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BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO PLC (BAT) is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in London
London
, United Kingdom. It is the largest publicly traded tobacco company in the world.

BAT has a market-leading position in over 50 countries and operations in around 180 countries. Its four largest-selling brands are Dunhill , Lucky Strike , Kent and Pall Mall , with others including Kool , Benson "> James Buchanan Duke
James Buchanan Duke

The company was formed in 1902, when the United Kingdom's Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company
American Tobacco Company
of the United States agreed to form a joint venture, the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd. The parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses and overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. James Buchanan Duke
James Buchanan Duke
became its chairman and the British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
business began life in countries as diverse as Canada, China, Germany, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, but not in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or in the United States.

In China, BAT inherited a factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai from W.D. "> The Globe House: British American Tobacco's current headquarters

In 2002, BAT lost a lawsuit about the right to sell cigarettes under the Marlboro brand name in the UK. It had acquired Rothmans, which had previously bought a licence to use the name from Philip Morris. Philip Morris' attorneys invoked a get-out clause for the case of a major change of ownership.

In 2003, BAT acquired ENTE TABACCHI ITALIANI (ETI) S.p.A, Italy's state tobacco company. The important acquisition would elevate BAT to the number two position in Italy, the second largest tobacco market in the European Union. The scale of the enlarged operations would bring significant opportunities to compete and grow ETI's local brands and BAT's international brands.

In August 2003, BAT acquired a 67.8% holding in the Serbian tobacco company DUVANSKA INDUSTRIJA VRANJE (DIV), allowing local manufacture of its brands, freeing them from import duties. In the longer term, export opportunities are planned as neighbouring countries in south east Europe developed free trade agreements.

In July 2004 the U.S. business of British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
(Brown & Williamson) was combined with that of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (R. J. Reynolds), under the R. J. Reynolds name. R. J. Reynolds and Brown "> One of British American Tobacco's most popular products "Lucky Strike"

International Brands include Dunhill , Kent , North State Lucky Strike , Pall Mall , Vogue , Rothmans International , Winfield , State Express 555 , KOOL , and Viceroy . However, British American Tobacco does not necessarily own the rights to all of these brands in every nation they are marketed.

Local brands owned by British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
include: Benson & Hedges (Bangladesh), John Players Gold Leaf (Bangladesh), State Express 555 (Bangladesh), Belmont (Colombia, Chile, Nicaragua and Venezuela), Jockey Club (Argentina), Stradbroke (Australia), Hollywood (Brazil), du Maurier (Canada), Prince (Denmark), North State (Finland), HB (Germany), Sopianae (Hungary), Wills (India), Ardath, Bentoel, and Country (Indonesia), Carrolls, Carrolls Kings, Grand Parade, Black Allen (Germany), Sweet Afton , Major (Ireland), Boots, Alas (Mexico), Gold Leaf (Bangladesh, Pakistan), Jan III Sobieski (Poland), Yava Gold (Russia), Courtleigh, Peter Styvesant (South Africa), Benson the product would be test-marketed in Portland, Oregon and Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
by the end of the month.

The Bentoel Group products include Bentoel Biru, Bentoel Mild, Bentoel Sejati, Star Mild, X Mild, 1 Indonesia
Indonesia
Masyarakat Dahulukan Pencapaian Dahulukan (taking the principle of 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
) (neO Mild, unO Mild, and One Mild), Club Mild, Dunhill Fine Cut Mild, Bintang Buana, Tali Jagat, Pr1nsip, Joged, Rawit, Ardath, Benson & Hedges
Benson & Hedges
, and Country.

The Gelora Djaja products include Wismilak Spesial, Wismilak Slim, Wismilak Diplomat, Galan Slim, Galan Mild, and MilDay.

FORMER

BAT has diversified into various fields at different times in its history. Its U.S. retail division, BATUS Retail Group , acquired Gimbels
Gimbels
, Kohl\'s , and Saks Fifth Avenue
Saks Fifth Avenue
in the 1970s and Marshall Field\'s and its divisions in 1982. It purchased the United Kingdom retail chain Argos in 1979. The company sold Kohl's
Kohl's
grocery stores to A&P in 1983. In 1986, BATUS sold the Kohl's
Kohl's
department stores and two Marshall Field's
Marshall Field's
divisions, The Crescent and Frederick BATUS closed Gimbels
Gimbels
the same year, with many locations being absorbed by sister division Marshall Field's, as well as Allied Stores' Stern's and Pomeroy's divisions. In 1990, Dayton Hudson Corporation (now Target Corporation ) purchased Marshall Field's, Dillard\'s purchased Ivey\'s (another Marshall Field's
Marshall Field's
division), Investcorp
Investcorp
S.A. purchased Saks Fifth Avenue, and Argos was demerged (Argos was acquired by previous parent company GUS plc in 1998).

The group was a major financial services company with the acquisitions of Eagle Star (1984), Allied Dunbar (1985) and the Farmers Group, Inc. (1988). ArounHistory of the company/bank and archive description for Eagle Star Holdings Plcd 1996 British American Tobacco merged its financial operations into a single operating unit, British American Financial Services (BAFS). This division merged with Zurich Insurance Company in 1998 to form the Zurich Financial Services Group . B.A.T still owns the minority interest in Zurich.

SENIOR MANAGEMENT

Nicandro Durante became the chief executive in March 2011.

SPONSORSHIPS

BAT have found many imaginative ways over the years to keep its brands in the public eye. ITC Limited , in which BAT holds a minority share, as recently as 1996 secured an arrangement to sponsor the Cricket World Cup
Cricket World Cup
which was branded the "Wills World Cup" and thereby achieved a high level of brand recognition for the Wills cigarette brand in India where young cricket fans were a key target market.

BAT also sponsor the London
London
Symphony Orchestra.

MOTORSPORT

Jacques Villeneuve
Jacques Villeneuve
driving for BAR at the 1999 Canadian Grand Prix .

In 1997 BAT brought its participation in the sport to new levels with the purchase of the Tyrrell team for approximately £30 million. The team raced as Tyrrell for the 1998 season before being renamed as British American Racing
British American Racing
(BAR).

Although Formula One is an exceptionally expensive sport, for BAT the high cost of running an F1 team was justified as a promotional expense because it had few other opportunities for brand promotion. However, in 2005 a European Union (EU) directive was brought into force which required national governments to legislate to prevent tobacco sponsorship.

In 2004 BAR announced that technology partner Honda
Honda
had purchased a 45% stake and in September 2005 it announced that Honda
Honda
would be buying the remaining 55% stake. The team raced as Honda
Honda
Racing F1 Team in 2006, the last year of the Lucky Strike sponsorship before leaving the sport. For the 2006 season , the team was renamed as Honda
Honda
F1 Racing Team, with BAT only advertised at a couple of races. All links between the two companies were severed for 2007 .

CONTROVERSIES

SMOKING BANS

Industry documents from the 1970s to the late 1990s shows that tobacco companies were seriously concerned about fatwas against smoking by Muslim jurists in Muslim majority countries . In 1996, an internal document from British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
warned that, because of the spread of “extremist views” from fundamentalists in countries such as Afghanistan, the industry would have to “prepare to fight a hurricane”. BAT currently states that the study, does not represent the company's views, policies and positions.

NIGERIAN LAWSUIT

The Nigerian federal government filed a lawsuit against BAT and two other tobacco companies in 2007. Nigeria is seeking $42.4 billion, $34.4 billion of which the government seeks in anticipation of the future cost of treating Nigerians for tobacco-related illnesses. It is also seeking $1.04 billion as a fine for the companies' advertising and marketing campaign allegedly targeting Nigerian youth, and has asked the companies to fund an awareness campaign to educate young people about the dangers of their product. Several Nigerian state governments have filed similar petitions.

MARKETING PRACTICES

In 2008 the company was the subject of a BBC Two
BBC Two
documentary, in which Duncan Bannatyne investigated the marketing practices of the company in Africa and specifically the way the company targets younger Africans with branded music events, competitions and the sale of single cigarette sticks. Many of the practices uncovered by Bannatyne appeared to break BAT's own code of conduct and company standards. Towards the end of the programme, Bannatyne interviewed Dr Chris Proctor, Head of Science and Regulation, in which Proctor admitted that advertisements targeting children from three African countries were 'disappointing'. In many of these undeveloped countries, the awareness of health risks from smoking is very low or nonexistent.

In September 2001, BAT invested $7.1m in North Korean state-owned enterprise called the Korea Sogyong Trading Corporation, which employs 200 people in Pyongyang to produce up to two billion cigarettes a year. The operation is run by BAT's Singapore Division. Brands of cigarettes produced are Kumgansan, Craven A and Viceroy. BAT claims that the cigarettes are produced only for consumption in North Korea, although there are allegations that the cigarettes are smuggled for sale overseas.

British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
was declared the winner of the 2008 Roger Award , the award for the worst transnational corporation operating in New Zealand.

British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
spent more than €700,000 lobbying the EU in 2008, up to four times as much as the company declared on the EU's register of interest representatives, according to a report by Corporate Europe Observatory . The report argues that BAT's hidden lobbying activities, which are clearly not in the public interest, should be exposed to public scrutiny.

CANADIAN CLASS ACTION LAWSUIT

The three largest Canadian tobacco companies, Imperial Tobacco Canada (a division of British American Tobacco), JTI-Macdonald Corp and Rothmans Benson padding:0.4em 2em">

* Companies portal

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D " British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
p.l.c. Preliminary Announcement" (PDF) (Press release). British American Tobacco. 23 February 2017. * ^ "Contact us". British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
p.l.c. Retrieved 29 August 2010. * ^ "BAT in £1.25 billion share buyback as earnings rise". Reuters . 23 February 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012. * ^ "Who we are". British American Tobacco. Retrieved 9 March 2014.

* ^ Leroux, Marcus (27 February 2009). "British American Tobacco profit boosted by weak pound". The Times
The Times
. UK. Retrieved 29 August 2010. * ^ A B C "British American Tobacco: The Early Years 1902–1932". British American Tobacco. 29 September 1902. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ A B Cox, Howard (2009). " British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
Company". In Linsun CHENG. Berkshire Encyclopedia of China. Berkshire Publishing Group. pp. 208–209. ISBN 978-0977015948 . * ^ Tinari, Philip (1 August 2005). "China Trade: The Art and Commerce of Tobacco". Duke Magazine. Duke University. 91 (4): 1–3. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ Cox, Howard (1997). "China: the Evolution of BAT’s Cigarette Distribution Network, 1902-41" (PDF). Business History. 39 (3): 30–64. doi :10.1080/00076799700000098 . * ^ Collins, Glenn (5 December 1994). "BAT in Court to defend American Tobacco deal". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Rothmans acquisition backed by BAT unit". New York Times. 9 April 1999. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Tobacco Giant withdraws from Burma". Commondreams.org. 7 November 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Litterick, David. BAT loses Marlboro licence. July 1, 2005. In: The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
* ^ "BAT intends to acquire Italian tobacco firm". The Daily Telegraph. 1 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BAT and Philip Morris light up in Serbia". The Grocer. 5 August 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2016. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ "BAT closing two UK and Ireland factories". Forbes
Forbes
. 13 July 2005. Archived from the original on 15 January 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Tobaksmilliarder skal på arbejde" . Jyllands-Posten (in Danish). 2 July 2008. Retrieved 2017-08-12. * ^ " British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
acquires control of Indonesia’s Bentoel" (Press release). British American Tobacco. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ "BAT buys Bentoel to challenge Big Three market domination". The Jakarta Post . 18 June 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2012. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ Guevarra, Vladimir (26 May 2011). "BAT Buys Colombia\'s Protabaco". The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
. Retrieved 25 May 2012. * ^ Craver, Richard (21 October 2016). "British American Tobacco moves to buy all of Reynolds American
Reynolds American
in $47B deal". Winston-Salem Journal . Retrieved 21 October 2016. * ^ " British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
Agrees to Pay $49 Billion to Take Full Control of Reynolds American". The Wall Street Journal. January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017. * ^ Craver, Richard (July 25, 2017). " Reynolds American
Reynolds American
now entirely owned by British American Tobacco". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2017. * ^ "BAT buys cigarette brands from Bulgaria\'s Bulgartabac". Reuters. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ Whitmire, Tim (11 June 2005). "Reynolds Makes Big Move Into Smokeless Tobacco". The Salem News . Associated Press
Associated Press
. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ "History of the company/bank and archive description for Eagle Star Holdings Plc". Euroarchiveguide.org. 15 September 1904. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Zurich to pay BAT $18.6bn for finance units". Los Angeles Times . 17 October 1997. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Nicandro Durante, Chief Executive". British American Tobacco. Retrieved 26 November 2011. * ^ "Scorecard: Wills World Cup". Cricketweb.net. 27 February 1996. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ " London
London
Symphony Orchestra - Thank You". London
London
Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 19 August 2016. * ^ "Constructors: BAR". Grandprix.com. 10 March 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Tobacco advertising ban takes effect on 31 July" (Press release). European Commission
European Commission
. 27 July 2005. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BAT exits Formula 1 tobacco sponsorship". Autoracingsport.com. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ A B Boseley, Sarah (20 April 2015). "How tobacco firms tried to undermine Muslim countries\' smoking ban". The Guardian
The Guardian
. Retrieved 5 February 2017. * ^ "Govt hits tobacco companies with whopping law suit". IRIN . 9 November 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Bannatyne takes on Big Tobacco". BBC News
BBC News
. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Stebbins, Kenyon Rainier (June 2001). "Going like Gangbusters: Transnational Tobacco Companies “Making a Killing” in South America". Medical Anthropology Quarterly . 15 (2): 147–170. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ Ian Cobain and David Leigh (17 October 2005). "Tobacco firm has secret North Korea plant". Guardian. UK. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Roger Awards: British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco
NZ Ltd Wins" (Press release). Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa . 3 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Obscured by the smoke". Corporate Europe Observatory . 2 June 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2012. * ^ "C$27 billion suit vs Big Tobacco starts in Montreal". Reuters. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ "Judge awards $15 billion to Quebec smokers". CTV News
CTV News
. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2017. * ^ "Tobacco companies ordered to pay $15B in damages". CBC News