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The BRAZILIAN REAL (Portuguese : REAL, pl. REAIS; sign : R$; code ), is the official currency of Brazil
Brazil
. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . The Central Bank of Brazil
Brazil
is the central bank and the issuing authority.

The dollar-like sign (cifrão ) is the currency's symbol (both historic and modern), and in all the other past Brazilian currencies, is officially written with two vertical strokes ( ) rather than one. However Unicode
Unicode
considers the difference to be only a matter of font design, and does not have a separate code for the two-stroked version.

As of April 2016, the real is the nineteenth most traded currency in the world by value.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Coins

* 2.1 First series (1994–1997) * 2.2 Second series (1998–present) * 2.3 Commemorative coins

* 3 Banknotes

* 3.1 First series (1994–2010) * 3.2 Second series (2010–present) * 3.3 Commemorative banknotes

* 4 Exchange rates

* 4.1 Historical exchange rate * 4.2 Current exchange rates

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

The modern real (Portuguese plural reais or English plural reals) was introduced on 1 July 1994, during the presidency of Itamar Franco , when Rubens Ricupero was the Minister of Finance, as part of a broader plan to stabilize the Brazilian economy , known as the Plano Real . The new currency replaced the short-lived cruzeiro real (CR$). The reform included the demonetisation of the cruzeiro real and required a massive banknote replacement.

At its introduction, the real was defined to be equal to 1 unidade real de valor (URV, "real value unit") a non-circulating currency unit. At the same time the URV was defined to be worth 2750 cruzeiros reais, which was the average exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the cruzeiro real on that day. As a consequence, the real was worth exactly one U.S. dollar as it was introduced. Combined with all previous currency changes in the country's history, this reform made the new real equal to 2.75 × 1018 (2.75 quintillions ) of Brazil's original "réis".

Soon after its introduction, the real unexpectedly gained value against the U.S. dollar, due to large capital inflows in late 1994 and 1995. During that period it attained its maximum dollar value ever, about US$1.20. Between 1996 and 1998 the exchange rate was tightly controlled by the Central Bank of Brazil
Brazil
, so that the real depreciated slowly and smoothly in relation to the dollar, dropping from near 1:1 to about 1.2:1 by the end of 1998. In January 1999 the deterioration of the international markets, disrupted by the Russian default , forced the Central Bank, under its new president Arminio Fraga , to float the exchange rate. This decision produced a major devaluation, to a rate of almost R$2 : US$1.

In the following years, the currency's value against the dollar followed an erratic but mostly downwards path from 1999 until late 2002, when the prospect of the election of leftist candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva , considered a radical populist by sectors of the financial markets, prompted another currency crisis and a spike in inflation. Many Brazilians feared another default on government debts or a resumption of heterodox economic policies, and rushed to exchange their reais into tangible assets or foreign currencies. In October 2002 the exchange rate reached its historic low of almost R$4 per US$1. The exchange rate as of September 2015 was BRL 4.05 to USD 1.00, however it has since been in a gradual recovery period, reaching 3.0 BRL per USD by February 2017.

The crisis subsided once Lula took office, after he, his finance minister Antonio Palocci , and Arminio Fraga reaffirmed their intention to continue the orthodox macroeconomic policies of his predecessor (including inflation-targeting, primary fiscal surplus and floating exchange rate , as well as continued payments of the public debt). The value of the real in dollars continued to fluctuate but generally upwards, so that by 2005 the exchange was a little over R$2 : US$1. In May 2007, for the first time since 2001, the real became worth more than US$0.50 — even though the Central Bank, concerned about its effect on the Brazilian economy, had tried to keep it below that symbolic threshold.

COINS

FIRST SERIES (1994–1997)

Along with the first series of currency, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos and 1 real; the 25 centavos piece soon followed. All were struck in stainless steel . The original 1-real coins dated 1994-1997 have been withdrawn from circulation since 31 December 1997; all other coins remain legal tender .

FIRST SERIES

IMAGE VALUE DESIGN

1 centavo Obverse: Head of Republic . Reverse: Large denomination flanked by linear patterns.

5 centavos Obverse: Head of Republic . Reverse: Large denomination flanked by linear patterns.

10 centavos Obverse: Head of Republic .. Reverse: Large denomination flanked by linear patterns.

25 centavos Obverse: Head of Republic .. Reverse: Large denomination intersected by wavy lines.

50 centavos Obverse: Head of Republic .. Reverse: Large denomination flanked by linear patterns.

1 real Obverse: Head of Republic .. Reverse: Large denomination flanked by linear patterns.

SECOND SERIES (1998–PRESENT)

In 1998, a second series of coins was introduced. It featured copper-plated steel coins of 1 and 5 centavos, brass -plated steel coins of 10 and 25 centavos, a cupronickel 50 centavos coin, and a bi-coloured brass and cupronickel coin of 1 real. However, from 2002 onwards, steel was used for the 50 centavos coin and the central part of the 1 real coin.

In November 2005, the Central Bank discontinued the production of 1 centavo coins, but the existing ones continue to be legal tender. Retailers now generally round their prices to the next 5 or 10 centavos.

SECOND SERIES

IMAGE VALUE DESIGN

1 centavo Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Depicts Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
, Portuguese sea captain and Brazil's discoverer, with a 16th-century Portuguese ship in the background.

5 centavos Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Depicts Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (also known as Tiradentes), martyr of an early independence movement known as the Minas Conspiracy . In the background, a triangle , symbol of the movement, and a dove, symbol of peace and freedom.

10 centavos Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Depicts Emperor Pedro I , Brazil's first monarch. In the background, the Emperor on a horse: a scene alluding to the proclamation of independence.

25 centavos Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Depicts Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Deodoro da Fonseca , Brazil's first Republican president. The Republic\'s coat of arms is in the background.

50 centavos Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Depicts José Paranhos, Jr. , the Baron of Rio Branco, the country's most distinguished Minister of Foreign Affairs. In the background, image of the country with ripples expanding outwards, representing the development of Brazil's foreign policy and the expansion and demarcation of the national borders.

1 real Obverse: The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
in right upper side. Reverse: Outer ring depicts a sample of the marajoara art pattern. In the inner ring, the Efígie da República , symbol of the Republic.

COMMEMORATIVE COINS

Commemorative 1 real coins for the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
and Paralympics Games in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
. Left, allegory to Olympic boxing, right, allegory to Paralympic swimming.

The Brazilian Central Bank has also issued special commemorative versions of the 1 real coin on special occasions. These coins are legal tender and differ from the standard ones only on the reverse side.

VALUE DETAILS

1 real RELEASE DATE: 10 December 1998 OCCASION: The 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UNITS PRODUCED: 600 thousand REVERSE: The official logo of the commemorations; in bas-relief , a human figure. In the outer ring, the inscriptions "Universal Declaration of Human
Human
Rights" and "50th anniversary"

1 real RELEASE DATE: 12 September 2002 OCCASION: The 100th birth anniversary of Brazilian ex-president Juscelino Kubitschek UNITS PRODUCED: 50 million REVERSE: A face portrait of Kubitschek. Vertically, the inscription "Juscelino Kubitschek's Centenary". In the outer ring, images alluding to the columns of the Alvorada Palace, the Presidential residence in Brasília , the city that he decided would be built.

1 real RELEASE DATE: 23 September 2005 OCCASION: The 40th anniversary of the foundation of the Brazilian Central Bank UNITS PRODUCED: 40 million REVERSE: Image of the trademark Central Bank building, inspired in the official logo developed for the commemorations. In the outer ring, the inscriptions "Brazilian Central Bank" and "1965 40 YEARS 2005"

1 real RELEASE DATE: 11 August 2012 OCCASION: The Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
Handover for the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
UNITS PRODUCED: 2 million REVERSE: The Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
in a pole above the official logo of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad. In the outer ring, the inscriptions " Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
Handover" and " London 2012
London 2012
* Rio 2016
Rio 2016
"

BANKNOTES

FIRST SERIES (1994–2010)

In 1994, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 reais. These were followed by 2 reais in 2000
2000
and 20 reais in 2001. On 31 December 2005, BCB discontinued the production of the 1 real banknote.

REAL SERIES

VALUE DIMENSIONS DESCRIPTION

OBVERSE REVERSE

1 real 140 mm × 65 mm The Republic\'s Effigy , portrayed as a bust Sapphire-spangled emerald hummingbird (Amazilia lactea)

2 reais Hawksbill turtle
Hawksbill turtle
(Eretmochelys imbricata)

5 reais Great egret
Great egret
(Casmerodius albus)

10 reais Green-winged macaw (Ara chlorepterus)

20 reais Golden lion tamarin
Golden lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus rosalia)

50 reais Jaguar
Jaguar
(Onça pintada, Panthera onca)

100 reais Dusky Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus)

SECOND SERIES (2010–PRESENT)

On 3 February 2010, the Central Bank of Brazil
Brazil
announced a new series of the real banknotes which would begin to be released in April 2010. The new design added security enhancements in an attempt to reduce counterfeiting . The notes have different sizes according to their values to help vision-impaired people. The changes were made reflecting the growth of the Brazilian economy and the need for a stronger and safer currency. The new banknotes began to enter circulation in December 2010, coexisting with the older ones.

2010, 2011, AND 2012 SERIES

IMAGE VALUE DIMENSIONS MAIN COLOR DESCRIPTION DATE OF FIRST ISSUE WATERMARK

OBVERSE REVERSE OBVERSE REVERSE

2 reais 121 mm × 65 mm Dark blue Wave pattern; head of Republic Hawksbill turtle
Hawksbill turtle
(Eretmochelys imbricata) 29 July 2013 Hawksbill turtle
Hawksbill turtle
and electrotype 2

5 reais 128 mm x 65 mm Purple Plants; head of Republic Great egret
Great egret
(Casmerodius albus) 29 July 2013 Great egret
Great egret
and electrotype 5

10 reais 135 mm × 65 mm Red Plants; head of Republic Green-winged macaw (Ara chlorepterus) 23 July 2012 Green-winged macaw and electrotype 10

20 reais 142 mm × 65 mm Yellow Plants; head of Republic Golden lion tamarin
Golden lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus rosalia) 23 July 2012 Golden lion tamarin
Golden lion tamarin
and electrotype 20

50 reais 149 mm × 70 mm Brown Jungle plants; head of Republic Jaguar
Jaguar
(Panthera onca) 13 December 2010 Jaguar
Jaguar
and electrotype 50

100 reais 156 mm × 70 mm Light blue Underwater plants and starfish; head of Republic ; coral Dusky Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus); coral 13 December 2010 Dusky Grouper and electrotype 100

COMMEMORATIVE BANKNOTES

In April 2000, in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the Portuguese arrival on Brazilian shores, the Brazilian Central Bank released a polymer 10 real banknote that circulates along with the other banknotes above. The Brazilian Mint printed 250 million of these notes, which at the time accounted for about half of the 10 real banknotes in circulation.

OBVERSE REVERSE VALUE YEAR MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

10 reais 2000
2000
Polymer OBVERSE: Image of Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
, discoverer of Brazil
Brazil
. REVERSE: Stylized version of the map of Brazil, with pictures highlighting the ethnic and cultural plurality of the country.

EXCHANGE RATES

Most traded currencies by value Currency
Currency
distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover RANK CURRENCY ISO 4217 code (symbol) % daily share (April 2016)

1   United States dollar
United States dollar
USD ($) 80.6%

2   Euro
Euro
EUR (€) 37.4%

3   Japanese yen
Japanese yen
JPY (¥) 21.6%

4   Pound sterling
Pound sterling
GBP (£) 12.8%

5   Australian dollar AUD (A$) 6.9%

6   Canadian dollar
Canadian dollar
CAD (C$) 5.1%

7   Swiss franc CHF (Fr) 4.8%

8   Renminbi
Renminbi
CNY (元) 4.0%

9   Swedish krona
Swedish krona
SEK (kr) 2.2%

10   New Zealand dollar NZD (NZ$) 2.1%

11   Mexican peso MXN ($) 1.9%

12   Singapore dollar SGD (S$) 1.8%

13   Hong Kong dollar HKD (HK$) 1.7%

14 Norwegian krone NOK (kr) 1.7%

15 South Korean won KRW (₩) 1.7%

16   Turkish lira
Turkish lira
TRY (₺) 1.4%

17   Russian ruble
Russian ruble
RUB (₽) 1.1%

18 Indian rupee INR (₹) 1.1%

19 Brazilian real BRL (R$) 1.0%

20 South African rand ZAR (R) 1.0%

Other 7.1%

Total 200.0%

HISTORICAL EXCHANGE RATE

Historical USD/BRL exchange rate with Lowest, Highest and Average rates Historical USD/BRL exchange rate

Brazilian Reals per USD 2002–2017 YEAR

LOWEST ↓

HIGHEST ↑

AVERAGE

DATE RATE DATE RATE RATE

2002 11 April 2.264 10 October 4.005 2.9221

2003 2 July 2.818 14 February 3.700 3.078

2004 30 December 2.654 22 May 3.242 2.926

2005 11 November 2.163 15 March 2.766 2.4349

2006 5 May 2.056 24 May 2.405 2.1782

2007 14 November 1.732 5 January 2.153 1.948

2008 31 July 1.562 5 December 2.621 1.8349

2009 15 October 1.698 2 March 2.451 1.9974

2010 13 October 1.655 5 February 1.891 1.7603

2011 26 July 1.5284 22 September 1.952 1.675

2012 29 February 1.692 3 December 2.1395 1.9546

2013 11 March 1.943 21 August 2.4523 2.1576

2014 10 April 2.1825 16 December 2.7614 2.3531

2015 22 January 2.5554 23 September 4.2491 3.391

2016 25 October 3.1023 22 January 4.1737 3.430

2017 16 February 3.0390 18 May 3.4300

DATE RATE

1994-07-01 1.00

1994-10-14 0.83

1995-02-15 0.88

1995-12-29 0.97

1996-06-11 1.00

1996-12-31 1.04

1997-12-31 1.12

1998-12-31 1.20

1999-01-12 1.21

1999-01-13 1.31

1999-01-29 1.98

1999-03-03 2.16

1999-04-30 1.66

1999-12-31 1.78

2000-12-31 1.96

2001-05-02 2.23

2001-10-15 2.78

2002-01-25 2.38

2002-04-12 2.27

2002-06-27 2.83

2002-09-30 3.87

2002-10-12 3.93

2002-10-22 3.96

2002-12-27 3.53

2003-02-18 3.61

2003-06-28 2.87

2003-09-30 2.93

2003-12-28 2.93

2004-03-31 2.91

2004-05-23 3.18

2004-06-28 3.10

2004-09-30 2.85

2004-12-28 2.69

2005-02-19 2.56

2005-03-26 2.73

2005-06-28 2.38

2005-09-25 2.26

2005-11-11 2.17

2005-12-28 2.36

2006-03-27 2.15

2006-05-07 2.05

2006-12-29 2.13

2007-11-07 1.73

2008-08-01 1.56

2009-03-03 2.42

2009-10-14 1.71

2010-12-30 1.66

2011-07-23 1.53

2012-03-18 1.79

2012-08-19 2.01

2013-03-31 2.01

2013-07-13 2.26

2013-11-01 2.23

2014-01-23 2.40

2014-02-06 2.40

2014-10-23 2.50

2014-12-16 2.75

2015-01-22 2.56

2015-02-02 2.71

2015-03-06 3.05

2015-03-19 3.29

2015-04-24 2.95

2015-04-28 2.88

2015-05-08 2.97

2015-05-29 3.18

2015-08-06 3.53

2015-09-01 3.69

2015-09-04 3.80

2015-09-17 3.88

2015-09-22 4.05

2015-09-24 4.24

2015-09-25 3.97

2015-10-02 3.94

2015-10-09 3.75

2015-11-20 3.69

2015-12-03 3.74

2015-12-09 3.73

2016-02-23 3.97

2016-03-13 3.58

2016-06-30 3.18

2016-10-25 3.10

2017-02-14 3.09

CURRENT EXCHANGE RATES

CURRENT BRL EXCHANGE RATES

From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR RUB ARS

From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR RUB ARS

From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR RUB ARS

From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR RUB ARS

From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR RUB ARS

SEE ALSO

* Portuguese real * Plano Real * Economy of Brazil
Brazil
* Central Bank of Brazil
Brazil

REFERENCES

* ^ Brazil
Brazil
new 50- and 100-real notes confirmed BanknoteNews.com. Retrieved 2011-10-20. * ^ Rodrigues, Lorenna (3 February 2010). "BC lança nova família de notas do real em tamanhos diferentes" . Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2010-02-03. * ^ "". globo.com. Retrieved 11 January 2017. * ^ "Origem do Cifrão". Casa de Moeda do Brasil. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. * ^ "C0 Controls and Basic Latin Range: 0000–007F" (PDF). The Unicode
Unicode
Standard, Version 6.2. The Unicode
Unicode
Consortium. Retrieved 19 September 2013. Unicode
Unicode
0024 DOLLAR SIGN= milréis, escudo, used for many peso currencies in Latin America and elsewhere, glyph may have one or two vertical bars * ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016" (PDF). Triennial Central Bank Survey. Basel, Switzerland: Bank for International Settlements. 11 December 2016. p. 7. Retrieved 22 March 2017. * ^ BNDES
BNDES
: BRAZIL IN THE 1990: A SUCCESSFUL TRANSITION? page 10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 2012-08-13. * ^ Cucolo, Eduardo (13 December 2010). "Novas cédulas do real devem chegar a todas as capitais em até 48 ho