CHARLES HARDIN HOLLEY (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known
as BUDDY HOLLY, was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was
a central figure of mid-1950s rock and roll . He was born in Lubbock,
Texas , to a musical family during the
Great Depression , and learned
to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings. His style was
influenced by gospel music , country music , and rhythm and blues
acts, and he performed in Lubbock with his friends from high school.
He made his first appearance on local television in 1952, and the
following year he formed the group "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob
Montgomery . In 1955, after opening for
Elvis Presley , he decided to
pursue a career in music. He opened for Presley three times that year;
his band's style shifted from country and western to entirely rock and
roll. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley he was the
fourth child of Lawrence Odell "L.O." Holley (1901–1985) and Ella
Pauline Drake (1902–1990). His elder siblings were Larry (born in
1925), Travis (1927–2016), and Patricia Lou (1929–2008). From
early childhood, he was nicknamed "Buddy". During the Great
Depression, the Holleys frequently moved residence within Lubbock;
L.O. changed jobs several times. The family were members of the
Tabernacle Baptist Church .
The Holleys had an interest in music; all the family members except
L.O. were able to play an instrument or sing. The elder Holley
brothers performed in local talent shows; on one occasion, Buddy
joined them on violin. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry
greased the strings so it would not make any sound. The brothers won
the contest. During
World War II
World War II , Larry and Travis were called to
military service. Upon his return, Larry brought with him a guitar he
had bought from a shipmate while serving in the Pacific. At age 11,
Buddy took piano lessons, but abandoned them after nine months. He
switched to guitar after he saw a classmate playing and singing on the
school bus. Buddy's parents initially bought him a steel guitar , but
he insisted that he wanted a guitar like his brother's. His parents
bought the guitar from a pawnshop, and Travis taught him to play it.
During his early childhood, Buddy was influenced by the music of Hank
Williams , Jimmie Rodgers ,
Hank Snow ,
Bob Wills , and the Carter
Family . At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob
Montgomery , and the two played together, practising with songs by the
Louvin Brothers and
Johnnie & Jack . They both listened to the radio
Grand Ole Opry on WSM ,
Louisiana Hayride on
KWKH , and Big D
Jamboree . At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met
in high school, including
Sonny Curtis and
Jerry Allison . In 1952,
Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack"
in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he
was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob".
The two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on
1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was
influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm
and blues (R&B). Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to
distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when
local transmissions ceased. Holley then modified his music by
blending his earlier country and western (C&W) influence with R & B.
By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue
a full-time career in music. He was further encouraged after seeing
Elvis Presley performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by
Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV. In February, Holley opened for Presley at
the Fair Park Coliseum, in April at the Cotton Club, and again in June
at the Coliseum. By that time, he had incorporated into his band Larry
Welborn on the stand-up bass and Allison on drums, as his style
shifted from C&W to rock and roll . In October, Stone booked Bill
Haley from then on, he was known as "Buddy Holly".
On January 26, 1956, Holly attended his first formal recording
session, which was produced by
Owen Bradley . He attended two more
sessions in Nashville, but with the producer selecting the session
musicians and arrangements, Holly became increasingly frustrated by
his lack of creative control. In April 1956, Decca released "Blue
Days, Black Nights " as a single, with "Love Me" on the B-side. Denny
included Holly on a tour as the opening act for
Faron Young . During
the tour, they were promoted as "
Buddy Holly and the Two Tones", while
later Decca called them "
Buddy Holly and the Three Tunes". The label
later released Holly's second single "Modern Don Juan", backed with
"You Are My One Desire". Neither single made an impression. On January
22, 1957, Decca informed Holly his contract would not be renewed, but
insisted he could not record the same songs for anyone else for five
THE CRICKETS (1956–1957)
Buddy Holly and the Crickets in 1957 (top to bottom: Allison,
Holly and Mauldin)
Holly was unhappy with the results of his time with Decca; he was
inspired by the success of
Buddy Knox 's "
Party Doll " and Jimmy Bowen
's "I\'m Stickin\' with You ", and visited
Norman Petty , who had
produced and promoted both records. Together with Allison, bassist Joe
B. Mauldin , and rhythm guitarist
Niki Sullivan , he went to Petty's
Clovis, New Mexico . The group recorded a demo of "That\'ll
Be the Day ", a song they had previously recorded in Nashville. Now
playing lead guitar, Holly achieved the sound he desired. Petty became
his manager and sent the record to
Brunswick Records in New York City.
Holly, still under contract with Decca, could not release the record
under his name, so a band name was used; Allison proposed the name
"Crickets". Brunswick gave Holly a basic agreement to release "That'll
Be the Day", leaving him with both artistic control and financial
responsibility for future recordings. Impressed with the demo, the
label's executives released it without recording a new version. "I'm
Looking for Someone to Love" was the B-side; the single was credited
to the Crickets . Petty and Holly later learned that Brunswick was a
subsidiary of Decca, which legally cleared future recordings under the
name Buddy Holly. Recordings credited to the Crickets would be
released on Brunswick, while the recordings under Holly's name were
released on another subsidiary label,
Coral Records . Holly
concurrently held a recording contract with both labels.
"That'll Be the Day" was released on May 27, 1957. Petty booked Holly
and the Crickets for a tour with
Irvin Feld , who had noticed the band
after "That'll Be the Day" appeared on the R a solo album for Holly
and another for the Crickets. Holly appeared on
American Bandstand ,
Dick Clark on ABC , on August 26. Before leaving New York,
the band befriended the
Everly Brothers .
"That'll Be the Day" topped the US "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on
September 23 and was number one on the
UK Singles Chart for three
weeks in November. On September 20, Coral released "
Peggy Sue ",
backed with "Everyday ", with Holly credited as the performer. By
October, "Peggy Sue" had reached number three on Billboard's pop chart
and number two on the R it peaked at number six on the UK Singles
chart. As the success of the song grew, it brought more attention to
Holly, with the band at the time being billed as "
Buddy Holly and the
In the last week of September, the band members flew to Lubbock to
visit their families. Holly's high school girlfriend, Echo McGuire,
had left him for a fellow student. Aside from McGuire, Holly had a
relationship with Lubbock fan June Clark. After Clark ended their
relationship, Holly realized the importance of his relationship with
McGuire and considered his with Clark a temporary one. Meanwhile, for
their return to recording, Petty arranged a session in
Oklahoma City ,
where he was performing with his own band. While the band drove to the
location, the producer set up a makeshift studio. The rest of the
songs needed for an album and singles were recorded; Petty later
dubbed the material in Clovis. The resulting album, The "Chirping"
Crickets , was released on November 27, 1957. It reached number five
on the UK Albums Chart. In October, Brunswick released the second
single by the Crickets, "Oh, Boy! ", with "Not Fade Away " on the
B-side. The single reached number 10 on the pop chart and 13 on the R
the next day, he made his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show,
singing "Oh, Boy!" He departed to perform in
Honolulu, Hawaii , on
January 27, and then started a week-long tour of Australia. In March,
the band toured the United Kingdom, playing 50 shows in 25 days. The
same month, his debut solo album,
Buddy Holly , was released. Upon
their return to the United States, Holly and the Crickets joined Alan
Freed's Big Beat Show tour for 41 dates. In April, Decca released
That\'ll Be the Day , featuring the songs recorded with Bradley during
his early Nashville sessions.
A new recording session in Clovis was arranged in May; Holly hired
Tommy Allsup to play lead guitar. The session produced the recordings
of "It\'s So Easy " and "Heartbeat ". Holly was impressed by Allsup
and invited him to join the Crickets. In June, Holly traveled alone to
New York for a solo recording session. Without the Crickets, he chose
to be backed by a jazz and R Greenfield had booked Holly for shows
during previous tours. The two had a verbal agreement; Greenfield
would obtain 5% of the booking earnings. Greenfield later felt he was
also acting as Holly's manager and deserved a higher payment, which
Holly refused. Greenfield then sued Holly. Under New York law, because
Holly's royalties originated in New York and were directed out of the
state, the payments were frozen until the dispute was settled. Petty
then could not complete the transfers to Holly, who considered him
responsible for the missing profit.
In September, Holly returned to Clovis for a new recording session,
which yielded "Reminiscing" and "Come Back Baby". During the session,
he ventured into producing by recording Lubbock DJ
Waylon Jennings .
Holly produced the single "Jole Blon" and "When Sin Stops (Love
Begins)" for Jennings. Holly became increasingly interested in the
New York music, recording, and publishing scene. Santiago and he
settled in Apartment 4H of the Brevoort Apartments, at 11 Fifth Avenue
Greenwich Village , where he recorded a series of acoustic songs,
Crying, Waiting, Hoping " and "What to Do". The
inspiration to record the songs is sometimes attributed to the ending
of his relationship with McGuire. In October, Holly recorded tracks
for Coral; these were backed by saxophonist
Boomie Richman and an
18-piece orchestra composed of former members of the NBC Symphony
Orchestra . The three-and-a-half-hour session produced "It Doesn\'t
Matter Anymore ", "
Raining in My Heart
Raining in My Heart ", "Moondreams " (written by
Petty), and "
True Love Ways ".
Holly ended his association with Petty in December 1958. His band
members kept Petty as their manager, and Holly also split from the
Crickets. Petty was still holding the money from the royalties,
forcing Holly to form a new band and return to touring.
WINTER DANCE PARTY TOUR AND DEATH (1959)
The Day the Music Died
The Day the Music Died Signpost near the Clear
Lake crash site
Holly vacationed with his wife in Lubbock and visited Jennings' radio
station in December 1958. For the start of the Winter Dance Party
tour, he assembled a band consisting of
Waylon Jennings (electric
Tommy Allsup (guitar), and
Carl Bunch (drums). Holly and
Jennings left for New York City, arriving on January 15, 1959.
Jennings stayed at Holly's apartment by
Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park on the
days prior to a meeting scheduled at the headquarters of the General
Artists Corporation , which organized the tour. They then traveled by
train to Chicago to join the rest of the band.
Winter Dance Party tour began in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin , on
January 23, 1959. The amount of travel involved created logistical
problems, as the distance between venues had not been considered when
scheduling performances. Adding to the problem, the unheated tour
buses twice broke down in freezing weather, with dire consequences.
Carl Bunch was hospitalized for frostbite to his toes
(suffered while aboard the bus), so Holly decided to seek other
transportation. Before their appearance in
Clear Lake, Iowa , on
February 2, Holly chartered a four-seat
Beechcraft Bonanza airplane
from Dwyer Flying Service in
Mason City, Iowa , for Jennings, Allsup,
and himself. Holly's idea was to depart following the show at the Surf
Ballroom in Clear Lake and fly to their next venue, in Moorhead,
Minnesota , via
Fargo, North Dakota , allowing them time to rest and
launder their clothes and avoid a rigorous bus journey. Immediately
after the Clear Lake show (which ended just before midnight), Allsup
lost a coin toss and gave up his seat on the plane to
Ritchie Valens ,
Waylon Jennings voluntarily gave up his seat to J. P. Richardson
(the Big Bopper) , who had influenza and complained that the tour bus
was too cold and uncomfortable for a man of his size.
In the dressing room after the Clear Lake show, Allsup agreed to flip
a coin for the seat with Valens. Allsup took out a brand new
half-dollar, and Ritchie called heads. Heads it was. "That's the first
time I've ever won anything in my life," Valens reportedly said.
Allsup later opened a restaurant in
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth, Texas called Heads Up.
The pilot, Roger Peterson , took off in inclement weather, although
he was not certified to fly by instruments only . Shortly after 1:00
am on February 3, 1959, Holly, Valens, Richardson, and Peterson were
killed instantly when their plane crashed into a cornfield five miles
northwest of the
Mason City, Iowa airport shortly after take-off. The
bodies of the entertainers were all ejected from the plane on impact,
while Peterson's body remained entangled in the wreckage. Holly had
sustained fatal trauma to his head and chest and numerous lacerations
and fractures of his arms and legs. Holly's headstone in the
City of Lubbock Cemetery
Holly's funeral was held on February 7, 1959, at the Tabernacle
Baptist Church in Lubbock. The service was officiated by Ben D.
Johnson, who had presided at the Holly's wedding just months earlier.
The pallbearers were Jerry Allison, Joe B. Mauldin, Niki Sullivan, Bob
Montgomery, Sonny Curtis, and
Phil Everly .
Waylon Jennings was
unable to attend, because of his commitment to the still-touring
Winter Dance Party. Holly's body was interred in the City of Lubbock
Cemetery, in the eastern part of the city. His headstone carries the
correct spelling of his surname (Holley) and a carving of his Fender
Maria Elena watched the first reports of Holly's death on television.
The following day, she claimed, she miscarried although there is no
independent source for this. Holly's mother, who heard the news on the
radio in Lubbock, Texas, collapsed. Because of Maria Elena's
miscarriage, in the months following the accident, the authorities
implemented a policy against announcing victims' names until after
families are informed. Santiago did not attend the funeral and has
never visited the grave site. She later told the Avalanche-Journal,
"In a way, I blame myself. I was not feeling well when he left. I was
two weeks pregnant, and I wanted Buddy to stay with me, but he had
scheduled that tour. It was the only time I wasn't with him. And I
blame myself because I know that, if only I had gone along, Buddy
never would have gotten into that airplane."
IMAGE AND STYLE
Holly's singing style was characterized by his vocal hiccups and his
alternation between his regular voice and falsetto . His "stuttering
vocals" were complemented by his percussive guitar playing , solos,
stops , bent notes , and rhythm and blues chord progressions . He
often strummed downstrokes that were accompanied by Allison's
Holly bought his first Fender Stratocaster, which became his
signature guitar, at Harrod Music in Lubbock for US$249.50. Fender
Stratocasters were popular with country musicians; Holly chose it for
its loud sound. His "innovative" playing style was characterized by
its blending of "chunky rhythm" and "high string lead work". He played
his first Stratocaster, a 1954 model, until it was stolen during a
tour stop in
Michigan in 1957. To replace it, he purchased a 1957
model before a show in Detroit. Holly owned four or five Stratocasters
during his career.
At the beginning of their music careers, Holly and his band wore
business suits. Upon meeting the Everly Brothers, Don Everly took the
band to Phil's men's shop in New York City and introduced them to Ivy
League clothes . The brothers advised Holly to replace his
old-fashioned glasses with horn-rimmed glasses , which had been
Steve Allen . Holly bought a pair of glasses made in
Mexico from Lubbock optometrist Dr. J. Davis Armistead. Teenagers in
the United States started to request this style of glasses, which were
later popularly known as "
Buddy Holly glasses".
When the plane crashed, the wreckage was strewn across many yards of
snow-covered ground. While his other belongings were recovered
immediately, there was no record of his signature glasses being found.
They were presumed lost until, in March 1980, they were discovered in
a Cerro Gordo County courthouse storage area by Sheriff Gerald Allen.
They had been found in the spring of 1959, after the snow had melted,
and had been given to the sheriff's office. They were placed in an
envelope dated April 7, 1959, along with the Big Bopper's watch, a
lighter, two pairs of dice and part of another watch, and misplaced
when the county moved courthouses. The glasses, missing their lenses,
were returned to Maria Elena a year later, after a legal contest over
them with his parents. They are now on display at the Buddy Holly
Center in Lubbock, Texas.
Encyclopædia Britannica stated that Holly "produced some of the most
distinctive and influential work in rock music".
AllMusic defined him
as "the single most influential creative force in early rock and
Rolling Stone ranked him number 13 on its list of "100
Greatest Artists". The Telegraph called him a "pioneer and a
revolutionary a multidimensional talent (who) co-wrote and performed
(songs that) remain as fresh and potent today".
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame included Holly among its first class
in 1986. On its entry, the Hall of Fame remarked upon the large
quantity of material he produced during his short musical career, and
said it "made a major and lasting impact on popular music". It called
him an "innovator" for writing his own material, his experimentation
with double tracking and the use of orchestration ; he is also said to
have "pioneered and popularized the now-standard" use of two guitars,
bass, and drums by rock bands.
The Songwriters Hall of Fame also
inducted Holly in 1986, and said his contributions "changed the face
of Rock 'n' Roll". Holly developed in collaboration with Petty
techniques of overdubbing and reverberation , while he used innovative
instrumentation later implemented by other artists. Holly became "one
of the most influential pioneers of rock and roll" who had a "lasting
influence" on genre performers of the 1960s. The Buddy Holly
Center , a museum in
Grant Speed sculpted a statue of Holly playing his Fender
guitar. This statue is the centerpiece of Lubbock's Walk of Fame,
which honors notable people who contributed to Lubbock's musical
history. Other memorials to
Buddy Holly include a street named in his
honor and the
Buddy Holly Center , which contains a museum of Holly
memorabilia and fine arts gallery. The Center is located on Crickets
Avenue, one street east of
Buddy Holly Avenue, in a building that
previously housed the Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway
Depot. In 1997, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences
gave Holly the Lifetime Achievement Award . Holly was inducted into
the Iowa Rock \'n\' Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. In 2010, Grant Speed's
statue was taken down for refurbishment and construction of a new Walk
of Fame began. On May 9, 2011, the City of Lubbock held a
ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Buddy and Maria Elena Holly Plaza, the
new home of the statue and the Walk of Fame. The same year, a star
bearing Holly's name was placed on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame ,
commemorating his 75th birthday.
Groundbreaking will be held on April 20, 2017, for the construction
of a new performing arts center in Lubbock, the
Buddy Holly Hall of
Arts and Sciences, a downtown $153 million project expected to be
completed in late 2019. Thus far, the private group, the Lubbock
Entertainment and Performing Arts Association, has raised or received
pledges in the amount of $93 million to underwrite the project.
John Lennon and
Paul McCartney saw Holly for the first time
when he appeared on
Sunday Night at the London Palladium
Sunday Night at the London Palladium . The two
had recently met and begun their musical association. They studied
Holly's records, learned his performance style and lyricism, and based
their act around his persona. Inspired by Holly's insect-themed
Crickets, they chose to name their band "
The Beatles ". Lennon and
McCartney later cited Holly as their main influence.
Lennon's band the Quarrymen covered "That'll Be the Day" in their
first recording session, in 1958. During breaks in the Beatles' first
appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, on February 9, 1964, Lennon asked
CBS coordinator Vic Calandra about Holly's performances; Calandra said
Lennon and McCartney repeatedly expressed their appreciation of Holly.
The Beatles recorded a close cover of Holly's version of "Words of
Love ", which was released on their 1964 album
Beatles for Sale
Beatles for Sale (in
the U.S., in June 1965 on
Beatles VI ). During the January 1969
recording sessions for their album Let It Be , the Beatles played a
slow, impromptu version of "Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues" – which
Holly popularized but did not write – with Lennon mimicking Holly's
vocal style. Lennon recorded a cover version of "Peggy Sue" on his
1975 album Rock \'n\' Roll . McCartney owns the publishing rights to
Holly's song catalogue.
Two nights before Holly's death, on January 31, 1959, 17-year-old Bob
Dylan attended Holly's performance in Duluth. Dylan referred to this
in his acceptance speech when he received the Grammy Award for Album
of the Year for
Time Out of Mind in 1998: " ... when I was sixteen or
seventeen years old, I went to see
Buddy Holly play at Duluth National
Guard Armory and I was three feet away from him ... and he looked at
me. And I just have some sort of feeling that he was ... with us all
the time we were making this record in some kind of way".
Mick Jagger saw Holly performing live in
Woolwich , London, during a
tour of England; Jagger particularly remembered Holly's performance of
"Not Fade Away" – a song that also inspired
Keith Richards , who
modeled his early guitar playing on the track.
The Rolling Stones had
a hit version of the song in 1964. Richards later said, " passed it
on via the Beatles and via ... He's in everybody".
Don McLean 's popular 1971 ballad "American Pie " was inspired by
Holly's death and the day of the plane crash. The song's lyric, which
calls the incident "The Day the Music Died", became popularly
associated with the crash. McLean's album American Pie is dedicated to
Holly. In 2015, McLean wrote, "
Buddy Holly would have the same
stature musically whether he would have lived or died, because of his
accomplishments ... By the time he was 22 years old, he had recorded
some 50 tracks, most of which he had written himself ... in my view
and the view of many others, a hit ...
Buddy Holly and the Crickets
were the template for all the rock bands that followed".
Elton John was musically influenced by Holly. At age 13, although he
did not require them, John started wearing horn-rimmed glasses to
imitate Holly. After eight months, the glasses diminished his vision
and John had to start to wear prescription lenses on a regular basis.
The Clash were also influenced by Holly, and referenced him in their
song "Corner Soul" from the
Sandinista! album. The Chirping Crickets
was the first album
Eric Clapton ever bought; he later saw Holly on
Sunday Night at the London Palladium. In his autobiography, Clapton
recounted the first time he saw Holly and his Fender, saying, "I
thought I'd died and gone to heaven ... it was like seeing an
instrument from outer space and I said to myself: 'That's the future
– that's what I want'".
The launch of
Bobby Vee 's successful musical career resulted from
Holly's death; Vee was selected to replace Holly on the tour that
continued after the plane crash. Holly's profound influence on Vee's
singing style can be heard in the songs "
Rubber Ball " – the B-side
of which was a cover of Holly's "Everyday" – and "Run to Him." The
name of the British rock band the Hollies is often claimed as a
tribute to Holly; according to the band, they admired Holly, but their
name was mainly inspired by sprigs of holly in evidence around
Christmas 1962. In an August 24, 1978, interview with Rolling Stone,
Bruce Springsteen told
Dave Marsh , "I play
Buddy Holly every night
before I go on; that keeps me honest". The
Grateful Dead performed
the song "Not Fade Away" in concerts.
Richard Barone released his album Sorrows its lead actor
Gary Busey received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor
for his portrayal of Holly. The film was widely criticized by the rock
press, and by Holly's friends and family, for its inaccuracies. This
Paul McCartney (whose MPL Communications by then controlled the
publishing rights to Buddy Holly's song catalog) to produce and host
his own documentary about Holly in 1985, titled The Real Buddy Holly
Story. This video includes interviews with Keith Richards, Phil and
Don Everly, Sonny Curtis, Jerry Allison, Holly's family, and
McCartney, among others.
In 1987, musician
Marshall Crenshaw portrayed
Buddy Holly in the
movie La Bamba , which depicts him performing at the
Surf Ballroom and
boarding the fatal airplane with
Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper.
Crenshaw's version of "Crying, Waiting, Hoping" is featured on the La
Bamba original motion picture soundtrack. Buddy – The Buddy Holly
Story , a jukebox musical depicting Holly's life, is credited for
being the first of its kind. It spawned the genre that later included
Mamma Mia! and We Will Rock You . The musical opened in the late 1980s
and its most recent UK tour occurred in February 2011.
Steve Buscemi appeared as Holly in a brief cameo as a 1950s-themed
restaurant employee in
Quentin Tarantino 's 1994 film
Pulp Fiction ,
in which he takes Mia Wallace and Vincent Vega's orders (portrayed
Uma Thurman and
John Travolta ).
Holly was depicted in an episode of the science-fiction television
Quantum Leap titled "How the Tess Was Won"; Holly's identity
is only revealed at the end of the episode. Dr.
Sam Beckett (Scott
Bakula ) influences
Buddy Holly to change his lyrics from "piggy,
suey" to "Peggy Sue", setting up Holly's future hit song.
Buddy Holly discography
The "Chirping" Crickets (1957)
Buddy Holly (1958)
* That\'ll Be the Day (1958)
* ^ Travis Holley, one of Buddy\'s brothers, dies Thursday
(Playbill by Kerns blog)
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 12.
* ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 13.
* ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 14.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 34.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 80.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 6.
* ^ A B Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 7.
* ^ A B C Wishart, David 2004 , p. 540.
* ^ A B C Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 130.
* ^ MacDonald, Les 2010 , p. 17.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 97.
* ^ Uslan, Michael; Solomon, Bruce 1981 , p. 49.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis (April 22, 2014). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St.
Martin's Griffin. p. 101. ISBN 9781466868564 .
* ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 131.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 16.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 17.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 18.
* ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 19.
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 57.
* ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 58.
* ^ A B Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 156.
* ^ Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 127.
* ^ Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 127.
* ^ A B Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 128.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 189.
* ^ "americanrocknrolluktours.co.uk".
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz Johnny Holley 2005 , p. 90.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 91.
* ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 92.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 281.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 280.
* ^ Laing, Dave 2010 , p. 153.
* ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 155.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274–278.
* ^ Webber, Julian Lloyd 2015 .
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 276–278.
* ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 284–285.
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 51.
* ^ Corbin, Sky 2014 .
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 58, 59.
* ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 62.
* ^ Everitt 2004 , p. 13.
* ^ Texas Monthly, January 1988; p.108
* ^ Galloway, P. (1988, Jun 24). Hit parade. Chicago Tribune
(1963–Current File) Retrieved from
* ^ Associated Press staff 1959 .
* ^ "Coroner\'s report on Charles H. Holley, by Ralph E. Smiley,
Cerro Gordo County, Iowa" (PDF). Autopsyfiles.org. February 4, 1959.
Retrieved December 19, 2015.
* ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 347.
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* ^ Suddath, Claire 2009 .
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* "Love Me "
* "That\'ll Be the Day "
Words of Love "
Peggy Sue " (b/w "Everyday ")
* "Oh, Boy! "
* "Not Fade Away "
* "I\'m Gonna Love You Too "
* "Maybe Baby "
Rave On "
Think It Over "
* "Early in the Morning "
* "It\'s So Easy "
* "Heartbeat "
* "It Doesn\'t Matter Anymore " (b/w "
Raining in My Heart
Raining in My Heart ")
Peggy Sue Got Married " (b/w "
Crying, Waiting, Hoping ")
True Love Ways "
* "Bo Diddley "
Brown Eyed Handsome Man "
Love is Strange "
The "Chirping" Crickets
* That\'ll Be The Day
The Buddy Holly Story
The Buddy Holly Story, Vol. 2
Holly in the Hills
* 20 Golden Greats
For the First Time Anywhere
Words of Love
* Greatest Hits
* Down the Line: Rarities
Not Fade Away (Remembering Buddy Holly)
* Listen to Me:
Buddy Holly discography
* List of songs
* Bob "Bobby" Montgomery
María Elena Holly (wife)
* The Day The Music Died (1959 plane crash)
The Buddy Holly Story
* Buddy –
The Buddy Holly Story
* "Buddy Holly" (song)
* Buddy Holly
Joe B. Mauldin
The "Chirping" Crickets
In Style With the Crickets
* 20 Golden Greats
Words of Love
* "That\'ll Be the Day "
* "Oh, Boy! " (b/w "Not Fade Away ")
* "Maybe Baby "
Think It Over "
* "It\'s So Easy "
* "Love\'s Made a Fool of You "
More Than I Can Say " (b/w "Baby My Heart")
Peggy Sue Got Married "
I Fought the Law
I Fought the Law "
* "Don\'t Ever Change
From Me to You "
* "(They Call Her) La Bamba "
* "My Rockin' Days" (b/w "Lovesick