Bremen (state)
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Bremen (), officially the Free
Hanseatic The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Norther ...
City of Bremen (german: Freie Hansestadt Bremen), is the smallest and least populous of
Germany's 16 states
Germany's 16 states
. It is informally called ("State of Bremen"), although this is sometimes used in official contexts. The state consists of the city of Bremen as well as the
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...

exclave
city of
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
in Northern Germany, surrounded by the larger state of
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (sta ...
.


Geography

The state of Bremen consists of two non-contiguous territories. These enclaves contain
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
, officially the 'City' (''Stadtgemeinde Bremen'') which is the state capital, and the city of
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
(''Stadt Bremerhaven''). Both are located on the River
Weser The Weser () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without re ...
; Bremerhaven is further downstream than the main parts of Bremen and serves as a
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engli ...

harbour
(the name ''Bremerhaven'' means "Bremen's harbour"). Both enclaves are completely surrounded by the neighbouring State of
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (sta ...
(''Niedersachsen''). The two cities are the only administrative subdivisions the state has. The highest point in the state is in Friedehorst Park (32.5m).


History

At the unwinding of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 the Free Imperial City of Bremen (as of 1646, after earlier privileges of autonomy of 1186) was not Mediatisation, mediatised but became a sovereign state officially titled ''Hanseatic League, Free Hanseatic City of Bremen''. Its currency was the Bremen thaler (until 1873). In 1811 the First French Empire annexed the city-state. Upon the first, albeit only preliminary, defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte, Bremen resumed its pre-1811 status as city-state in 1813. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Bremen's—as well as Free City of Frankfurt, Frankfurt's, Hamburg, Hamburg's, and Free City of Lübeck, Lübeck's—independence after pressuring by Bremen's emissary, and later burgomaster, Johann Smidt. Bremen became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. In 1827 the state of Bremen bought the tract of land from the Kingdom of Hanover, where future Bremerhaven would be established. Bremen became part of the North German Confederation in 1867 and became an autonomous component state of the newly founded German Empire in 1871 and stayed with Germany in its following forms of government. Bremen, which in 1935 had become a regular city at the de facto abolition of statehood of all component German states within the Third Reich, was reestablished as a state in 1947. Being—at that time—actually located in the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany, British Zone of Occupation the Control Commission for Germany - British Element and the Office of Military Government, United States, Office of Military Government for Germany, U.S. (OMGUS) agreed in 1947 to constitute the cities of ''Bremen'' and then Wesermünde—in their borders altered in 1939—as a States of Germany, German state named again ''Free Hanseatic City of Bremen'', becoming at that occasion an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...

exclave
of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany, American Zone of Occupation within the ''British zone''. In 1949 the city-state joined the then West German West Germany, Federal Republic of Germany.


Politics


Political system

The legislature of the state of Bremen is the 83-member Bürgerschaft of Bremen, Bürgerschaft (citizens' assembly), elected by the citizens in the two cities of Bremen (city), Bremen and
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
. The executive is constituted by the Senate of Bremen, elected by the Bürgerschaft. The Senate is chaired by the President of the senate (''Senatspräsident''), who is also one of the Mayor of Bremen, mayors of the city of Bremen (''Bürgermeister'') and is elected directly by the Bürgerschaft. The Senate selects of its members as a second mayor who serves as deputy of the president. In contrast to the Federal Chancellor of Germany or other German states, the President of the Senate has no authority to override senators on policy, which is decided upon by the senate collectively. Since 1945, the Senate has continuously been dominated by the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party. On a municipal level, the two cities in the state are administered separately: * The administration of the Bremen (city), city of Bremen is headed by the two mayors and controlled by the portion of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, Bürgerschaft elected in the city of Bremen (68 members). *
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
, on the other hand, has a municipal assembly distinct from the state legislature and an administration under a distinct head mayor (''Oberbürgermeister'') and a distinct second mayor.


Political majorities

The political majorities in Bremen are based on a traditionally self-awareness of the Bremensians as Open society, liberal and open minded people. It is influenced historically by the pride to be an independent hanseatic city. Beside a trade-based class of merchants, in post-war Bremen, there was a majority of working class people, working at the Shipyard, shipyards. Since the 1990s the maritime industry has become more and more insignificant, but the priority to social themes in politics has remained. Since the founding of the state of Bremen 1947, it has been ruled by a social democratic prime-minister. Comedian Jan Böhmermann, born and raised in Bremen said ironically that nobody in Bremen knowns anymore if there is a legislation or if it is just a scientific law that the mayor is always from the Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD. Historically the SPD has formed coalitions with FDP, CDU, Grüne and Linke. The 2019 Bremen state election was held on 26 May 2019 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
and
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
. The election took place on the same day as the 2019 European Parliament election. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) became the largest party in the Bürgerschaft, while the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) fell to second place. Alliance 90/The Greens, The Greens and The Left (Germany), The Left made small gains. After the election, the SPD, Greens, and Left agreed to form a coalition government. Carsten Sieling resigned as mayor and was replaced by fellow SPD member Andreas Bovenschulte. Summary of the 26 May 2019 election results for the Bürgerschaft of Bremen , - ! rowspan="2" colspan="2" , Party ! rowspan="2" , Votes ! rowspan="2" , % ! rowspan="2" , +/- ! colspan="2" , Seats ! rowspan="2" , Total
seats ! rowspan="2" , +/- ! rowspan="2" , Seats % , - !
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
!
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
, - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , align= 391,709 , align= 26.7 , align= 4.3 , align= 20 , align= 4 , align= 24 , align= 4 , align= 28.6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , align= 366,375 , align= 24.9 , align= 7.9 , align= 19 , align= 4 , align= 23 , align= 7 , align= 27.4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) , align= 256,181 , align= 17.4 , align= 2.3 , align= 13 , align= 3 , align= 16 , align= 2 , align= 19.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , The Left (Germany), The Left (Linke) , align= 166,378 , align= 11.3 , align= 1.8 , align= 9 , align= 1 , align= 10 , align= 2 , align= 11.9 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Alternative for Germany (AfD) , align= 89,939 , align= 6.1 , align= 0.6 , align= 4 , align= 1 , align= 5 , align= 1 , align= 6.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP) , align= 87,420 , align= 5.9 , align= 0.7 , align= 4 , align= 1 , align= 5 , align= 1 , align= 6.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Citizens in Rage (BiW) , align= 35,808 , align= 2.4 , align= 0.8 , align= 0 , align= 1 , align= 1 , align= 0 , align= 1.2 , - ! colspan=8, , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Die PARTEI (PARTEI) , align= 24,433 , align= 1.7 , align= 0.2 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= ±0 , align= 0 , - , , align=left , Free Voters (FW) , align= 14,205 , align= 1.0 , align= 1.0 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= ±0 , align= 0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) , align= 14,143 , align= 1.0 , align= 0.5 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= ±0 , align= 0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left , Others , align= 22,915 , align= 1.6 , align= , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= 0 , align= ±0 , align= 0 , - ! align=right colspan=2, Total ! align= 1,469,506 ! align= 100.0 ! align= ! align= 69 ! align= 15 ! align= 84 ! align= 1 ! align= , - ! align=right colspan=2, Voter turnout ! align= ! align= 64.1 ! align= 13.9 ! align= ! align= ! align= ! align= ! align=


Coat of arms

The coat of arms and flag of Bremen state include: Flag of Bremen.svg, Flag of Bremen Bremen_greater_coat_of_arms.svg, Greater coat of arms Bremen Wappen(Mittel).svg, Medium coat of arms Bremen Wappen(Klein).svg, Lesser coat of arms Bremen Wappen frei.svg, Coat of arms symbol/logo, free to use


Economy

The unemployment rate stood at 9.5% in October 2018 and was the highest of all 16 German states.


Education

The University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen. Furthermore, Bremen has a University of the Arts Bremen, a City_University_of_Applied_Sciences_(Bremen), University of Applied Sciences in Bremen and another one in
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (, , Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

Bremerhaven
, and more recently the Jacobs University Bremen.


See also

* Bombing of Bremen in World War II * Former countries in Europe after 1815 * Timeline of Bremen history, Timeline of Bremen (city) history


References


External links


Official state portal

Official governmental portal

Constitution of the state, German only
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Bremen, Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (state), States of the German Empire States of the German Confederation States of the North German Confederation States of the Weimar Republic History of Bremen (city) History of Bremen (state) NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union States and territories established in 1646 1646 establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 17th-century establishments in Germany