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was a title assigned to ''samurai'' officials during the feudal period of Japan. ''Bugyō'' is often translated as commissioner, magistrate, or governor, and other terms would be added to the title to describe more specifically a given official's tasks or jurisdiction.

Pre-Edo period

In the Heian period (794–1185), the post or title of ''bugyō'' would be applied only to an official with a set task; once that task was complete, the officer would cease to be called ''bugyō''. However, in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and later, continuing through the end of the Edo period (1603–1868), posts and title came to be created on a more permanent basis.Kinihara, Misako
''The Establishment of the Tosen-bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori'' (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用)
Tokyo Woman's Christian University. ''Essays and S.tudies''. Abstract.
Over time, there came to be 36 ''bugyō'' in the bureaucracy of the Kamakura shogunate. In 1434, Ashikaga Yoshinori established the ''Tosen-bugyō'' to regulate foreign affairs for the Ashikaga shogunate. In 1587, a Japanese invading army occupied Seoul; and one of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's first acts was to create a ''bugyō'' for the city, replicating a familiar pattern in an unfamiliar setting.

Edo period

During the Edo period, the number of ''bugyō'' reached its largest extent as the bureaucracy of the Tokugawa shogunate expanded on an ''ad hoc'' basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances.

List

: * Edo ''machi-bugyō'' (江戸町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Edo. ** Kita-machi-bugyō (北町奉行) – North Edo magistrate.Cunningham, Don. (2004)
''Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai,'' p. 42.
/ref> ** Minami-machi-bugyō (南町奉行) – South Edo magistrate. * ''Fushin-bugyō'' (普請奉行) – Superintendents of Public Works.Jansen, Marius. (1995)
''Warrior Rule in Japan,'' p. 186
citing John Whitney Hall. (1955). ''Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan.'' Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
* ''Gaikoku-bugyō'' (外国奉行) – Commissioners in charge of trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries after 1858.Beasley, William. (1955). ''Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853–1868,'' p. 322. * ''Gunkan-bugyō'' (軍鑑奉行) – Commissioners in charge of naval matters (post-1859). *''Gusoku-bugyō'' (具足奉行) – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies. ** ''Bugu-bugyō'' (武具奉行) – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies (post-1863), replaced ''Gusoku-bugyō''. *''Hakodate bugyō'' (箱館奉行) – Overseers of the port of Hakodate and neighboring territory of Ezo. * Haneda ''bugyō'' (羽田奉行) – Overseers of the port of Haneda; commissioners of coastal defenses near Edo (post-1853). * Hyōgo ''bugyō'' (兵庫奉行) – Overseers of the port of Hyōgo (post-1864).Beasley, p. 323. * ''Jisha-bugyō'' (寺社奉行) – Ministers or administrators for religious affairs; overseers of the country's temples and shrines. * ''Jiwari-bugyō'' (地割奉行)- Commissioners of surveys and surveying. * Kanagawa ''bugyō'' (神奈川奉行) – Overseers of the port of Kanagawa (post-1859).Beasley, p. 324. * ''Kanjō-bugyō'' (勘定奉行) – Ministers or administrators for shogunal finance (post-1787). ** ''Gundai'' – Deputies. ** ''Daikan'' (代官)- Assistant deputies. ** ''Kane-bugyō'' (金奉行) – Superintendents of the Treasury. ** ''Kura-bugyō'' (倉庫奉行) – Superintendents of Cereal Stores. ** ''Kinza'' (金座) – Gold ''za'' or monopoly office (post-1595).Jensen, p. 186; Schaede, Ulrike. (2000)
''Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan,'' p. 223.
/ref> ** ''Ginza'' (銀座) – Silver ''za'' or monopoly office (post-1598). ** ''Dōza'' (銅座) – Copper ''za'' or monopoly office (post-1636) and (1701–1712, 1738–1746, 1766–1768). ** ''Shuza'' (朱座) – Cinnabar ''za'' or monopoly office (post-1609). * ''Kanjō-ginmiyaku'' – Comptrollers of Finance. * Kantō ''gundai'' – Kantō deputies. * ''Kinzan-bugyō'' (金山奉行) – Commissioners of mines. * Kyoto ''shoshidai'' (京都所司代) -- Shogunal representatives at Kyoto.Beasley, p. 325. ** Kyoto ''machi-bugyō'' (京都町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Kyoto. ** Fushimi ''bugyō'' (伏見奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Fushimi (post-1620). ** Nara ''bugyō'' (奈良奉行) – Governors of Nara. * ''Machi-bugyō'' (町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities: Edo, Kyoto, Nagasaki, Nara, Nikkō, and Osaka. * Nagasaki ''bugyō'' (長崎奉行) – Governor of Nagasaki. * Niigata ''bugyō'' (新潟奉行) – Overseers of the port of Niigata. * Nikkō ''bugyō'' (日光奉行) – Overseers of Nikkō. * Osaka ''jōdai'' (大阪城代) – Overseers of Osaka Castle.Murdoch
p. 9.
/ref> ** Osaka ''machi-bugyō'' (大阪町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities like Osaka.Beasley, p. 325. ** Sakai ''bugyō'' (堺奉行) – Overseers of the town of Sakai. * ''Rōya-bugyō'' (牢屋奉行) – Commissioners of the shogunal prison. * Sado ''bugyō'' (佐渡奉行) – Overseers of the island of Sado. * ''Sakuji-bugyō'' (作事奉行) – Commissioners of works (post-1632). * Shimoda ''bugyō'' (下田奉行) – Overseers of the port of Shimoda.Beasley, p. 329. * Sunpu ''jōdai'' (駿府城代) – Overseers of Sunpu Castle. * Uraga ''bugyō'' (浦賀奉行) – Overseers of the port of Uraga. * Yamada ''bugyō'' (山田奉行) -- Representatives of the shogunate at Ise. * ''Zaimoku-ishi bugyō'' (材木石奉行) - Overseer of construction materials for the Shōgun's properties (from 1647) * ''Zen bugyō'' (膳奉行) – Overseer of victuals for the Shōgun's table

Meiji period

In the early years of the Meiji Restoration, the title of ''bugyō'' continued to be used for government offices and conventional practices where nothing else had been created to replace the existing Tokugawa system. For example, the commander-in-chief of artillery under the early Meiji government was called the ''Hohei-bugyō.''Van de Polder, Léon. (1891)
"Abridged History of the Copper Coins of Japan," ''Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan'' p. 419
500.
As the new government passed its numerous reforms, the term ''bugyō'' was soon phased out of usage.

See also

* ''Shugo''

Notes



References

* Beasley, William G. (1951). ''Britain and the Opening of Japan, 1834–1858.'' London: Luzac & Company
reprinted by
Routledge, London, 1995. (paper) * ____________. (1955)
Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853–1868''.
London: Oxford University Press. eprinted_by_[[RoutledgeCurzon,_London,_2001.___(cloth).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="RoutledgeCurzon.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="eprinted by eprinted_by_[[RoutledgeCurzon,_London,_2001.___(cloth)">RoutledgeCurzon.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="eprinted_by_[[RoutledgeCurzon">eprinted_by_[[RoutledgeCurzon,_London,_2001.___(cloth)*_[[Francis_Brinkley.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="RoutledgeCurzon">eprinted by [[RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001. (cloth)">RoutledgeCurzon.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="eprinted by [[RoutledgeCurzon">eprinted by [[RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001. (cloth)* [[Francis Brinkley">Brinkley, Frank. (1915)
''A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era''.
London: [[Encyclopædia Britannica]]. * Coaldrake, William H. (1996
''Architecture and Authority in Japan''.
London: Routledge. (paper) * Cullen, Louis M. (2003)
''A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds''.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (cloth) -- (paper) * Cunningham, Don. (2004)
''Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai''.
Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. (cloth) * Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005)
''Japan encyclopedia.''
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
OCLC 58053128
* Hall, John Whitney. (1955
''Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan''.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * Jansen, Marius B. (1995)
''Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration''.
New York: Columbia University Press. * ____________. (1995)
''Warrior Rule in Japan''.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Kinihara, Misako
''The Establishment of the Tosen bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori'' (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用)
Tokyo Woman's Christian University. ''Essays and Studies''. 44:2, 27–53. * James Murdoch. (1926). ''A History of Japan''. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co
reprinted by
Routledge, 1996. * Naito, Akira, Kazuo Hozumi, and H. Mack Horto. (2003)
''Edo: the City that Became Tokyo.''
Tokyo: Kodansha. * Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A.R. (1956). ''Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869''. Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial. * Roberts, Luke Shepherd. (1998)
''Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: The Merchant Origins of Economic Nationalism in 18th Century Tosa''.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Sasama Yoshihiko (1995). ''Edo Machi Bugyō Jiten''. Tokyo: Kashiwa-shobo. * Sato, Yasunobu. (2001)
''Commercial Dispute Processing and Japan''.
Amsterdam: Wolters Kluwer. (cloth) * Schaede, Ulrike. (2000)
''Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan''.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. (cloth) * Screech, Timon. (2006). ''Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822''. London: RoutledgeCurzon. * Shimada, Ryuto. (2005)
''The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company''.
Leiden: Brill Publishers. (cloth) * Takekoshi, Yosaburo. (1930)
''The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan''.
New York: Macmillan. {{DEFAULTSORT:Bugyo Category:Government of feudal Japan Category:Officials of the Tokugawa shogunate