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The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویه‎ Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty[3] of Daylamite origin.[4] Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.[5] The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
was founded by ' Ali
Ali
ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz
Shiraz
his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal
Jibal
in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, conquered Iraq
Iraq
and made Baghdad
Baghdad
his capital, receiving the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla" ("Fortifier of the State"), while ' Ali
Ali
was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla" ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of "Rukn al-Dawla" ("Pillar of the State"). As Daylamite Iranians the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Iran's Sasanian Empire.[6] In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sasanian title Shahanshah (شاهنشاه), literally "king of kings".[7][8] At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
encompassed most of today's Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East,[9] and under king 'Adud al-Dawla, became briefly the most powerful dynasty in the Middle East.[10]

Contents

1 Origins 2 History

2.1 Rise (934-945) 2.2 Height of power and Golden age (945-983) 2.3 Decline and fall (983–1048)

3 Government

3.1 Military

4 Religion 5 Buyid rulers

5.1 Major rulers 5.2 Minor rulers

6 Family tree 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Origins[edit] The word Būya ( Arabic
Arabic
Buwayh) is a Middle Persian
Middle Persian
name ending in the diminutive ـویه ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
-ōē, modern Persian -ūya, Arabic
Arabic
-uwayh). The Buyids were descendants of Panah-Khusrau, a Zoroastrian from Daylam. He had a son named Buya, who was a fisherman from Lahijan,[11] and later left Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and converted to Islam.[12]:274 Buya later had three sons named Ahmad, 'Ali, and Hasan, who would later carve the Buyid kingdom together. Most historians agree that the Buyids were Daylamites.[12]:251–52[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] The Buyids claimed royal lineage from Bahram V, 15th king of the Sasanian Empire.[20] History[edit] Rise (934-945)[edit] The founder of the dynasty, ' Ali
Ali
ibn Buya, was originally a soldier in the service of the Daylamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki,[21] but later changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, and was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan,[22] a region bordering Dailam. ' Ali
Ali
was later joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya
Hasan ibn Buya
and Ahmad ibn Buya. In 932, ' Ali
Ali
was given Karaj
Karaj
as his fief, and thus was able to enlist other Daylamites
Daylamites
into his own army. However, 'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij
Mardavij
plan to have him killed, but fortunately for 'Ali, he was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier. The Buyids brother, with 400 of their Daylamite supporters, then fled to Fars,[23] where they managed to take control of Arrajan.[24] However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids eventually emerged victorious in.[21] This victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.[25] ' Ali
Ali
also made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would later produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore, ' Ali
Ali
also to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry. ' Ali
Ali
then sent his brother Ahmad on an expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from them after opposition from the Baloch people and the Qafs.[26] However, Mardavij, who sought to depose the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad
Baghdad
and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzestan from the Abbasids and forced ' Ali
Ali
to recognize him as his suzerain.[27] Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij
Mardavij
was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers; Ali
Ali
and Ahmad conquered Khuzistan, while Hasan captured the Ziyarid capital of Isfahan, and in 943 captured Rey, which became his capital, thus conquering all of Jibal. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq
Iraq
and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, at the same receiving the laqab Mu'izz ad-Dawla ("Fortifier of the State"), while ' Ali
Ali
was given the laqab Imād al-Dawla ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
("Pillar of the State"). Height of power and Golden age (945-983)[edit] In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, Oman
Oman
(967), the Jazira (979), Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(980), and Gorgan
Gorgan
(981). After this, however, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent. Decline and fall (983–1048)[edit] The death of Adud al-Dawla
Adud al-Dawla
is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty;[28] his son Abu Kalijar
Abu Kalijar
Marzuban, who was in Baghdad
Baghdad
at the time of his death, first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession and avoid civil war. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war.[29] Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla
Samsam al-Dawla
to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region.[29] Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
also died during this period, and he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn 'Abbad
Sahib ibn 'Abbad
became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions.[30] Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra
Basra
and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla". Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris (known by his title of "Sharaf al-Dawla") quickly seized Oman
Oman
from Samsam al-Dawla, and in 983, the Turkic troops of Samsam al-Dawla
Samsam al-Dawla
mutinied against him, and left Iraq
Iraq
for Fars, but most of them were persuaded by his relative Ziyar ibn Shahrakawayh to stay in Iraq. However, unfortunately for Samsam al-Dawla, Iraq
Iraq
was in grim affairs, and several rebellions occurred, which he however, managed to suppress, the most dangerous rebellion being under Asfar ibn Kurdawayh, who tried to make Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh (known by his title of "Baha' al-Dawla") the ruler of Iraq. During the same period, Samsam al-Dawla
Samsam al-Dawla
also managed to seize Basra and Khuzistan, forcing his two brothers to flee to Fakhr al-Dawla's territory. During the mid-11th century, the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, who was facing an uprising by his Dailami troops in Ray, requested assistance from Mahmud of Ghazna.[31] When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he deposed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
governor and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.[32][33] In 1055, Tughrul
Tughrul
conquered Baghdad, the seat of the caliphate, and ousted the last of the Buyid rulers.[34] Like the Buyids, the Seljuqs kept the Abbasid caliphate
Abbasid caliphate
as the titular ruler.[35] Government[edit] The Buyids established a confederation in Iraq
Iraq
and western Iran. This confederation formed three principalities - one in Fars, with Shiraz as its capital - the second one in Jibal, with Ray as its capital - and the last one in Iraq, with Baghdad
Baghdad
as its capital. However, during their late period, more principalities formed in the Buyid confederation. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons. The title used by the Buyid rulers was amir, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the amirs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amir al-umara,[8] or senior amir. Although the senior amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amirs used the Sassanid
Sassanid
title of Shahanshah. Furthermore, several other titles such as malik ("king"), and malik al-muluk ("king of kings"), were also used by the Buyids. On a smaller scale, the Buyid territory was also be ruled by princes from other families, such as the Hasanwayhids. Military[edit]

Artistic rendering of a Daylamite Buyid infantryman.

During the beginning of the Buyid dynasty, their army consisted mainly of their fellow Daylamites, a warlike and brave people of mostly peasant origin, who served as foot soldiers. The Daylamites
Daylamites
had a long history of military activity dating back to the Sasanian period, and had been mercenaries in various places in Iran
Iran
and Iraq, and even as far as Egypt. The Daylamites, during a battle, normally bore a sword, a shield, and three spears. Furthermore, they were also known for their formidable shield formation, which was hard to break through.[36] But when the Buyid territories increased, they began recruiting Turks into their cavalry,[25] who had played a prominent role in the Abbasid military.[37] The Buyid army also consisted of Kurds, who, along with the Turks, were Sunnis, while the Daylamites
Daylamites
were Shi'i Muslims.[38] However, the army of the Buyids of Jibal
Jibal
mainly composed of Daylamites.[39] The Daylamites
Daylamites
and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army.[40] To compensate their soldiers the Buyid amīrs often distributed iqtāʾs, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province (tax farming), although the practice of payment in kind was also frequently used.[41] While the Turks were favored in Buyid Iraq, the Daylamites
Daylamites
were favored in Buyid Iran.[42] Religion[edit] Like most Daylamites
Daylamites
at the time, the Buyids were Shia and have been called Twelvers. However, it is more likely that they began as Zaydis.[43][44] As the reason of this turning from Zaydism to Twelverism, Moojen Momen suggests that since the Buyids were not descendants of Ali, the first Shi'i Imam, Zaydism would have urged them to install an Imam from Ali's family. For that reason Buyids tended toward Twelverism, which has an occulted Imam, which was more politically attractive to them.[43] The Buyids rarely attempted to enforce a particular religious view upon their subjects except when in matters where it would be politically expedient. The Sunni Abbasids retained the caliphate but were deprived of all secular power.[45] In addition, in order to prevent tensions between the Shia and the Sunnis from spreading to government agencies, the Buyid amirs occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from either sect.[46] Buyid rulers[edit] Major rulers[edit] Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal
Jibal
and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions. Buyids in Fars

Imad al-Dawla
Imad al-Dawla
(934–949) ' Adud al-Dawla
Adud al-Dawla
(949–983) Sharaf al-Dawla
Sharaf al-Dawla
(983–989) Samsam al-Dawla
Samsam al-Dawla
(989–998) Baha' al-Dawla
Baha' al-Dawla
(998–1012) Sultan al-Dawla
Sultan al-Dawla
(1012–1024) Abu Kalijar
Abu Kalijar
(1024–1048) Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
(1048–1051) Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Shah
(1051–1054) Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
(1051–1062)

Buyid era art: Painted, incised, and glazed earthenware. Dated 10th century, Iran. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Buyids in Ray

Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
(935–976) Fakhr al-Dawla
Fakhr al-Dawla
(976–980) Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
(980–983) Fakhr al-Dawla
Fakhr al-Dawla
(restored) (984–997) Majd al-Dawla
Majd al-Dawla
(997–1029)

Buyids in Iraq

Mu'izz al-Dawla
Mu'izz al-Dawla
(945–967) 'Izz al-Dawla
'Izz al-Dawla
(966–978) ' Adud al-Dawla
Adud al-Dawla
(978–983) Samsam al-Dawla
Samsam al-Dawla
(983–987) Sharaf al-Dawla
Sharaf al-Dawla
(987–989) Baha' al-Dawla
Baha' al-Dawla
(989–1012) Sultan al-Dawla
Sultan al-Dawla
(1012–1021) Musharrif al-Dawla
Musharrif al-Dawla
(1021–1025) Jalal al-Dawla
Jalal al-Dawla
(1025–1044) Abu Kalijar
Abu Kalijar
(1044–1048) Al- Malik
Malik
al-Rahim (1048–1055)

Minor rulers[edit] It was not uncommon for younger sons to found collateral lines, or for individual Buyid members to take control of a province and begin ruling there. The following list is incomplete. Buyids in Basra

Diya' al-Dawla
Diya' al-Dawla
(980s)

Buyids in Hamadan

Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
(976–983) Shams al-Dawla
Shams al-Dawla
(997–1021) Sama' al-Dawla
Sama' al-Dawla
(1021–1024)

Buyids in Kerman

Qawam al-Dawla
Qawam al-Dawla
(1012–1028)

Buyids of Khuzistan

Taj al-Dawla
Taj al-Dawla
(980s)

Family tree[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imad al-Dawla 934–949

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rukn al-Dawla 935–976

 

 

 

 

 

Mu'izz al-Dawla 945–967

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kama

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim

 

Izz al-Dawla 967–978

 

Sanad al-Dawla

 

Marzuban

 

Zubayda

 

Abu Tahir

 

Ali
Ali
ibn Kama

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar

 

Salar

 

Unnamed princess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fakhr al-Dawla 976–997

 

'Adud al-Dawla 949–983

 

Mu'ayyad al-Dawla 980–983

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shams al-Dawla 997–1021

 

Majd al-Dawla 997–1029

 

Sharaf al-Dawla 983–989

 

Samsam al-Dawla 983–998

 

Baha' al-Dawla 998–1012

 

Shahnaz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sama' al-Dawla 1021–1024

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qawam al-Dawla 1012–1028

 

Sultan al-Dawla 1012–1024

 

Musharrif al-Dawla 1021–1025

 

Jalal al-Dawla 1027–1044

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fana-Khusrau

 

Abu Dulaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Kalijar 1024–1048

 

Al- Malik
Malik
al-Aziz

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Mansur Ali

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Ali
Ali
Fana-Khusrau

 

Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun 1048–1062

 

Al- Malik
Malik
al-Rahim 1048–1055

 

Kamrava

 

Abu'l-Muzaffar Bahram

 

Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu'l-Ghana'im al-Marzuban

 

Surkhab

 

 

 

 

See also[edit]

Iranian Intermezzo List of kings of Persia List of Shi'a Muslims dynasties

References[edit]

^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 154. ^ Abbasids, B.Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, Ed. H.A.R.Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 19. ^ Grousset, René (2002). The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. trans. Naomi Walford. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813506271.  ^ Felix, Wolfgang; Madelung, Wilferd. "Deylamites". Encyclopaedia Iranica, VII/4. pp. 342–347. Retrieved 28 November 2016. The most successful actors in the Deylamite expansion were the Buyids. The ancestor of the house, Abū Šojāʿ Būya, was a fisherman from Līāhej, the later region of Lāhījān. ^ Blair, Sheila (1992). The Monumental Inscriptions From Early Islamic Iran
Iran
and Transoxiana. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09367-2.  ^ Goldschmidt, Arthur (2002). A Concise History of the Middle East
Middle East
(7 ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 87. ISBN 0813338859.  ^ Clawson, Patrick; Rubin, Michael (2005), Eternal Iran: continuity and chaos, Middle East
Middle East
in Focus (1st ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 19, ISBN 1-4039-6276-6  ^ a b Kabir, Mafizullah (1964). The Buwayhid dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946–447/1055. Calcutta: Iran
Iran
Society.  ^ Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th–13th Centuries. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 0391041746.  – via Questia (subscription required) ^ Ch. Bürgel & R. Mottahedeh 1988, pp. 265–269. ^ Felix, Wolfgang; Madelung, Wilferd. "Deylamites". Encyclopaedia Iranica, VII/4. pp. 342–347. Retrieved 28 November 2016.  ^ a b Busse, Heribert (1975). " Iran
Iran
Under the Buyids". In Frye, Richard N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521200936.  ^ ʿAżod-Al-Dawla, Abū Šojāʾ Fannā Ḵosrow (936-83) at Encyclopædia Iranica ^ Buyids at Encyclopædia Iranica ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 154–155. ISBN 0231107145.  ^ Rypka, Jan (2013). History of Iranian Literature. Springer. ISBN 978-94-010-3479-1. , page 146 ^ Kennedy, Hugh (2015). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-37638-5. , page 211 ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor, ed. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 (Reprint ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9004097961.  ^ Karsh, Efraim (2007). Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven: Yale University. ISBN 0-300-12263-2.  ^ Alram, Michael. "The Cultural Impact of Sasanian Persia along the Silk Road – Aspects of Continuity". e-Sasanika. 14: 10.  The article uses Wahram Gūr for the king's name. ^ a b Nagel 1990, p. 578–586. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 211. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 212. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 255. ^ a b Kennedy 2004, p. 213. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 257. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 256. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 234. ^ a b Bosworth 1975, p. 289. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 290. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 53,59,234. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994-1040, 53,59,234. ^ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000-1217), C.E. Bosworth, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. V, ed. J. A. Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 37. ^ André Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 9.  – via  Questia (subscription required) ^ Bernard Lewis, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Scribner, 1995) p. 89. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 251. ^ Sohar and the Daylamī interlude (356–443/967–1051), Valeria Fiorani Piacentini, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 35, Papers from the thirty-eighth meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in London, 22–24 July 2004 (2005), 196. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 287. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 244. ^ Busse, Heribert (1975), " Iran
Iran
Under the Buyids", in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 265, 298, ISBN 0-521-20093-8  ^ Sourdel-Thomine, J. "Buwayhids." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. p. 1353. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 252. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985), An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, pp. 75–76, ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5  ^ Berkey, Jonathan (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58813-3. , p. 135 ^ Abbasids, Bernard Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H. A. R. Gibb, J. H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (E.J. Brill, 1986), 19. ^ Heribert, pp. 287-8

Sources[edit]

Madelung, W. (1975). "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R.N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.  Hill, Donald Routledge, Islamic Science And Engineering, Edinburgh University Press (1993), ISBN 0-7486-0455-3 Edward Granville Browne, Islamic Medicine, 2002, ISBN 81-87570-19-9 Bosworth, C. E. (1975). " Iran
Iran
under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8.  Nagel, Tilman (1990). "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 578–586.  Taylor &, Francis (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  Kennedy, Hugh N. (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Ltd. ISBN 0-582-40525-4.  Ch. Bürgel; R. Mottahedeh (1988). "ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 3. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 265–269.  Donohue, John J. (2003). The Buwayhid Dynasty in Iraq
Iraq
334h., 945 to 403h., 1012: Shaping Institutions for the Future. ISBN 9789004128606. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  Kabir, Mafizullah (1964). The Buwayhid Dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  Patrick Clawson &, Michael Rubin (2005). Eternal Iran: Continuity and Chaos. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  Wilferd Madelung, Wolfgang Felix, (1995). "DEYLAMITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. BII, Fasc. 4. pp. 342–347.  Ibn, Isfandiyar (1905). An Abridged Translation of the History of Tabaristan. University of Michigan: BRILL. pp. 1–356. ISBN 9789004093676.  Kraemer, Joel L. (1992). Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. BRILL. ISBN 9789004097360. 

External links[edit]

"Buyids" Tilman Nagel Encyclopedia Iranica: DEYLAMITES [1] The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski The Buwaihids in Iran
Iran
and Iraq

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Buyid dynasty

In Fars (934–1062)

Imad al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

In Kerman (940–1048)

Mu'izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Qawam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar

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Rukn al-Dawla Fakhr al-Dawla Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Fakhr al-Dawla Majd al-Dawla

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Mu'izz al-Dawla Izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Sharaf al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Musharrif al-Dawla Jalal al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Al- Malik
Malik
al-Rahim

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Mu'izz al-Dawla 'Adud al-Dawla Samsam al-Dawla Baha' al-Dawla Sultan al-Dawla Abu Kalijar

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