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CHARLES HARDIN HOLLEY (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known as BUDDY HOLLY, was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was a central figure of mid-1950s rock and roll . He was born in Lubbock, Texas , to a musical family during the Great Depression
Great Depression
, and learned to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings. His style was influenced by gospel music , country music , and rhythm and blues acts, and he performed in Lubbock with his friends from high school. He made his first appearance on local television in 1952, and the following year he formed the group "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob Montgomery . In 1955, after opening for Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
, he decided to pursue a career in music. He opened for Presley three times that year; his band's style shifted from country and western to entirely rock and roll. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley he was the fourth child of Lawrence Odell "L.O." Holley (1901–1985) and Ella Pauline Drake (1902–1990). His elder siblings were Larry (born in 1925), Travis (1927–2016), and Patricia Lou (1929–2008). From early childhood, he was nicknamed "Buddy". During the Great Depression, the Holleys frequently moved residence within Lubbock; L.O. changed jobs several times. The family were members of the Tabernacle Baptist Church .

The Holleys had an interest in music; all the family members except L.O. were able to play an instrument or sing. The elder Holley brothers performed in local talent shows; on one occasion, Buddy joined them on violin. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry greased the strings so it would not make any sound. The brothers won the contest. During World War II
World War II
, Larry and Travis were called to military service. Upon his return, Larry brought with him a guitar he had bought from a shipmate while serving in the Pacific. At age 11, Buddy took piano lessons, but abandoned them after nine months. He switched to guitar after he saw a classmate playing and singing on the school bus. Buddy's parents initially bought him a steel guitar , but he insisted that he wanted a guitar like his brother's. His parents bought the guitar from a pawnshop, and Travis taught him to play it.

During his early childhood, Buddy was influenced by the music of Hank Williams , Jimmie Rodgers , Hank Snow , Bob Wills , and the Carter Family . At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob Montgomery , and the two played together, practising with songs by the Louvin Brothers
Louvin Brothers
and Johnnie & Jack . They both listened to the radio programs Grand Ole Opry
Grand Ole Opry
on WSM , Louisiana Hayride on KWKH , and Big D Jamboree . At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met in high school, including Sonny Curtis and Jerry Allison
Jerry Allison
. In 1952, Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack" in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob". The two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on KDAV
KDAV
in 1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm and blues (R&B). Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when local transmissions ceased. Holley then modified his music by blending his earlier country and western (C&W) influence with R & B.

By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue a full-time career in music. He was further encouraged after seeing Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV. In February, Holley opened for Presley at the Fair Park Coliseum, in April at the Cotton Club, and again in June at the Coliseum. By that time, he had incorporated into his band Larry Welborn on the stand-up bass and Allison on drums, as his style shifted from C&W to rock and roll . In October, Stone booked Bill Haley from then on, he was known as "Buddy Holly".

On January 26, 1956, Holly attended his first formal recording session, which was produced by Owen Bradley . He attended two more sessions in Nashville, but with the producer selecting the session musicians and arrangements, Holly became increasingly frustrated by his lack of creative control. In April 1956, Decca released "Blue Days, Black Nights " as a single, with "Love Me" on the B-side. Denny included Holly on a tour as the opening act for Faron Young . During the tour, they were promoted as " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
and the Two Tones", while later Decca called them " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
and the Three Tunes". The label later released Holly's second single "Modern Don Juan", backed with "You Are My One Desire". Neither single made an impression. On January 22, 1957, Decca informed Holly his contract would not be renewed, but insisted he could not record the same songs for anyone else for five years.

THE CRICKETS (1956–1957)

Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
and the Crickets in 1957 (top to bottom: Allison, Holly and Mauldin)

Holly was unhappy with the results of his time with Decca; he was inspired by the success of Buddy Knox 's " Party Doll " and Jimmy Bowen 's "I\'m Stickin\' with You ", and visited Norman Petty
Norman Petty
, who had produced and promoted both records. Together with Allison, bassist Joe B. Mauldin , and rhythm guitarist Niki Sullivan , he went to Petty's studio in Clovis, New Mexico
Clovis, New Mexico
. The group recorded a demo of "That\'ll Be the Day ", a song they had previously recorded in Nashville. Now playing lead guitar, Holly achieved the sound he desired. Petty became his manager and sent the record to Brunswick Records in New York City. Holly, still under contract with Decca, could not release the record under his name, so a band name was used; Allison proposed the name "Crickets". Brunswick gave Holly a basic agreement to release "That'll Be the Day", leaving him with both artistic control and financial responsibility for future recordings. Impressed with the demo, the label's executives released it without recording a new version. "I'm Looking for Someone to Love" was the B-side; the single was credited to the Crickets . Petty and Holly later learned that Brunswick was a subsidiary of Decca, which legally cleared future recordings under the name Buddy Holly. Recordings credited to the Crickets would be released on Brunswick, while the recordings under Holly's name were released on another subsidiary label, Coral Records . Holly concurrently held a recording contract with both labels.

"That'll Be the Day" was released on May 27, 1957. Petty booked Holly and the Crickets for a tour with Irvin Feld , who had noticed the band after "That'll Be the Day" appeared on the R a solo album for Holly and another for the Crickets. Holly appeared on American Bandstand , hosted by Dick Clark on ABC , on August 26. Before leaving New York, the band befriended the Everly Brothers
Everly Brothers
.

"That'll Be the Day" topped the US "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on September 23 and was number one on the UK Singles Chart for three weeks in November. On September 20, Coral released " Peggy Sue ", backed with "Everyday ", with Holly credited as the performer. By October, "Peggy Sue" had reached number three on Billboard's pop chart and number two on the R it peaked at number six on the UK Singles chart. As the success of the song grew, it brought more attention to Holly, with the band at the time being billed as " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
and the Crickets".

In the last week of September, the band members flew to Lubbock to visit their families. Holly's high school girlfriend, Echo McGuire, had left him for a fellow student. Aside from McGuire, Holly had a relationship with Lubbock fan June Clark. After Clark ended their relationship, Holly realized the importance of his relationship with McGuire and considered his with Clark a temporary one. Meanwhile, for their return to recording, Petty arranged a session in Oklahoma City , where he was performing with his own band. While the band drove to the location, the producer set up a makeshift studio. The rest of the songs needed for an album and singles were recorded; Petty later dubbed the material in Clovis. The resulting album, The "Chirping" Crickets , was released on November 27, 1957. It reached number five on the UK Albums Chart. In October, Brunswick released the second single by the Crickets, "Oh, Boy! ", with "Not Fade Away " on the B-side. The single reached number 10 on the pop chart and 13 on the R the next day, he made his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, singing "Oh, Boy!" He departed to perform in Honolulu, Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii
, on January 27, and then started a week-long tour of Australia. In March, the band toured the United Kingdom, playing 50 shows in 25 days. The same month, his debut solo album, Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
, was released. Upon their return to the United States, Holly and the Crickets joined Alan Freed's Big Beat Show tour for 41 dates. In April, Decca released That\'ll Be the Day , featuring the songs recorded with Bradley during his early Nashville sessions.

A new recording session in Clovis was arranged in May; Holly hired Tommy Allsup to play lead guitar. The session produced the recordings of "It\'s So Easy " and "Heartbeat ". Holly was impressed by Allsup and invited him to join the Crickets. In June, Holly traveled alone to New York for a solo recording session. Without the Crickets, he chose to be backed by a jazz and R Greenfield had booked Holly for shows during previous tours. The two had a verbal agreement; Greenfield would obtain 5% of the booking earnings. Greenfield later felt he was also acting as Holly's manager and deserved a higher payment, which Holly refused. Greenfield then sued Holly. Under New York law, because Holly's royalties originated in New York and were directed out of the state, the payments were frozen until the dispute was settled. Petty then could not complete the transfers to Holly, who considered him responsible for the missing profit.

In September, Holly returned to Clovis for a new recording session, which yielded "Reminiscing" and "Come Back Baby". During the session, he ventured into producing by recording Lubbock DJ Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
. Holly produced the single "Jole Blon" and "When Sin Stops (Love Begins)" for Jennings. Holly became increasingly interested in the New York music, recording, and publishing scene. Santiago and he settled in Apartment 4H of the Brevoort Apartments, at 11 Fifth Avenue in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
, where he recorded a series of acoustic songs, including " Crying, Waiting, Hoping " and "What to Do". The inspiration to record the songs is sometimes attributed to the ending of his relationship with McGuire. In October, Holly recorded tracks for Coral; these were backed by saxophonist Boomie Richman and an 18-piece orchestra composed of former members of the NBC Symphony Orchestra . The three-and-a-half-hour session produced "It Doesn\'t Matter Anymore ", " Raining in My Heart ", "Moondreams " (written by Petty), and " True Love Ways
True Love Ways
".

Holly ended his association with Petty in December 1958. His band members kept Petty as their manager, and Holly also split from the Crickets. Petty was still holding the money from the royalties, forcing Holly to form a new band and return to touring.

WINTER DANCE PARTY TOUR AND DEATH (1959)

Main article: The Day the Music Died
The Day the Music Died
Signpost near the Clear Lake crash site

Holly vacationed with his wife in Lubbock and visited Jennings' radio station in December 1958. For the start of the Winter Dance Party tour, he assembled a band consisting of Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
(electric bass), Tommy Allsup (guitar), and Carl Bunch (drums). Holly and Jennings left for New York City, arriving on January 15, 1959. Jennings stayed at Holly's apartment by Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park
on the days prior to a meeting scheduled at the headquarters of the General Artists Corporation , which organized the tour. They then traveled by train to Chicago to join the rest of the band.

The Winter Dance Party
Winter Dance Party
tour began in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
, on January 23, 1959. The amount of travel involved created logistical problems, as the distance between venues had not been considered when scheduling performances. Adding to the problem, the unheated tour buses twice broke down in freezing weather, with dire consequences. Holly's drummer Carl Bunch was hospitalized for frostbite to his toes (suffered while aboard the bus), so Holly decided to seek other transportation. Before their appearance in Clear Lake, Iowa
Clear Lake, Iowa
, on February 2, Holly chartered a four-seat Beechcraft Bonanza airplane from Dwyer Flying Service in Mason City, Iowa
Mason City, Iowa
, for Jennings, Allsup, and himself. Holly's idea was to depart following the show at the Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake and fly to their next venue, in Moorhead, Minnesota , via Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo, North Dakota
, allowing them time to rest and launder their clothes and avoid a rigorous bus journey. Immediately after the Clear Lake show (which ended just before midnight), Allsup lost a coin toss and gave up his seat on the plane to Ritchie Valens
Ritchie Valens
, while Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
voluntarily gave up his seat to J. P. Richardson (the Big Bopper) , who had influenza and complained that the tour bus was too cold and uncomfortable for a man of his size.

In the dressing room after the Clear Lake show, Allsup agreed to flip a coin for the seat with Valens. Allsup took out a brand new half-dollar, and Ritchie called heads. Heads it was. "That's the first time I've ever won anything in my life," Valens reportedly said. Allsup later opened a restaurant in Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth, Texas
called Heads Up.

The pilot, Roger Peterson , took off in inclement weather, although he was not certified to fly by instruments only . Shortly after 1:00 am on February 3, 1959, Holly, Valens, Richardson, and Peterson were killed instantly when their plane crashed into a cornfield five miles northwest of the Mason City, Iowa
Mason City, Iowa
airport shortly after take-off. The bodies of the entertainers were all ejected from the plane on impact, while Peterson's body remained entangled in the wreckage. Holly had sustained fatal trauma to his head and chest and numerous lacerations and fractures of his arms and legs. Holly's headstone in the City of Lubbock Cemetery

Holly's funeral was held on February 7, 1959, at the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Lubbock. The service was officiated by Ben D. Johnson, who had presided at the Holly's wedding just months earlier. The pallbearers were Jerry Allison, Joe B. Mauldin, Niki Sullivan, Bob Montgomery, Sonny Curtis, and Phil Everly . Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
was unable to attend, because of his commitment to the still-touring Winter Dance Party. Holly's body was interred in the City of Lubbock Cemetery, in the eastern part of the city. His headstone carries the correct spelling of his surname (Holley) and a carving of his Fender Stratocaster guitar.

Maria Elena watched the first reports of Holly's death on television. The following day, she claimed, she miscarried although there is no independent source for this. Holly's mother, who heard the news on the radio in Lubbock, Texas, collapsed. Because of Maria Elena's miscarriage, in the months following the accident, the authorities implemented a policy against announcing victims' names until after families are informed. Santiago did not attend the funeral and has never visited the grave site. She later told the Avalanche-Journal, "In a way, I blame myself. I was not feeling well when he left. I was two weeks pregnant, and I wanted Buddy to stay with me, but he had scheduled that tour. It was the only time I wasn't with him. And I blame myself because I know that, if only I had gone along, Buddy never would have gotten into that airplane."

IMAGE AND STYLE

Holly's singing style was characterized by his vocal hiccups and his alternation between his regular voice and falsetto . His "stuttering vocals" were complemented by his percussive guitar playing , solos, stops , bent notes , and rhythm and blues chord progressions . He often strummed downstrokes that were accompanied by Allison's "driving" percussion.

Holly bought his first Fender Stratocaster, which became his signature guitar, at Harrod Music in Lubbock for US$249.50. Fender Stratocasters were popular with country musicians; Holly chose it for its loud sound. His "innovative" playing style was characterized by its blending of "chunky rhythm" and "high string lead work". He played his first Stratocaster, a 1954 model, until it was stolen during a tour stop in Michigan
Michigan
in 1957. To replace it, he purchased a 1957 model before a show in Detroit. Holly owned four or five Stratocasters during his career.

At the beginning of their music careers, Holly and his band wore business suits. Upon meeting the Everly Brothers, Don Everly took the band to Phil's men's shop in New York City and introduced them to Ivy League clothes . The brothers advised Holly to replace his old-fashioned glasses with horn-rimmed glasses , which had been popularized by Steve Allen
Steve Allen
. Holly bought a pair of glasses made in Mexico from Lubbock optometrist Dr. J. Davis Armistead. Teenagers in the United States started to request this style of glasses, which were later popularly known as " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
glasses".

When the plane crashed, the wreckage was strewn across many yards of snow-covered ground. While his other belongings were recovered immediately, there was no record of his signature glasses being found. They were presumed lost until, in March 1980, they were discovered in a Cerro Gordo County courthouse storage area by Sheriff Gerald Allen. They had been found in the spring of 1959, after the snow had melted, and had been given to the sheriff's office. They were placed in an envelope dated April 7, 1959, along with the Big Bopper's watch, a lighter, two pairs of dice and part of another watch, and misplaced when the county moved courthouses. The glasses, missing their lenses, were returned to Maria Elena a year later, after a legal contest over them with his parents. They are now on display at the Buddy Holly Center in Lubbock, Texas.

LEGACY

Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
stated that Holly "produced some of the most distinctive and influential work in rock music". AllMusic defined him as "the single most influential creative force in early rock and roll". Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
ranked him number 13 on its list of "100 Greatest Artists". The Telegraph called him a "pioneer and a revolutionary a multidimensional talent (who) co-wrote and performed (songs that) remain as fresh and potent today".

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
included Holly among its first class in 1986. On its entry, the Hall of Fame remarked upon the large quantity of material he produced during his short musical career, and said it "made a major and lasting impact on popular music". It called him an "innovator" for writing his own material, his experimentation with double tracking and the use of orchestration ; he is also said to have "pioneered and popularized the now-standard" use of two guitars, bass, and drums by rock bands. The Songwriters Hall of Fame also inducted Holly in 1986, and said his contributions "changed the face of Rock 'n' Roll". Holly developed in collaboration with Petty techniques of overdubbing and reverberation , while he used innovative instrumentation later implemented by other artists. Holly became "one of the most influential pioneers of rock and roll" who had a "lasting influence" on genre performers of the 1960s. The Buddy Holly Center , a museum in Lubbock, Texas
Lubbock, Texas

In 1980, Grant Speed sculpted a statue of Holly playing his Fender guitar. This statue is the centerpiece of Lubbock's Walk of Fame, which honors notable people who contributed to Lubbock's musical history. Other memorials to Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
include a street named in his honor and the Buddy Holly Center , which contains a museum of Holly memorabilia and fine arts gallery. The Center is located on Crickets Avenue, one street east of Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Avenue, in a building that previously housed the Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway Depot. In 1997, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences gave Holly the Lifetime Achievement Award . Holly was inducted into the Iowa Rock \'n\' Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. In 2010, Grant Speed's statue was taken down for refurbishment and construction of a new Walk of Fame began. On May 9, 2011, the City of Lubbock held a ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Buddy and Maria Elena Holly Plaza, the new home of the statue and the Walk of Fame. The same year, a star bearing Holly's name was placed on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
, commemorating his 75th birthday.

Groundbreaking will be held on April 20, 2017, for the construction of a new performing arts center in Lubbock, the Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Hall of Arts and Sciences, a downtown $153 million project expected to be completed in late 2019. Thus far, the private group, the Lubbock Entertainment and Performing Arts Association, has raised or received pledges in the amount of $93 million to underwrite the project.

INFLUENCE

Teenagers John Lennon
John Lennon
and Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
saw Holly for the first time when he appeared on Sunday Night at the London Palladium
Sunday Night at the London Palladium
. The two had recently met and begun their musical association. They studied Holly's records, learned his performance style and lyricism, and based their act around his persona. Inspired by Holly's insect-themed Crickets, they chose to name their band " The Beatles
The Beatles
". Lennon and McCartney later cited Holly as their main influence.

Lennon's band the Quarrymen covered "That'll Be the Day" in their first recording session, in 1958. During breaks in the Beatles' first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, on February 9, 1964, Lennon asked CBS
CBS
coordinator Vic Calandra about Holly's performances; Calandra said Lennon and McCartney repeatedly expressed their appreciation of Holly. The Beatles
The Beatles
recorded a close cover of Holly's version of "Words of Love ", which was released on their 1964 album Beatles for Sale (in the U.S., in June 1965 on Beatles VI ). During the January 1969 recording sessions for their album Let It Be , the Beatles played a slow, impromptu version of "Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues" – which Holly popularized but did not write – with Lennon mimicking Holly's vocal style. Lennon recorded a cover version of "Peggy Sue" on his 1975 album Rock \'n\' Roll . McCartney owns the publishing rights to Holly's song catalogue.

Two nights before Holly's death, on January 31, 1959, 17-year-old Bob Dylan attended Holly's performance in Duluth. Dylan referred to this in his acceptance speech when he received the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for Time Out of Mind in 1998: " ... when I was sixteen or seventeen years old, I went to see Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
play at Duluth National Guard Armory and I was three feet away from him ... and he looked at me. And I just have some sort of feeling that he was ... with us all the time we were making this record in some kind of way".

Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
saw Holly performing live in Woolwich , London, during a tour of England; Jagger particularly remembered Holly's performance of "Not Fade Away" – a song that also inspired Keith Richards , who modeled his early guitar playing on the track. The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
had a hit version of the song in 1964. Richards later said, " passed it on via the Beatles and via ... He's in everybody".

Don McLean
Don McLean
's popular 1971 ballad "American Pie " was inspired by Holly's death and the day of the plane crash. The song's lyric, which calls the incident "The Day the Music Died", became popularly associated with the crash. McLean's album American Pie is dedicated to Holly. In 2015, McLean wrote, " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
would have the same stature musically whether he would have lived or died, because of his accomplishments ... By the time he was 22 years old, he had recorded some 50 tracks, most of which he had written himself ... in my view and the view of many others, a hit ... Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
and the Crickets were the template for all the rock bands that followed".

Elton John
Elton John
was musically influenced by Holly. At age 13, although he did not require them, John started wearing horn-rimmed glasses to imitate Holly. After eight months, the glasses diminished his vision and John had to start to wear prescription lenses on a regular basis. The Clash were also influenced by Holly, and referenced him in their song "Corner Soul" from the Sandinista!
Sandinista!
album. The Chirping Crickets was the first album Eric Clapton ever bought; he later saw Holly on Sunday Night at the London Palladium. In his autobiography, Clapton recounted the first time he saw Holly and his Fender, saying, "I thought I'd died and gone to heaven ... it was like seeing an instrument from outer space and I said to myself: 'That's the future – that's what I want'".

The launch of Bobby Vee 's successful musical career resulted from Holly's death; Vee was selected to replace Holly on the tour that continued after the plane crash. Holly's profound influence on Vee's singing style can be heard in the songs " Rubber Ball " – the B-side of which was a cover of Holly's "Everyday" – and "Run to Him." The name of the British rock band the Hollies is often claimed as a tribute to Holly; according to the band, they admired Holly, but their name was mainly inspired by sprigs of holly in evidence around Christmas 1962. In an August 24, 1978, interview with Rolling Stone, Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
told Dave Marsh , "I play Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
every night before I go on; that keeps me honest". The Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
performed the song "Not Fade Away" in concerts.

In 2016, Richard Barone
Richard Barone
released his album Sorrows its lead actor Gary Busey
Gary Busey
received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Holly. The film was widely criticized by the rock press, and by Holly's friends and family, for its inaccuracies. This led Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
(whose MPL Communications by then controlled the publishing rights to Buddy Holly's song catalog) to produce and host his own documentary about Holly in 1985, titled The Real Buddy Holly Story. This video includes interviews with Keith Richards, Phil and Don Everly, Sonny Curtis, Jerry Allison, Holly's family, and McCartney, among others.

In 1987, musician Marshall Crenshaw portrayed Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
in the movie La Bamba , which depicts him performing at the Surf Ballroom and boarding the fatal airplane with Ritchie Valens
Ritchie Valens
and the Big Bopper. Crenshaw's version of "Crying, Waiting, Hoping" is featured on the La Bamba original motion picture soundtrack. Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story , a jukebox musical depicting Holly's life, is credited for being the first of its kind. It spawned the genre that later included Mamma Mia!
Mamma Mia!
and We Will Rock You . The musical opened in the late 1980s and its most recent UK tour occurred in February 2011.

Steve Buscemi
Steve Buscemi
appeared as Holly in a brief cameo as a 1950s-themed restaurant employee in Quentin Tarantino 's 1994 film Pulp Fiction
Pulp Fiction
, in which he takes Mia Wallace and Vincent Vega's orders (portrayed respectively by Uma Thurman
Uma Thurman
and John Travolta ).

Holly was depicted in an episode of the science-fiction television program Quantum Leap
Quantum Leap
titled "How the Tess Was Won"; Holly's identity is only revealed at the end of the episode. Dr. Sam Beckett (Scott Bakula ) influences Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
to change his lyrics from "piggy, suey" to "Peggy Sue", setting up Holly's future hit song.

DISCOGRAPHY

Main article: Buddy Holly discography The Crickets
The Crickets

* The "Chirping" Crickets (1957)

Solo

* Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
(1958) * That\'ll Be the Day (1958)

REFERENCES

* ^ Travis Holley, one of Buddy\'s brothers, dies Thursday (Playbill by Kerns blog) * ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 12. * ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 13. * ^ Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 14. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 34. * ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 80. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 6. * ^ A B Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 7. * ^ A B C Wishart, David 2004 , p. 540. * ^ A B C Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 130. * ^ MacDonald, Les 2010 , p. 17. * ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 97. * ^ Uslan, Michael; Solomon, Bruce 1981 , p. 49. * ^ Amburn, Ellis (April 22, 2014). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 101. ISBN 9781466868564 . * ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 131. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 16. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 17. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 18. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 19. * ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 57. * ^ A B Gribbin, John 2012 , p. 58. * ^ A B Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 156. * ^ Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 127. * ^ Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 127. * ^ A B Moore, Gary 2011 , p. 128. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 189. * ^ "americanrocknrolluktours.co.uk". * ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz Johnny Holley 2005 , p. 90. * ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 91. * ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz 2007 , p. 92. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 281. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 280. * ^ Laing, Dave 2010 , p. 153. * ^ Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan 1997 , p. 155. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 274–278. * ^ Webber, Julian Lloyd 2015 . * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 276–278. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 284–285. * ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 51. * ^ Corbin, Sky 2014 . * ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 58, 59. * ^ Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny 1996 , p. 62. * ^ Everitt 2004 , p. 13. * ^ Texas Monthly, January 1988; p.108 * ^ Galloway, P. (1988, Jun 24). Hit parade. Chicago Tribune (1963–Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/882608515 * ^ Associated Press staff 1959 . * ^ "Coroner\'s report on Charles H. Holley, by Ralph E. Smiley, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa" (PDF). Autopsyfiles.org. February 4, 1959. Retrieved December 19, 2015. * ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 347. * ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 348–52. * ^ Suddath, Claire 2009 . * ^ Kerns, William 2008 . * ^ Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
staff 2001 . * ^ A B Henderson, Lol; Stacey, Lee 2014 , p. 296. * ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 59. * ^ Hunter, Dave 2013 , p. 87. * ^ Norman, Phillip 1996 , p. 144. * ^ Jones, Steve 2014 , p. 175. * ^ "Holly\'s glasses returned to family". The Beaver County Times. March 12, 1980. Retrieved December 19, 2015. * ^ "Eyeglasses returned". The Prescott Courier. March 22, 1981. Retrieved December 19, 2015. * ^ Crenshaw, Marshall 2015 . * ^ Eder, Bruce 2015 . * ^ Mellecamp, John 2011 . * ^ Norman, Phillip 2015 . * ^ Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
staff 2015 . * ^ Songwriters hall of Fame staff 2002 . * ^ Buddy Holly Center staff 2014 . * ^ Hollywood Reporter Staff 1997 . * ^ Kerns, William 2011 . * ^ Duke, Alan 2011 . * ^ William Kerns. "Restaurant partnership, groundbreaking date announced for Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Hall". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved April 1, 2017. * ^ Humphries, Patrick 2003 , p. 73. * ^ Riley, Tim 2011 , p. 67–70. * ^ Gaar, Gillian 2013 , p. 238. * ^ Harris, Michael 2014 , p. 192–193. * ^ Margotin, Phillipe; Guesdon, Jean-Michael 2014 , p. 186. * ^ Blaney, John 2005 , p. 163. * ^ BBC News staff 2003 . * ^ Shelton, Robert 2011 , p. 37. * ^ Norman, Philip 2011 , p. 12. * ^ Amburn, Ellis 2014 , p. 274. * ^ Crouse, Richard 2012 , p. 86. * ^ McLean, Don 2015 . * ^ Goldrosen, John 1979 , p. 8. * ^ Fletcher, Tony 2012 , p. 174. * ^ Clapton, Eric 2010 , p. 19. * ^ Dean, Maury 2003 , p. 73. * ^ Eder, Bruce 1996 . * ^ Deardorff II, Donald 2013 , p. 16. * ^ Meriwether, Nicholas 2013 , p. 134. * ^ " Richard Barone
Richard Barone
Breathes New Life Into the Golden Age of Village Folk". Observer. April 12, 2017. * ^ Flippo, Chet (September 21, 1978). "The Truth Behind \'The Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Story\'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 19, 2015. * ^ Lehmer, Larry 2003 , p. 174–176. * ^ Green, Stanley 1999 , p. 267. * ^ Eiss, Harry 2013 , p. 154. * ^ Phillips, Mark; Garcia, Frank 1996 , p. 358.

SOURCES

* Amburn, Ellis (2014). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-14557-6 . * Associated Press staff (1959). "Iowa Crash Kills 3 Singers; Rock \'n\' Roll Stars and Pilot Die as Chartered Craft Falls After Its Take-Off". New York Times. Associated Press. p. 1. Retrieved November 13, 2010. * BBC News staff (2003). "Sir Paul\'s fortune boosted". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved January 2, 2010. * Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to This Book. John Blaney. ISBN 978-0-954-45281-0 . * Buddy Holly Center staff (2014). "The Buddy Holly Center – History". The Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Center. The City of Lubbock. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * Carr, Joseph; Munde, Alan (1997). Prairie Nights to Neon Lights: The Story of Country Music in West Texas. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 978-0-89672-365-8 . * Clapton, Eric (2010). Eric Clapton: The Autobiography. Random House. ISBN 978-1-409-06039-0 . * Corbin, Sky (2014). "The Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
Years at KLLL (Part Five)". KLLL. KLLL Lubbock. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. * Crenshaw, Marshall (2015). " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
(American Musician)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Crouse, Richard (2012). Who Wrote The Book
Book
of Love?. Random House Digital. ISBN 978-0-385-67442-3 . * Dean, Maury (2003). Rock and Roll: Gold Rush. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-875-86227-9 . * Deardorff II, Donald (2013). Bruce Springsteen: American Poet and Prophet. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-88427-4 . * Duke, Alan (2011). "Buddy Holly\'s Officially a Hollywood Star". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Eder, Bruce (1996). "Just One More Look at The Hollies". Goldmine. 22 (14). * Eder, Bruce (2015). " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
– Biography". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Eiss, Harry (2013). The Mythology of Dance. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-443-85288-3 . * Everitt, Rich (2004). Falling Stars: Air Crashes That Filled Rock and Roll Heaven. Harbor House. ISBN 978-1-891799-04-4 . * Fletcher, Tony (2012). The Clash: The Music That Matters. Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-857-12749-5 . * Gaar, Gillian (2013). 100 Things Beatles Fans Should Know & Do Before They Die. Triunph Books. ISBN 978-1-623-68202-6 . * Goldrosen, Johnny Holley 2005. The Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Story. Quick Fox. ISBN 978-0-825-63936-4 . * Green, Stanley (1999). Hollywood Musicals Year by Year. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-00765-1 . * Gribbin, John (2012). Not Fade Away: The Life and Music of Buddy Holly. Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-848-31384-2 . * Harris, Michael (2014). Always on Sunday: An Inside View of Ed Sullivan, the Beatles, Elvis, Sinatra & Ed's Other Guests. Word International. * Henderson, Lol; Stacey, Lee (2014). Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-92946-6 . * Hollywood Reporter Staff (1997). "Highest Honor". Hollywood News Reporter. The Index-Journal. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. * Humphries, Patrick (2003). Elvis The #1 Hits: The Secret History of the Classics. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-740-73803-6 . * Hunter, Dave (2013). The Fender Stratocaster: The Life & Times of the World's Greatest Guitar & Its Players. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-760-34484-2 . * Jennings, Waylon; Kaye, Lenny (1996). Waylon: An Autobiography. Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-51865-9 . * Jones, Steve (2014). Start You Up: Rock Star Secrets to Unleash Your Personal Brand and Set Your Career on Fire. Greenleaf Book
Book
Group. ISBN 978-1-626-34070-1 . * Kerns, William (2008). "Buddy and Maria Elena Holly married 50 years ago". LubbockOnline.com. Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * Kerns, William (2011). "Buddy and Maria Holly Plaza dedication attracts large turnout". Lubbock-Online.com. Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * Laing, Dave (2010). Buddy Holly. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22168-1 . * Lehmer, Larry (2003). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens. Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-825-67287-3 . * MacDonald, Les (2010). The Day the Music Died. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-469-11356-2 . * Margotin, Phillipe; Guesdon, Jean-Michael (2014). All The Songs: The Story Behind Every Beatles Release. Black Dog, Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-603-76371-4 . * McLean, Don (2015). "Don McLean: Buddy Holly, rest in peace". CNN. Turner, Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2015. * Mellecamp, John (2011). "100 Greatest Artists". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media, LLC. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Meriwether, Nicholas (2013). Studying the Dead: The Grateful Dead Scholars Caucus, An Informal History. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-89125-8 . * Moore, Gary (2011). Hey Buddy: In Pursuit of Buddy Holly, My New Buddy John, and My Lost Decade of Music. Savas Beatie. ISBN 978-1-932-71497-5 . * Norman, Phillip (1996). Rave on: The Biography of Buddy Holly. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80082-0 . * Norman, Philip (2011). Buddy: The Definitive Biography of Buddy Holly. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-447-20340-7 . * Norman, Phillip (February 3, 2015). "Why Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
will never fade away". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved August 27, 2015. * Phillips, Mark; Garcia, Frank (1996). Science Fiction Television Series: Episode Guides, Histories, and Casts and Credits for 62 Prime-Time Shows, 1959 through 1989. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-476-61030-6 . * Riley, Tim (2011). Lennon: The Man, the Myth, the Music. Random House. ISBN 978-1-448-11319-4 . * Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
staff (2015). " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
and Museum, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
staff (2001). " Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Biography". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media, LLC. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz (2007). Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever. 1. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33845-8 . * Shelton, Robert (2011). No Direction Home – The Life And Music of Bob Dylan. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-857-12616-0 . * Songwriters hall of Fame staff (2002). "Buddy Holly". Songwriters Hall of Fame. American National Academy of Popular Music. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * Suddath, Claire (2009). "The Day the Music Died". TIME magazine. Time Inc. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * Uslan, Michael; Solomon, Bruce (1981). Dick Clark's the First 25 Years of Rock & Roll. Dell Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-440-51763-4 . * Webber, Julian Lloyd (2015). "Buddy Holly\'s heartbreak songs". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved May 11, 2015. * Wishart, David (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-80-324787-1 .

FURTHER READING

* Bustard, Anne (2005). Buddy: The Story of Buddy Holly. Simon Leigh, Spencer (1996). Memories of Buddy Holly. Big Nickel Publications. ISBN 978-0-936433-20-2 . * Gerron, Peggy Sue (2008). Whatever Happened to Peggy Sue?. Togi Entertainment. ISBN 978-0-9800085-0-0 . * Goldrosen, John; Beecher, John (1996). Remembering Buddy: The Definitive Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80715-7 . * Goldrosen, John (1975). Buddy Holly: His Life and Music. Popular Press. ISBN 0-85947-018-0 * Laing, Dave (1971–2010). Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
(Icons of Pop Music). Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-22168-4 . * Mann, Alan (1996). The A-Z of Buddy Holly. Aurum Press (2nd edition). ISBN 1-85410-433-0 or 978-1854104335. * McFadden, Hugh (2005). Elegy for Charles Hardin Holley, in Elegies & Epiphanies. Belfast: Lagan Press. * Peer, Elizabeth and Ralph II (1972). Buddy Holly: A Biography in Words, Photographs and Music Australia: Peer International. ASIN B000W24DZO. * Peters, Richard (1990). The Legend That Is Buddy Holly. Barnes ">

* v * t * e

Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly

The Crickets
The Crickets

SINGLES

* "Love Me " * "That\'ll Be the Day " * " Words of Love " * " Peggy Sue " (b/w "Everyday ") * "Oh, Boy! " * "Not Fade Away " * "I\'m Gonna Love You Too " * "Maybe Baby " * " Rave On " * " Think It Over " * "Early in the Morning " * "It\'s So Easy " * "Heartbeat " * "It Doesn\'t Matter Anymore " (b/w " Raining in My Heart ") * " Peggy Sue Got Married " (b/w " Crying, Waiting, Hoping ") * " True Love Ways
True Love Ways
" * "Bo Diddley " * " Brown Eyed Handsome Man " * " Love is Strange "

STUDIO ALBUMS

* The "Chirping" Crickets * Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
* That\'ll Be The Day

COMPILATION ALBUMS

* The Buddy Holly Story * The Buddy Holly Story, Vol. 2 * Reminiscing * Showcase * Holly in the Hills * Giant * 20 Golden Greats * For the First Time Anywhere * Words of Love * Greatest Hits * Down the Line: Rarities * Memorial Collection

TRIBUTE ALBUMS

* Not Fade Away (Remembering Buddy Holly) * Rave On Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
* Listen to Me: Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly

RELATED

* Buddy Holly discography * List of songs * Bob "Bobby" Montgomery * María Elena Holly (wife) * Norman Petty
Norman Petty
* The Day The Music Died (1959 plane crash) * The Buddy Holly Story * Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story * "Buddy Holly" (song)

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

The Crickets
The Crickets

* Buddy Holly * Jerry Allison
Jerry Allison
* Joe B. Mauldin
Joe B. Mauldin
* Niki Sullivan * Earl Sinks * Glen Hardin
Glen Hardin
* Jerry Naylor * Sonny Curtis

STUDIO ALBUMS

* The "Chirping" Crickets * In Style With the Crickets

COMPILATION ALBUMS

* 20 Golden Greats * Words of Love

SINGLES

* "That\'ll Be the Day " * "Oh, Boy! " (b/w "Not Fade Away ") * "Maybe Baby " * " Think It Over " * "It\'s So Easy " * "Love\'s Made a Fool of You " * " More Than I Can Say " (b/w "Baby My Heart") * " Peggy Sue Got Married " * " I Fought the Law " * "Don\'t Ever Change * " From Me to You " * "(They Call Her) La Bamba " * "My Rockin' Days" (b/w "Lovesick Blues
Blues
")

RELATED

* Norman Petty
Norman Petty
* Brunswick Records * Coral Records * Philips Records * The Picks * David Box * Tommy Allsup * Joe Osborn
Joe Osborn
* Bob Montgomery (songwriter)

* v * t * e

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Class of 1986

PERFORMERS

* CHUCK BERRY * JAMES BROWN * RAY CHARLES * SAM COOKE * FATS DOMINO * THE EVERLY BROTHERS (Don Everly, Phil Everly) * BUDDY HOLLY * JERRY LEE LEWIS * LITTLE RICHARD * ELVIS PRESLEY

EARLY INFLUENCES

* Jimmie Rodgers * Jimmy Yancey * Robert Johnson
Robert Johnson

Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award)

* Alan Freed * Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips

LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT

* John Hammond

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 196483 * LCCN : n83147684 * ISNI : 0000 0000 7358 5389 * GND : 118817574 * SUDOC : 027382699 * BNF : cb13895294r (data) * MusicBrainz
MusicBrainz
: d352f5dd-3023-4565-a7bb-52396bf8821d * NDL : 00620830 * BNE : XX972220 * IATH : w6w67kn5

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