palacio de Viana
* Gran Teatro de Córdoba * Teatro Axerquía * Teatro Góngora
This picture was taken during the feria de Cordoba, or the festival of Cordoba.
Tourism is especially intense in Córdoba during May because of the weather and as this month hosts three festivals.
The May Crosses Festival takes place at the beginning of the month. During three or four days, crosses of around 3 m height are placed in many squares and streets and decorated with flowers and a contest is held to choose the most beautiful one. Usually there is regional food and music near the crosses.
The Patios Festival is celebrated during the second and third week of the month. Many houses of the historic centre open their private patios to the public and compete in a contest. Both the architectonic value and the floral decorations are taken into consideration to choose the winners. It is usually very difficult and expensive to find accommodation in the city during the festival.
Córdoba's Fair takes place at the ending of the month and is similar to the better known Sevilla Fair with some differences, mainly that the Sevilla one is private, while the Cordoba one is not.
Córdoba was the birthplace of the following philosophers and religious scholars:
* In Roman times the Stoic philosopher Seneca
* In Islamic times
Abd Allah al-Qaysi , an early jurist responsible for spreading the
Ibn Hazm , a major Muslim theologian and legal jurist,
Averroes , an important figure in both Muslim and Western
* Mundhir bin Sa\'īd al-Ballūṭī , a prominent judge for the
Córdoba was also the birthplace of
* The Roman poet Lucan ,
* The medieval Spanish poet
Juan de Mena
The painter Julio Romero de Torres (1874–1930).
More recently, several flamenco artists were born here as well, including
The city is connected by high speed trains to the following Spanish
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Córdoba is twinned with:
* Córdoba , Argentina, since 1969
A Coruña ,
A Coruña , Galicia, Spain, since 1976
* Córdoba ,
* Nuremberg ,
* ^ "La Alcaldesa". Ayuntamiento de Córdoba. Retrieved 16 May
* ^ A B "Extensión superficial, altitud y población de hecho de
las provincias, capitales y municipios de más de 20.000 habitantes.
Península, Islas Baleares y Canarias". Anuario 1996. 1996. Retrieved
16 May 2017.
* ^ "Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del
Padrón municipal a 1 de enero". Instituto Nacional de Estadística
(Spain) . Retrieved 17 May 2017.
* ^ Former name: Arabic : قُرطبة, DIN : Qurṭubah.
Encyclopædia Britannica , Córdoba (conventional Cordova)
* ^ "Muslim
* ^ Organic Regulations of the plenary of the City Council of Córdoba
Art.° 47.- Regular Meetings.- The Plenary holds a regular meetings
once a month, on the date and time is decided by agreement of the
plenary (...) Archived 8 December 2012 at the
See also: Bibliography of the history of Córdoba,
* Arthur de Capell Brooke (1831), "Cordova"