CHARLES HARDIN HOLLEY (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known
as BUDDY HOLLY, was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was
a central figure of mid-1950s rock and roll . He was born in Lubbock,
Texas , to a musical family during the
The Holleys had an interest in music; all the family members except
L.O. were able to play an instrument or sing. The elder Holley
brothers performed in local talent shows; on one occasion, Buddy
joined them on violin. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry
greased the strings so it would not make any sound. The brothers won
the contest. During
World War II
During his early childhood, Buddy was influenced by the music of Hank Williams , Jimmie Rodgers , Hank Snow , Bob Wills , and the Carter Family . At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob Montgomery , and the two played together, practising with songs by the Louvin Brothers and Johnnie & Jack . They both listened to the radio programs Grand Ole Opry on WSM , Louisiana Hayride on KWKH , and Big D Jamboree . At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met in high school, including Sonny Curtis and Jerry Allison . In 1952, Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack" in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob". The two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on KDAV in 1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm and blues (R&B). Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when local transmissions ceased. Holley then modified his music by blending his earlier country and western (C&W) influence with R & B.
By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue a full-time career in music. He was further encouraged after seeing Elvis Presley performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV. In February, Holley opened for Presley at the Fair Park Coliseum, in April at the Cotton Club, and again in June at the Coliseum. By that time, he had incorporated into his band Larry Welborn on the stand-up bass and Allison on drums, as his style shifted from C&W to rock and roll . In October, Stone booked Bill Haley from then on, he was known as "Buddy Holly".
On January 26, 1956, Holly attended his first formal recording
session, which was produced by
Owen Bradley . He attended two more
sessions in Nashville, but with the producer selecting the session
musicians and arrangements, Holly became increasingly frustrated by
his lack of creative control. In April 1956, Decca released "Blue
Days, Black Nights " as a single, with "Love Me" on the B-side. Denny
included Holly on a tour as the opening act for
THE CRICKETS (1956–1957)
Holly was unhappy with the results of his time with Decca; he was
inspired by the success of
Buddy Knox 's "
Party Doll " and Jimmy Bowen
's "I\'m Stickin\' with You ", and visited
Norman Petty , who had
produced and promoted both records. Together with Allison, bassist Joe
B. Mauldin , and rhythm guitarist
Niki Sullivan , he went to Petty's
Clovis, New Mexico . The group recorded a demo of "That\'ll
Be the Day ", a song they had previously recorded in Nashville. Now
playing lead guitar, Holly achieved the sound he desired. Petty became
his manager and sent the record to
Brunswick Records in New York City.
Holly, still under contract with Decca, could not release the record
under his name, so a band name was used; Allison proposed the name
"Crickets". Brunswick gave Holly a basic agreement to release "That'll
Be the Day", leaving him with both artistic control and financial
responsibility for future recordings. Impressed with the demo, the
label's executives released it without recording a new version. "I'm
Looking for Someone to Love" was the B-side; the single was credited
to the Crickets . Petty and Holly later learned that Brunswick was a
subsidiary of Decca, which legally cleared future recordings under the
name Buddy Holly. Recordings credited to the Crickets would be
released on Brunswick, while the recordings under Holly's name were
released on another subsidiary label,
"That'll Be the Day" was released on May 27, 1957. Petty booked Holly
and the Crickets for a tour with
Irvin Feld , who had noticed the band
after "That'll Be the Day" appeared on the R a solo album for Holly
and another for the Crickets. Holly appeared on
"That'll Be the Day" topped the US "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on
September 23 and was number one on the
UK Singles Chart for three
weeks in November. On September 20, Coral released "
In the last week of September, the band members flew to Lubbock to
visit their families. Holly's high school girlfriend, Echo McGuire,
had left him for a fellow student. Aside from McGuire, Holly had a
relationship with Lubbock fan June Clark. After Clark ended their
relationship, Holly realized the importance of his relationship with
McGuire and considered his with Clark a temporary one. Meanwhile, for
their return to recording, Petty arranged a session in
A new recording session in Clovis was arranged in May; Holly hired Tommy Allsup to play lead guitar. The session produced the recordings of "It\'s So Easy " and "Heartbeat ". Holly was impressed by Allsup and invited him to join the Crickets. In June, Holly traveled alone to New York for a solo recording session. Without the Crickets, he chose to be backed by a jazz and R Greenfield had booked Holly for shows during previous tours. The two had a verbal agreement; Greenfield would obtain 5% of the booking earnings. Greenfield later felt he was also acting as Holly's manager and deserved a higher payment, which Holly refused. Greenfield then sued Holly. Under New York law, because Holly's royalties originated in New York and were directed out of the state, the payments were frozen until the dispute was settled. Petty then could not complete the transfers to Holly, who considered him responsible for the missing profit.
In September, Holly returned to Clovis for a new recording session,
which yielded "Reminiscing" and "Come Back Baby". During the session,
he ventured into producing by recording Lubbock DJ
Waylon Jennings .
Holly produced the single "Jole Blon" and "When Sin Stops (Love
Begins)" for Jennings. Holly became increasingly interested in the
New York music, recording, and publishing scene. Santiago and he
settled in Apartment 4H of the Brevoort Apartments, at 11 Fifth Avenue
Greenwich Village , where he recorded a series of acoustic songs,
Crying, Waiting, Hoping " and "What to Do". The
inspiration to record the songs is sometimes attributed to the ending
of his relationship with McGuire. In October, Holly recorded tracks
for Coral; these were backed by saxophonist
Boomie Richman and an
18-piece orchestra composed of former members of the NBC Symphony
Orchestra . The three-and-a-half-hour session produced "It Doesn\'t
Matter Anymore ", "
Raining in My Heart ", "Moondreams " (written by
Petty), and "
True Love Ways
Holly ended his association with Petty in December 1958. His band members kept Petty as their manager, and Holly also split from the Crickets. Petty was still holding the money from the royalties, forcing Holly to form a new band and return to touring.
WINTER DANCE PARTY TOUR AND DEATH (1959)
Main article: The Day the Music Died Signpost near the Clear Lake crash site
Holly vacationed with his wife in Lubbock and visited Jennings' radio
station in December 1958. For the start of the Winter Dance Party
tour, he assembled a band consisting of
Waylon Jennings (electric
Tommy Allsup (guitar), and
Carl Bunch (drums). Holly and
Jennings left for New York City, arriving on January 15, 1959.
Jennings stayed at Holly's apartment by
Washington Square Park
Winter Dance Party tour began in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin , on
January 23, 1959. The amount of travel involved created logistical
problems, as the distance between venues had not been considered when
scheduling performances. Adding to the problem, the unheated tour
buses twice broke down in freezing weather, with dire consequences.
Carl Bunch was hospitalized for frostbite to his toes
(suffered while aboard the bus), so Holly decided to seek other
transportation. Before their appearance in
Clear Lake, Iowa , on
February 2, Holly chartered a four-seat
In the dressing room after the Clear Lake show, Allsup agreed to flip
a coin for the seat with Valens. Allsup took out a brand new
half-dollar, and Ritchie called heads. Heads it was. "That's the first
time I've ever won anything in my life," Valens reportedly said.
Allsup later opened a restaurant in
Fort Worth, Texas
The pilot, Roger Peterson , took off in inclement weather, although he was not certified to fly by instruments only . Shortly after 1:00 am on February 3, 1959, Holly, Valens, Richardson, and Peterson were killed instantly when their plane crashed into a cornfield five miles northwest of the Mason City, Iowa airport shortly after take-off. The bodies of the entertainers were all ejected from the plane on impact, while Peterson's body remained entangled in the wreckage. Holly had sustained fatal trauma to his head and chest and numerous lacerations and fractures of his arms and legs. Holly's headstone in the City of Lubbock Cemetery
Holly's funeral was held on February 7, 1959, at the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Lubbock. The service was officiated by Ben D. Johnson, who had presided at the Holly's wedding just months earlier. The pallbearers were Jerry Allison, Joe B. Mauldin, Niki Sullivan, Bob Montgomery, Sonny Curtis, and Phil Everly . Waylon Jennings was unable to attend, because of his commitment to the still-touring Winter Dance Party. Holly's body was interred in the City of Lubbock Cemetery, in the eastern part of the city. His headstone carries the correct spelling of his surname (Holley) and a carving of his Fender Stratocaster guitar.
Maria Elena watched the first reports of Holly's death on television. The following day, she claimed, she miscarried although there is no independent source for this. Holly's mother, who heard the news on the radio in Lubbock, Texas, collapsed. Because of Maria Elena's miscarriage, in the months following the accident, the authorities implemented a policy against announcing victims' names until after families are informed. Santiago did not attend the funeral and has never visited the grave site. She later told the Avalanche-Journal, "In a way, I blame myself. I was not feeling well when he left. I was two weeks pregnant, and I wanted Buddy to stay with me, but he had scheduled that tour. It was the only time I wasn't with him. And I blame myself because I know that, if only I had gone along, Buddy never would have gotten into that airplane."
IMAGE AND STYLE
Holly's singing style was characterized by his vocal hiccups and his alternation between his regular voice and falsetto . His "stuttering vocals" were complemented by his percussive guitar playing , solos, stops , bent notes , and rhythm and blues chord progressions . He often strummed downstrokes that were accompanied by Allison's "driving" percussion.
Holly bought his first Fender Stratocaster, which became his
signature guitar, at Harrod Music in Lubbock for US$249.50. Fender
Stratocasters were popular with country musicians; Holly chose it for
its loud sound. His "innovative" playing style was characterized by
its blending of "chunky rhythm" and "high string lead work". He played
his first Stratocaster, a 1954 model, until it was stolen during a
tour stop in
At the beginning of their music careers, Holly and his band wore
business suits. Upon meeting the Everly Brothers, Don Everly took the
band to Phil's men's shop in New York City and introduced them to Ivy
League clothes . The brothers advised Holly to replace his
old-fashioned glasses with horn-rimmed glasses , which had been
Steve Allen . Holly bought a pair of glasses made in
Mexico from Lubbock optometrist Dr. J. Davis Armistead. Teenagers in
the United States started to request this style of glasses, which were
later popularly known as "
When the plane crashed, the wreckage was strewn across many yards of snow-covered ground. While his other belongings were recovered immediately, there was no record of his signature glasses being found. They were presumed lost until, in March 1980, they were discovered in a Cerro Gordo County courthouse storage area by Sheriff Gerald Allen. They had been found in the spring of 1959, after the snow had melted, and had been given to the sheriff's office. They were placed in an envelope dated April 7, 1959, along with the Big Bopper's watch, a lighter, two pairs of dice and part of another watch, and misplaced when the county moved courthouses. The glasses, missing their lenses, were returned to Maria Elena a year later, after a legal contest over them with his parents. They are now on display at the Buddy Holly Center in Lubbock, Texas.
Encyclopædia Britannica stated that Holly "produced some of the most distinctive and influential work in rock music". AllMusic defined him as "the single most influential creative force in early rock and roll". Rolling Stone ranked him number 13 on its list of "100 Greatest Artists". The Telegraph called him a "pioneer and a revolutionary a multidimensional talent (who) co-wrote and performed (songs that) remain as fresh and potent today".
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Grant Speed sculpted a statue of Holly playing his Fender
guitar. This statue is the centerpiece of Lubbock's Walk of Fame,
which honors notable people who contributed to Lubbock's musical
history. Other memorials to
Groundbreaking will be held on April 20, 2017, for the construction
of a new performing arts center in Lubbock, the
John Lennon and
Paul McCartney saw Holly for the first time
when he appeared on
Sunday Night at the London Palladium . The two
had recently met and begun their musical association. They studied
Holly's records, learned his performance style and lyricism, and based
their act around his persona. Inspired by Holly's insect-themed
Crickets, they chose to name their band "
Lennon's band the Quarrymen covered "That'll Be the Day" in their
first recording session, in 1958. During breaks in the Beatles' first
appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, on February 9, 1964, Lennon asked
Two nights before Holly's death, on January 31, 1959, 17-year-old Bob
Dylan attended Holly's performance in Duluth. Dylan referred to this
in his acceptance speech when he received the Grammy Award for Album
of the Year for
Time Out of Mind in 1998: " ... when I was sixteen or
seventeen years old, I went to see
Mick Jagger saw Holly performing live in
Don McLean 's popular 1971 ballad "American Pie " was inspired by
Holly's death and the day of the plane crash. The song's lyric, which
calls the incident "The Day the Music Died", became popularly
associated with the crash. McLean's album American Pie is dedicated to
Holly. In 2015, McLean wrote, "
Elton John was musically influenced by Holly. At age 13, although he
did not require them, John started wearing horn-rimmed glasses to
imitate Holly. After eight months, the glasses diminished his vision
and John had to start to wear prescription lenses on a regular basis.
The Clash were also influenced by Holly, and referenced him in their
song "Corner Soul" from the
The launch of
Bobby Vee 's successful musical career resulted from
Holly's death; Vee was selected to replace Holly on the tour that
continued after the plane crash. Holly's profound influence on Vee's
singing style can be heard in the songs "
Rubber Ball " – the B-side
of which was a cover of Holly's "Everyday" – and "Run to Him." The
name of the British rock band the Hollies is often claimed as a
tribute to Holly; according to the band, they admired Holly, but their
name was mainly inspired by sprigs of holly in evidence around
Christmas 1962. In an August 24, 1978, interview with Rolling Stone,
Bruce Springsteen told
Dave Marsh , "I play
In 2016, Richard Barone released his album Sorrows its lead actor Gary Busey received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Holly. The film was widely criticized by the rock press, and by Holly's friends and family, for its inaccuracies. This led Paul McCartney (whose MPL Communications by then controlled the publishing rights to Buddy Holly's song catalog) to produce and host his own documentary about Holly in 1985, titled The Real Buddy Holly Story. This video includes interviews with Keith Richards, Phil and Don Everly, Sonny Curtis, Jerry Allison, Holly's family, and McCartney, among others.
In 1987, musician
Marshall Crenshaw portrayed
Steve Buscemi appeared as Holly in a brief cameo as a 1950s-themed restaurant employee in Quentin Tarantino 's 1994 film Pulp Fiction , in which he takes Mia Wallace and Vincent Vega's orders (portrayed respectively by Uma Thurman and John Travolta ).
Holly was depicted in an episode of the science-fiction television
Quantum Leap titled "How the Tess Was Won"; Holly's identity
is only revealed at the end of the episode. Dr.
Sam Beckett (Scott
Bakula ) influences
* The "Chirping" Crickets (1957)
* ^ Travis Holley, one of Buddy\'s brothers, dies Thursday
(Playbill by Kerns blog)
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 12.
* ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 13.
* ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 14.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 34.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 80.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 6.
* ^ A B Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 7.
* ^ A B C Wishart, David 2004 , p. 540.
* ^ A B C Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 130.
* ^ MacDonald, Les 2010 , p. 17.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 97.
* ^ Uslan, Michael; Solomon, Bruce 1981 , p. 49.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis (April 22, 2014). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St.
Martin's Griffin. p. 101. ISBN 9781466868564 .
* ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 131.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 16.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 17.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 18.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 19.
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 57.
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 58.
* ^ A B Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 156.
* ^ Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 127.
* ^ Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 127.
* ^ A B Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 128.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 189.
* ^ "americanrocknrolluktours.co.uk".
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz Johnny Holley 2005 , p. 90.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 91.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 92.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 281.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 280.
* ^ Laing, Dave 2010 , p. 153.
* ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 155.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274–278.
* ^ Webber, Julian Lloyd 2015 .
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 276–278.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 284–285.
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 51.
* ^ Corbin, Sky 2014 .
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 58, 59.
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 62.
* ^ Everitt 2004 , p. 13.
* ^ Texas Monthly, January 1988; p.108
* ^ Galloway, P. (1988, Jun 24). Hit parade. Chicago Tribune
(1963–Current File) Retrieved from
* ^ Associated Press staff 1959 .
* ^ "Coroner\'s report on Charles H. Holley, by Ralph E. Smiley,
Cerro Gordo County, Iowa" (PDF). Autopsyfiles.org. February 4, 1959.
Retrieved December 19, 2015.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 347.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 348–52.
* ^ Suddath, Claire 2009 .
* ^ Kerns, William 2008 .
Rolling Stone staff 2001 .
* ^ A B Henderson, Lol; Stacey, Lee 2014 , p. 296.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 59.
* ^ Hunter, Dave 2013 , p. 87.
* ^ Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 144.
* ^ Jones, Steve 2014 , p. 175.
* ^ "Holly\'s glasses returned to family". The Beaver County Times.
March 12, 1980. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
* ^ "Eyeglasses returned". The Prescott Courier. March 22, 1981.
Retrieved December 19, 2015.
* ^ Crenshaw, Marshall 2015 .
* ^ Eder, Bruce 2015 .
* ^ Mellecamp, John 2011 .
* ^ Norman, Phillip 2015 .
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
* Amburn, Ellis (2014). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St. Martin's
Press. ISBN 978-0-312-14557-6 .
* Associated Press staff (1959). "Iowa Crash Kills 3 Singers; Rock
\'n\' Roll Stars and Pilot Die as Chartered Craft Falls After Its
Take-Off". New York Times. Associated Press. p. 1. Retrieved November
* BBC News staff (2003). "Sir Paul\'s fortune boosted". BBC News.
BBC. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
* Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to This Book. John
Blaney. ISBN 978-0-954-45281-0 .
Buddy Holly Center staff (2014). "The
Buddy Holly Center –
* Bustard, Anne (2005). Buddy: The Story of Buddy Holly. Simon
Leigh, Spencer (1996). Memories of Buddy Holly. Big Nickel
Publications. ISBN 978-0-936433-20-2 .
* v * t * e
* "Love Me "
* "That\'ll Be the Day "
Words of Love
The Buddy Holly Story
The Buddy Holly Story, Vol. 2
Holly in the Hills
* 20 Golden Greats
For the First Time Anywhere
Words of Love
* Buddy Holly discography * List of songs * Bob "Bobby" Montgomery * María Elena Holly (wife) * Norman Petty * The Day The Music Died (1959 plane crash) * The Buddy Holly Story * Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story * "Buddy Holly" (song)
* BOOK * CATEGORY
* v * t * e
* 20 Golden Greats
Words of Love
* "That\'ll Be the Day "
* "Oh, Boy! " (b/w "Not Fade Away ")
* "Maybe Baby "
Think It Over "
* "It\'s So Easy "
* "Love\'s Made a Fool of You "
More Than I Can Say " (b/w "Baby My Heart")
* v * t * e
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
* CHUCK BERRY * JAMES BROWN * RAY CHARLES * SAM COOKE * FATS DOMINO * THE EVERLY BROTHERS (Don Everly, Phil Everly) * BUDDY HOLLY * JERRY LEE LEWIS * LITTLE RICHARD * ELVIS PRESLEY
Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award)
* John Hammond
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 196483 * LCCN : n83147684 * ISNI : 0000 0000 7358 5389 * GND : 118817574 * SUDOC : 027382699 * BNF : cb13895294r (data) * MusicBrainz : d352f5dd-3023-4565-a7bb-52396bf8821d * NDL : 00620830 * BNE : XX972220 * IATH : w6w67kn5
Links: ------ /wiki/Rock_and_roll /wiki/Lubbock,_Texas