Braunschweig (German pronunciation:
[ˈbʁaʊ̯nʃvaɪ̯k] ( listen); Low German: Brunswiek
[ˈbrɔˑnsviːk]), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in
Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the
Harz mountains at the furthest
navigable point of the
Oker river which connects it to the North Sea
Weser rivers. In 2016, it had a population of
A powerful and influential centre of commerce in medieval Germany,
Braunschweig was a member of the
Hanseatic League from the 13th until
the 17th century. It was the capital city of three successive states:
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1269–1432, 1754–1807
and 1813–1814), the
Duchy of Brunswick
Duchy of Brunswick (1814–1918) and the Free
State of Brunswick (1918–1946).
Braunschweig is the second largest city in
Lower Saxony and a
major centre of scientific research and development.
1.1 Foundation and early history
Middle Ages and early modern period
1.3 19th century
1.4 Early to mid-20th century
1.5 Postwar period to the 21st century
3 Main sights
3.1 Parks and gardens
4.2 City council
4.3 International relations
4.3.1 Twin towns/sister cities
Tram and bus
7 Government offices
8 Research and science
11.3 Museums and galleries
11.4 Music and dance
12 Notable people
13 See also
17 External links
See also: Timeline of Braunschweig
Foundation and early history
The date and circumstances of the town's foundation are unknown.
Tradition maintains that
Braunschweig was created through the merger
of two settlements, one founded by Brun(o), a Saxon count who died in
880, on one side of the river
Oker – the legend gives the year 861
for the foundation – and the other the settlement of a legendary
Count Dankward, after whom
Dankwarderode Castle ("Dankward's
clearing"), which was reconstructed in the 19th century, is
named. The town's original name of Brunswik is a combination of
the name Bruno and
Low German wik, a place where merchants rested and
stored their goods. The town's name therefore indicates an ideal
resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the
Oker River. Another
explanation of the city's name is that it comes from Brand, or
burning, indicating a place which developed after the landscape was
cleared through burning. The city was first mentioned in documents
from the St. Magni Church from 1031, which give the city's name as
Middle Ages and early modern period
Braunschweig in the 16th century, from the Civitates orbis terrarum by
Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.
Brunswick Cathedral, St. Blasius, with lion statue
Up to the 12th century,
Braunschweig was ruled by the Saxon noble
family of the Brunonids, then, through marriage, it fell to the House
of Welf. In 1142
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion of the
House of Welf
House of Welf became duke of
Saxony and made
Braunschweig the capital of his state (which, from
1156 on, also included the Duchy of Bavaria). He turned Dankwarderode
Castle, the residence of the counts of Brunswick, into his own Pfalz
and developed the city further to represent his authority. Under
Henry's rule the Cathedral of St. Blasius was built and he also had
the statue of a lion, his heraldic animal, erected in front of the
castle. The lion subsequently became the city's landmark.
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion became so powerful that he dared to refuse military aid
to the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, which led to his banishment in
1182. Henry went into exile in England. He had previously established
ties to the English crown in 1168, through his marriage to King Henry
II of England's daughter Matilda, sister of Richard the Lionheart.
However, his son Otto, who could regain influence and was eventually
crowned Holy Roman Emperor, continued to foster the city's
Braunschweig was an important center of trade,
one of the economic and political centers in Northern Europe and a
member of the
Hanseatic League from the 13th century to the middle of
the 17th century. By the year 1600,
Braunschweig was the seventh
largest city in Germany. Although formally one of the residences
of the rulers of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a constituent state
of the Holy Roman Empire,
Braunschweig was de facto ruled
independently by a powerful class of patricians and the guilds
throughout much of the Late
Middle Ages and the Early modern period.
Because of the growing power of Braunschweig's burghers, the Princes
of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who ruled over one of the subdivisions of
Brunswick-Lüneburg, finally moved their
Residenz out of the city and
to the nearby town of
Wolfenbüttel in 1432. The Princes of
Wolfenbüttel didn't regain control over the city until the
late 17th century, when Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg,
took the city by siege. In the 18th century
Braunschweig was not
only a political, but also a cultural centre. Influenced by the
philosophy of the Enlightenment, dukes like Anthony Ulrich and Charles
I became patrons of the arts and sciences. In 1745 Charles I founded
the Collegium Carolinum, predecessor of the
Braunschweig University of
Technology, and in 1753 he moved the ducal residence back to
Braunschweig. With this he attracted poets and thinkers such as
Lessing, Leisewitz, and
Jakob Mauvillon to his court and the city.
Emilia Galotti by Lessing and
Goethe's Faust were performed for the
first time in Braunschweig.
Landtag building of the Duchy and the Free
State of Brunswick.
In 1806, the city was captured by the French during the Napoleonic
Wars and became part of the short-lived Napoleonic Kingdom of
Westphalia in 1807. The exiled duke Frederick William raised a
volunteer corps, the Black Brunswickers, that fought the French in
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna in 1815,
Braunschweig was made capital of
the reestablished independent Duchy of Brunswick, later a constituent
state of the
German Empire from 1871. In the aftermath of the July
Revolution in 1830, in Brunswick duke Charles II was forced to
abdicate. His absolutist governing style had previously alienated the
nobility and bourgeoisie, while the lower classes were disaffected by
the bad economic situation. During the night of 7–8 September 1830,
the ducal palace in
Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on
fire and destroyed completely. Charles was succeeded by his
brother William VIII. During William's reign, liberal reforms were
made and Brunswick's parliament was strengthened.
During the 19th century, industrialisation caused a rapid growth of
population in the city, eventually causing
Braunschweig to be for the
first time significantly enlarged beyond its medieval fortifications
and the river Oker. On 1 December 1838, the first section of the
Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway
Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway line connecting
Wolfenbüttel opened as the first railway line in Northern Germany,
operated by the
Duchy of Brunswick
Duchy of Brunswick State Railway.
Early to mid-20th century
Braunschweig around 1900.
Braunschweig on the night of 15 October 1944
On 8 November 1918, at the end of World War I, a socialist Workers'
council forced Duke Ernest Augustus to abdicate. On 10
November, the council proclaimed the
Socialist Republic of Brunswick
under one-party government by the Independent Social Democratic Party
Germany (USPD); however, the subsequent
Landtag election on 22
December 1918 was won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany
(MSPD), and the USPD and MSPD formed a coalition government. An
Braunschweig in 1919, led by the communist Spartacus
League, was defeated when
Freikorps troops under Georg Ludwig Rudolf
Maercker took over the city on order of the German Minister of
Defence, Gustav Noske. An SPD-led government was subsequently
established; in December 1921 a new constitution was approved for the
Free State of Brunswick, now a parliamentary republic within the
Weimar Republic, again with
Braunschweig as its capital.
Landtag election of 1930, Brunswick became the second state
Germany where the Nazis participated in government, when the
Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) formed a coalition
government with several conservative and right-wing parties. With
the support of Dietrich Klagges, Brunswick's minister of the interior,
the NSDAP organized a large SA rally in Braunschweig. On 17–18
October 1931, 100,000 SA stormtroopers marched through the city,
street fights between Nazis, socialists and communists left several
dead or injured. On 25 February 1932, the state of Brunswick
Adolf Hitler German citizenship to allow him to run in the
1932 German presidential election. In Braunschweig, Nazis carried
out several attacks on political enemies, with the acquiescence of the
Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power in 1933, several state institutions
were placed in Braunschweig, including the Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt
in Völkenrode, the
Hitler Youth Academy for Youth Leadership, and
the SS-Junkerschule Braunschweig. With the Reichswerke Hermann
Salzgitter and the Stadt des KdF-Wagens, as well as several
factories in the city itself (including
Büssing and the
Volkswagenwerk Braunschweig), the
Braunschweig region became one of
the centres of the German arms industry.
During the Second World War,
Braunschweig was an Untergebiet
Hauptquartier ("Sub-Area Headquarters") of Wehrkreis XI ("Military
District XI"), and was the garrison city of the 31st Infantry
Division that took part in the invasions of Poland, Belgium, and
France, largely being destroyed during its retreat following the
invasion of Russia. In this period, thousands of
Eastern workers were brought to the city as forced labor, and in
the 1943–1945 period at least 360 children taken away from such
workers died in the Entbindungsheim für Ostarbeiterinnen ("Maternity
Ward for Eastern Workers").
The Anglo-American air raid on October 15, 1944 destroyed most of the
city's churches, and the Altstadt (old town), the largest homogeneous
ensemble of half-timbered houses in Germany. The city's cathedral,
which had been converted to a Nationale Weihestätte (national shrine)
by the Nazi government, still stood.
Postwar period to the 21st century
Small sections of the city survived Allied bombing, and so remain to
represent its distinctive architecture. The cathedral was restored
to its function as a
Politically, after the war, the
Free State of Brunswick
Free State of Brunswick was dissolved
by the Allied occupying authorities,
Braunschweig ceased to be a
capital, and most of its lands were incorporated in the newly formed
state of Lower Saxony.
During the Cold War, Braunschweig, then part of West Germany, suffered
economically due to its proximity to the Iron Curtain. The city lost
its historically strong economic ties to what was then East Germany;
for decades economic growth remained below and unemployment stayed
above the West German average.
On 28 February 1974, as part of a district reform in Lower Saxony, the
rural district of Braunschweig, which had surrounded the city, was
disestablished. The major part of the former district was incorporated
into the city of Braunschweig, increasing its population by roughly
In the 1990s, efforts increased to reconstruct historic buildings that
had been destroyed in the air raid. The façade of
the Braunschweiger Schloss was rebuilt, and buildings such as the Alte
Waage (originally built in 1534) now stand again.
As of 2015[update], the population of
Braunschweig was 252,768.
Braunschweig is among the twenty German cities found to be most
attractive to young people between the ages of 25 and 34, leading to
an influx of younger residents.
In 2015, 91,785 people or 36.3% of the population were
34,604 (13.7%) people were Roman Catholic. 126,379 people (50.0%)
either adhered to other denominations or followed no religion.
A total of 64,737 of Braunschweig's residents, including German
citizens, had an immigrant background in 2015 (25.6% of the total
population). Among those, 25,676 were non-German citizens
(10.2%); the following table lists up the largest minority
The Burgplatz (Castle Square), comprising a group of buildings of
great historical and cultural significance: the Cathedral (St Blasius,
built at the end of the 12th century), the Burg Dankwarderode
(Dankwarderode Castle) (a 19th-century reconstruction of the old
castle of Henry the Lion), the
Neo-Gothic Town Hall (built in
1893–1900), as well as some picturesque half-timbered houses, such
as the Gildehaus (
Guild House), today the seat of the Craftsman's
Association. In the centre of the square stands a copy of the
Burglöwe (Brunswick Lion), a Romanesque statue of a Lion, cast in
bronze in 1166. The original statue can be seen in the museum of
Dankwarderode Castle. Today the lion has become the true symbol of
The Altstadtmarkt ("Old Town market"), surrounded by the Old Town town
hall (built between the 13th and the 15th centuries in Gothic style),
and the Martinikirche (Church of Saint Martin, from 1195), with
important historical houses including the Gewandhaus (the former house
of the drapers' guild, built sometime before 1268) and the
Stechinelli-Haus (built in 1690) and a fountain from 1408.
The Kohlmarkt ("coal market"), a market with many historical houses
and a fountain from 1869.
The Hagenmarkt ("
Hagen market"), with the 13th-century
Katharinenkirche (Church of Saint Catherine) and the Heinrichsbrunnen
("Henry the Lion's Fountain") from 1874.
The Magniviertel (St Magnus' Quarter), a remainder of ancient
Braunschweig, lined with cobblestoned streets, little shops and
cafés, centred around the 13th-century Magnikirche (St Magnus'
Church). Here is also the Rizzi-Haus, a highly distinctive, cartoonish
office building designed by architect
James Rizzi for the Expo 2000.
The Romanesque and Gothic Andreaskirche (Church of Saint Andrew),
built mainly between the 13th and 16th centuries with stained glass by
Charles Crodel. Surrounding the church are the Liberei, the oldest
surviving freestanding library building in Germany, and the
reconstructed Alte Waage.
The Gothic Aegidienkirche (Church of Saint Giles), built in the 13th
century, with an adjoining monastery, which is today a museum.
The Staatstheater (State Theatre), newly built in the 19th century,
goes back to the first standing public theatre in Germany, founded in
1690 by Duke Anthony Ulrich.
The ducal palace of
Braunschweig was bombed in
World War II
World War II and
demolished in 1960. The exterior was rebuilt to contain a palace
museum, library and shopping centre, which opened in 2007.
The baroque palace
Schloss Richmond ("Richmond Palace"), built between
1768 and 1769 with a surrounding
English garden for Princess Augusta
of Great Britain, wife of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to remind her of her home in England.
Riddagshausen Abbey (German: Kloster Riddagshausen), a former
Cistercian monastery, with the surrounding nature reserve and
arboretum. The nature reserve Riddagshäuser Teiche is designated as
Important Bird Area and
Special Protection Area.
Burgplatz, with Castle, Cathedral, lion, and Town Hall.
Brunswick Lion, original on display in castle museum.
Veltheimsches Haus (left) and Gildehaus (right)
Altstadtmarkt, with Old Town town hall (left) and Stechinelli-Haus
Church of St. Martin
Altstadt ("Old Town")
Haus zum Stern on Kohlmarkt
Church of St. Catherine and Henry the Lion's Fountain
St. Magnus' Church
Happy Rizzi House
Church of St. Giles
Rebuilt exterior of Brunswick Palace
Schloss Richmond (Richmond Palace)
Parks and gardens
Parks and gardens in the city include the botanical garden Botanischer
Garten der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, founded in 1840 by
Johann Heinrich Blasius, the Bürgerpark, the Löwenwall with an
obelisk from 1825, the Prinz-Albrecht-Park, and the Inselwallpark.
Other parks and recreation areas are Stadtpark, Westpark, Theaterpark,
Museumpark, Heidbergsee, Südsee, Ölpersee, the zoological garden
Braunschweig and the nearby Essehof Zoo.
Braunschweig (electoral district)
Braunschweig is made up of 19 boroughs (German: Stadtbezirke),
which themselves may consist of several quarters (German:
Stadtteile) each. The 19 boroughs, with their official numbers,
120: Östliches Ringgebiet
310: Westliches Ringgebiet
Boroughs of Braunschweig
Stadtteile of Braunschweig
1Formed in 2011 out of the former boroughs of Wabe-Schunter and
The council of the city is made up of the fractions of the different
parties (54 seats) and the lord mayor, who is elected directly, with
one seat. Since 2014, the lord mayor of
Braunschweig is Ulrich
Markurth (SPD). Results of the most recent local elections on 11
September 2011 and 11 September 2016 were:
% of vote (seats)
% of vote (seats)
Christian Democratic Union
Social Democratic Party
Alliance '90/The Greens
Free Democratic Party
Alternative for Germany
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Twin towns/sister cities
Braunschweig is twinned with:
Indonesia (since 1960)
France (since 1962)
England (since 1971)
Tunisia (since 1980)
Israel (since 1985/1986)
Germany (since 1987)
Kazan, Russian Federation (since 1988)
Omaha, Nebraska, US (since 1992)
China (since 2011)
Pedestrian zone in the city centre
Braunschweig's city centre is mostly a car-free pedestrian zone.
Two main autobahns serve Braunschweig, the A2
(Berlin—Hanover—Dortmund) and the A39 (Salzgitter—Wolfsburg).
City roads are generally wide, built after
World War II
World War II to support the
anticipated use of the automobile. There are several car parks in the
Many residents travel around town by bicycle using an extensive system
of bicycle-only lanes. The main train station includes a bicycle
The city is on the main rail line between
Frankfurt and Berlin.
Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) serves the city with local, inter-city
InterCityExpress (ICE) trains, with frequent stops at
Braunschweig Central Station
Braunschweig Central Station (German:
Tram and bus
Tram in Braunschweig
Braunschweig tramway network is an inexpensive and extensive
35 km (22 mi) long electric tramway system. First opened in
1897, it has been modernized, including a 3.2 km (2.0 mi)
extension in 2007. The network has an 1,100 mm
(3 ft 7 5⁄16 in) gauge, unique for a European
railway or tramway network. However, it is being supplemented in
stages by a third rail, to allow future joint working with the
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge
main railway network.
The municipally owned
Braunschweiger Verkehrs-AG currently operates
five tram lines and several bus lines. The tram lines are:
Braunschweig Airport (BWE / EDVE) is located north of the city at
52°19′N 10°33′E / 52.317°N 10.550°E / 52.317; 10.550,
elev. 295 ft (90 m)
See also: Brunswick (other)
Many other geographical locations around the world are named
Brunswick, after the historical English name of Braunschweig. Between
1714 and 1837, the House of
Hanover ruled Great Britain in personal
union with the
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover). The House
Hanover was formally known as the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg,
Hanover line. As a result, many places in the British colonies
were named after Brunswick, such as the province of
New Brunswick in
Ironically, the city of
Braunschweig was not ruled by the Hanoverians
while its name was being given to other Brunswicks around the world.
Starting in 1269, the
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg underwent a series
of divisions and mergers, with parts of the territory being
transferred between various branches of the family. The city of
Braunschweig went to the senior branch of the house, the Wolfenbüttel
Lüneburg eventually ended up with the
Although the territory had been split, all branches of the family
continued to style themselves as the House of
Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1884, the senior branch of the House
of Welf became extinct. The
Hanover line, being the last surviving
line of the family, subsequently held the throne of the Duchy of
Brunswick from November 1913 until November 1918.
The offices of the
Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (LBA, "Federal Aviation
Office") and the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident
Investigation (BFU) are located in Braunschweig.
Research and science
Braunschweig University of Technology
Braunschweig has been an important industrial area. Today it is known
for its University and research institutes, mainly the Johann Heinrich
von Thuenen Institute, the Julius Kühn-Institut, and the Institute
for Animal Food of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute, until the end of
2007 all part of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre, the German
Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, and the
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB Braunschweig
maintains the atomic clock responsible for the
DCF77 time signal and
the official German time. In 2006 the region of
Braunschweig was the
most R&D-intensive area in the whole European Economic Area
investing 7.1% of its GDP for research & technology. In 2014,
the figure had risen to 7.7%, making
Braunschweig retain its ranking
as the most R&D-intensive region in Germany.
named Germany's City of Science 2007 (German: Stadt der Wissenschaft
Braunschweig University of Technology
Braunschweig University of Technology (German: Technische Universität
Braunschweig) was founded in 1745 and is the oldest member of TU9, an
incorporated society of the nine most prestigious, oldest, and largest
universities focusing on engineering and technology in Germany. With
approximately 18,000 students,
Braunschweig University of Technology
is the third largest university in Lower Saxony.
Also located in
Braunschweig is the Martino-Katharineum (German
Wikipedia), a secondary school founded in 1415. It had such famous
pupils as Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Richard
Dedekind and Louis Spohr. Since 2004,
Braunschweig also has an
International School. Other notable secondary schools include
Gymnasium Gaussschule, Gymnasium Kleine Burg (German),
Integrierte Gesamtschule Franzsches Feld (German), and
Lower Saxony's only university of art, founded in 1963, can be found
in Braunschweig, the Hochschule für Bildende Künste Braunschweig
Braunschweig College of Fine Arts). The HBK is an institution of
higher artistic and scientific education and offers the opportunity to
study for interdisciplinary artistic and scientific qualifications.
Additionally, one of the campuses of the Eastphalia University of
Applied Sciences (German: Ostfalia Hochschule für angewandte
Wissenschaften, formerly Fachhochschule Braunschweig/Wolfenbüttel)
was located in the city until 2010.
In 2015, the German weekly business news magazine Wirtschaftswoche
Braunschweig as one of the most dynamic economic spaces in all
Braunschweig was one of the centres of the industrialization in
Northern Germany. During the 19th and early 20th century the canning
and railroad industries and the sugar production were of great
importance for Braunschweig's economy, but eventually other
branches such as the automotive industry became more important, while
especially the canning industry began to vanish from the city after
the end of World War II. The defunct truck and bus manufacturer
Büssing was headquartered in Braunschweig. Current factories in the
city include Volkswagen, Siemens, Bombardier Transportation, and
The fashion label NewYorker, the publishing house Westermann Verlag,
Nordzucker, Volkswagen Financial Services and Volkswagen Bank have
their headquarters in the city as well as the Volkswagen utility
vehicle holding. Also two major optical companies were headquartered
Voigtländer and Rollei.
During the 1980s and early 1990s the computer companies
Commodore International both had branches for development and
production within the city.
Braunschweig is the home of two piano companies, both known worldwide
for the high quality of their instruments: Schimmel and
Grotrian-Steinweg. Both companies were founded in the 19th century.
Additionally Sandberg Guitars is based in Braunschweig.
1904 postcard showing typical food of Braunschweig
Piëta, by Menashe Kadishman, Braunschweig
Braunschweig is famous for Till Eulenspiegel, a medieval jester who
played many practical jokes on its citizens. It also had many
breweries, and still a very peculiar kind of beer is made called
Mumme, first quoted in 1390, a malt-extract that was shipped all over
the world. Two major breweries still produce in Braunschweig, the
Hofbrauhaus Wolters, founded in 1627, and the former Feldschlößchen
brewery, founded in 1871, now operated by Oettinger Beer.
Braunschweiger Mettwurst, a soft, spreadable smoked pork sausage, is
named after the city. Other traditional local dishes include white
asparagus, Braunschweiger Lebkuchen, Braunkohl (a variant of kale
served with Bregenwurst), and Uhlen un Apen (
Low German for "Owls and
Guenons", a pastry).
Braunschweig's major local newspaper is the Braunschweiger Zeitung,
first published in 1946. Papers formerly published in Braunschweig
include the Braunschweigische Anzeigen/Braunschweigische Staatszeitung
(1745–1934), the Braunschweigische Landeszeitung (1880–1936) and
the Braunschweiger Stadtanzeiger/Braunschweiger Allgemeiner Anzeiger
(1886–1941), and the social-democratic Braunschweiger Volksfreund
Braunschweig at Cremlingen-Abbenrode, there is a large medium
wave transmitter, which transmits the program of
756 kHz, the
Schoduvel, a medieval Northern German form of carnival was celebrated
Braunschweig as early as the 13th century. Since 1979 an annual
Rosenmontag parade is held in Braunschweig, the largest in Northern
Germany, which is named Schoduvel in honour of the medieval
An annual Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) is held in late November
and December on the Burgplatz in the centre of Braunschweig. In 2008
the market had 900,000 visitors.
Museums and galleries
Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum
Villa Salve Hospes
The city's most important museum is the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, a
well known art museum and the oldest public museum in Germany, founded
in 1754. It houses a collection of masters of Western art, including
Dürer, Giorgione, Cranach, Holbein, Van Dyck, Vermeer, Rubens, and
The State Museum of Brunswick (Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum),
founded in 1891, houses a permanent collection documenting the history
of the Brunswick area ranging from its early history to the present.
The Municipal Museum of Brunswick (Städtisches Museum Braunschweig),
founded in 1861, is a museum for art and cultural history, documenting
the history of the city of Braunschweig.
The State Natural History Museum is a zoology museum founded in 1754.
Other museums in the city include the Museum of Photography (Museum
für Photographie), the Jewish Museum (Jüdisches Museum), the Museum
for Agricultural Technology Gut Steinhof, and the Gerstäcker-Museum.
Frequent exhibitions of contemporary art are also held by the Art
Braunschweig (German: Kunstverein Braunschweig), housed in
the Villa Salve Hospes, a classicist villa built between 1805 and
Music and dance
Braunschweig Classix Festival
Braunschweig Classix Festival was an annual classical music
festival. It is the largest promoter of classical music in the region
and one of the most prominent music festivals in Lower Saxony.
From 2001 to 2009, and again since 2013, the annual finals of the
international breakdance competition
Battle of the Year have been held
Volkswagen Halle in Braunschweig.
Braunschweiger TSC is among the leading competitive formation dance
teams in the world and has won multiple World and European
The first German version of the rules of football by Konrad Koch
Eintracht-Stadion, the stadium of
2. Bundesliga club Eintracht
Braunschweig's major local football team is Eintracht Braunschweig.
Founded in 1895,
Eintracht Braunschweig can look back on a long and
Eintracht Braunschweig won the German football
championship in 1967, and currently plays in the 2. Bundesliga, the
second tier of German football, and attracts a large number of
Braunschweig was also arguably the city in which the first
ever game of football in
Germany took place. The game had been brought
Germany by the local school teacher Konrad Koch, also the first to
write down a German version of the rules of football,[nb 1] who
organized the first match between pupils from his school
Martino-Katharineum in 1874. The 2011 German drama film Lessons of
a Dream is based on Koch.
Eintracht Braunschweig also fields a successful women's field hockey
team that claimed nine national championship titles between 1965 and
1978. In the past, the club also had first or second tier teams in the
sports of ice hockey, field handball, and water polo.
New Yorker Lions
New Yorker Lions (formerly
Braunschweig Lions) are the city's
American football team, winning a record number of eleven German Bowl
titles, as well as five Eurobowls (a shared record).
The city's professional basketball team, the
Braunschweig, plays in the
Basketball Bundesliga, the highest level in
Germany. The Löwen's predecessor
SG Braunschweig had previously
played in the Bundesliga as well. Eintracht Braunschweig's women's
basketball team plays in the 2. Damen-Basketball-Bundesliga, the
second tier of women's basketball in Germany.
In handball, MTV Braunschweig, the city's oldest sports club (founded
in 1847), plays in the semi-professional 3. Liga.
Other sports clubs from
Braunschweig that play or have played at the
Bundesliga or 2nd Bundesliga level include Spot Up 89ers (baseball),
Braunschweiger THC (field hockey), SV Süd
Rugby-Welfen Braunschweig (rugby union), and USC Braunschweig
Annual sporting events held in
Braunschweig include the international
equestrian tournament Löwen Classics, Rund um den Elm, Germany's
oldest road bicycle race, and the professional tennis tournament
Main article: List of people from Braunschweig
Alphabetical list of some notable people associated with Braunschweig:
Hermann Blumenau (1819–1899), founder of Blumenau, Brazil.
Johann Joachim Christoph Bode
Johann Joachim Christoph Bode (1731–1793), translator
Bosse (born 1980), rock musician
Wilhelm Bracke (1842–1880), one of the founders of the Social
Democratic Workers' Party of Germany, predecessor of the Social
Democratic Party of Germany.
Büssing (1843–1929), industrialist
Axel Freiherr von dem Bussche-Streithorst
Axel Freiherr von dem Bussche-Streithorst (1919–1993), military
officer and member of the German resistance.
Joachim Heinrich Campe
Joachim Heinrich Campe (1746–1818), educator and writer
Caroline of Brunswick
Caroline of Brunswick (1768–1821),
Queen consort of King George IV
of the United Kingdom
Richard Dedekind (1831–1916), mathematician
Paul Drude (1863–1906), physicist, developed the Drude model.
Christine Enghaus (1815–1910), actress
Johann Joachim Eschenburg
Johann Joachim Eschenburg (1743–1820), produced the first complete
German translation of William Shakespeare's plays.
Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-
leader of the Black Brunswickers.
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), mathematician
Friedrich Gerstäcker (1816–1872), writer
Gerhard Glogowski (born 1943), politician
Otto Grotewohl (1894–1964),
Prime minister of the German Democratic
Otto Harder (1892–1956), German international footballer
Adolph Henke (1775–1843), physician
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion (1129–1195),
Duke of Saxony
Duke of Saxony and Bavaria
August Hermann (1835–1906), "Braunschweig's Father of Physical
Hoffmann von Fallersleben
Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1798–1874), poet and
author of Das Lied der Deutschen.
Ricarda Huch (1864–1947), historian and writer
Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann (1777–1831), writer
Gustav Knuth (1901–1987), actor
Alfred Kubel (1909–1999), politician
August Lafontaine (1758–1831), author of sentimental didactic novels
once immensely popular, born and brought up in the city
Johann Anton Leisewitz
Johann Anton Leisewitz (1752–1806), poet
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–1781), writer and philosopher
Otto IV of Brunswick (1175–1218), Holy Roman Emperor
Bernhard Plockhorst (1825–1907), painter
Agnes Pockels (1862–1935), chemist
Wilhelm Raabe (1831–1910), writer
Friedrich Adolf Riedesel
Friedrich Adolf Riedesel (1738–1800), commander during the American
Galka Scheyer (1889–1945), painter
Dennis Schröder (born 1993), NBA basketball player, currently with
the Atlanta Hawks.
Norbert Schultze (1911–2002), composer
Hans Sommer (1837–1922), composer and mathematician
Louis Spohr (1784–1859), composer
Henry E. (1797–1871) and
C.F. Theodore Steinway
C.F. Theodore Steinway (1825–1889), piano
Ludger Tom Ring the Younger
Ludger Tom Ring the Younger (1522–1584), painter
Friedrich Georg Weitsch
Friedrich Georg Weitsch (1758–1828), painter
Lower Saxony portal
Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region
^ However, Koch's original German version of the rules of football,
published in 1875, still resembled Rugby football—the unmodified
The Football Association
The Football Association were not commonly used in Germany
before the 1900s.
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^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie
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^ Moderhack 1997, pp. 50–52
^ Camerer; Garzmann; Pingel; Schuegraf (1996). Braunschweiger
Stadtlexikon (in German) (4th ed.). p. 66.
^ Moderhack 1997, pp. 60–69
^ Moderhack 1997, pp. 119–123
^ Moderhack 1997, pp. 136–141
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^ a b Horst-Rüdiger Jarck; Günter Scheel, eds. (1996).
Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon – 19. und 20. Jahrhundert
(in German). Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung. p. 92.
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(1914–1918/19), in: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck / Gerhard Schildt (eds.),
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Sozialgeschichte des Braunschweigischen Landes vom Mittelalter bis zur
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Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. Jahrtausendrückblick einer
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^ Fiedler, Gudrun; Ludewig, Hans-Ulrich, eds. (2003). Zwangsarbeit und
Kriegswirtschaft im Lande
Braunschweig 1939–1945 (in German).
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^ "Entbindungsheim für Ostarbeiterinnen". Vernetztes-gedaechtnis.de.
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Braunschweig zwischen Tradition und Moderne". Norddeutscher
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^ "Die wechselvolle Geschichte des Braunschweiger Doms".
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^ "Lower Saxony". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved
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den Strukturwandel. Die Wirtschaft der Landes-Region
1945, in: Jörg Leuschner / Karl Heinrich Kaufhold / Claudia Märtl
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^ Justus Herrenberger (1993): Die Baustelle "Alte Waage" in
Braunschweig, in: Jahrbuch 1992 der Braunschweigischen
Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, Göttingen: Verlag Erich Goltze KG,
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2015-12-31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-15. Retrieved
^ Eisenring, Christoph (2016-08-08). "In Deutschlands
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). Retrieved
^ "Ausländische Einwohner in
Braunschweig nach Nationen" (PDF).
braunschweig.de. 2014-09-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on
2015-07-21. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
^ Stadlmayer, Tina (2012). Wo Braunschweigs erste Bücher standen (in
German). Merlin-Verlag. p. 7.
^ Arnhold, Elmar (2010). Mittelalterliche Kirchen in
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^ "Birdlife Data Zone". Birdlife.org. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-07. Retrieved
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Braunschweig.de. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
^ "SPD gewinnt Stichwahlen in
Düsseldorf und Braunschweig". Die Zeit
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German). Braunschweig.de. 2016-09-16. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
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^ Zachert, Uwe; Annica Kunz. "Twin cities". Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg
[City of Magdeburg]. Archived from the original on 2012-09-01.
^ "Omaha Sister Cities". Omaha Sister Cities. Retrieved
^ For a history of rail transport in the state, see Holtge, Dieter.
"Braunschweig's Eisenbahnen und Strassenbahnen." (1972).
Braunschweig (Germany): New light rail tram line to suburbs
reverses Transit Holocaust, February 13, 2007". Light Rail Now.
Retrieved April 7, 2011.
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from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 29 February
^ a b "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The
House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most
ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a
century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being
among the most considerable in Germany;
New Brunswick - Anthems and Symbols - Canadian Identity".
Pch.gc.ca. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
^ Riedesel, Friedrich Adolf (1868). von Eelking, Max, ed. Memoirs, and
Letters and Journals, of Major General Riedesel During His Residence
in America. 1. Translated by Stone, William L. Albany: J. Munsell.
p. 29. I remain ever, Your affectionate Charles, Duke of
Brunswick and Lüneburg. Brunswick, February 14, 1776. To Colonel
^  Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "R&D expenditure in Europe" (PDF). Eurostat. 2006.
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Atari kam aus
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computerwoche.de. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
^ "Typisch köstlich" (in German). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
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heute" (in German). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
^ Søndergaard, Leif. "Carnival is Festival: Dances as Entertainment".
Retrieved 8 October 2012.
^ "Braunschweiger Karneval "Schoduvel"" (in German). Retrieved 8
^ "900 000 Besucher auf dem Weihnachtsmarkt" (in German). Retrieved 8
^ "About BOTY". Archived from the original on 2 October 2011.
Retrieved 27 August 2012.
^ "List of World and European champions". Archived from the original
on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
^ "Die Wiege des Fußballs stand in Braunschweig" (PDF) (in German).
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^ Hoffmeister, Kurt (2010). Zeitreise durch die Braunschweiger
Sportgeschichte: 180 Jahre Turnen und Sport in
German). p. 43.
^ Jarck / Scheel (eds.) 1996, pp. 69–70
^ Horst-Rüdiger Jarck; et al., eds. (2006). Braunschweigisches
Biographisches Lexikon – 8. bis 18. Jahrhundert (in German).
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^ "Bosse". Munzinger-Archiv. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Braunschweig
Richard Andree: Braunschweiger Volkskunde. 2nd edition. Vieweg,
Reinhard Bein, Ernst-August Roloff (eds.): Der Löwe unterm
Hakenkreuz. Reiseführer durch
Braunschweig und Umgebung 1930–1945.
Göttingen 2010, ISBN 3-93231336-4.
Luitgard Camerer, Manfred Garzmann, Wolf-Dieter Schuegraf (eds.):
Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon. Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig
1992, ISBN 3-926701-14-5.
Oskar Doering: Braunschweig. E. A. Seemann,
Hermann Dürre: Geschichte der Stadt
Braunschweig im Mittelalter.
Reinhard Dorn: Mittelalterliche Kirchen in Braunschweig. Niemeyer,
Hameln 1978, ISBN 3-87585-043-2.
F. Fuhse (ed.): Vaterländische Geschichten und Denkwürdigkeiten der
Braunschweig und Hannover, Band 1: Braunschweig. 3rd edition.
Manfred Garzmann, Wolf-Dieter Schuegraf (eds.): Braunschweiger
Stadtlexikon. Ergänzungsband. Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig
1996, ISBN 3-926701-30-7.
Braunschweig am Ende des Mittelalters. Ramdohr,
Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (eds.): Die Braunschweigische
Landesgeschichte. Jahrtausendrückblick einer Region. 2nd edition.
Braunschweig 2001, ISBN 3-930292-28-9.
Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Dieter Lent et al. (eds.): Braunschweigisches
Biographisches Lexikon – 8. bis 18. Jahrhundert. Appelhans Verlag,
Braunschweig 2006, ISBN 3-937664-46-7.
Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Günter Scheel (eds.): Braunschweigisches
Biographisches Lexikon – 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hahnsche
Buchhandlung, Hannover 1996, ISBN 3-7752-5838-8.
Jörg Leuschner, Karl Heinrich Kaufhold,
Claudia Märtl (eds.): Die
Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte des Braunschweigischen Landes vom
Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. 3 vols. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim
2008, ISBN 978-3-487-13599-1.
Richard Moderhack (ed.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte im
Überblick. 3rd edition, Braunschweigischer Geschichtsverein,
Richard Moderhack: Braunschweiger Stadtgeschichte. Wagner,
Braunschweig 1997, ISBN 3-87884-050-0.
E. Oppermann: Landeskunde des Herzogtums Braunschweig. Geschichte und
Geographie. E. Appelhans,
Rudolf Prescher: Der Rote Hahn über Braunschweig.
Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei und Verlag,
Birte Rogacki-Thiemann: Braunschweig. Eine kleine Stadtgeschichte.
Erfurt 2005, ISBN 3-89702-837-9.
Braunschweig und der Staat von Weimar.
Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei und Verlag,
Ernst-August Roloff: Wie braun war Braunschweig? Hitler und der
Freistaat Braunschweig. Braunschweiger Zeitung,
Gerd Spies (ed.):
Braunschweig – Das Bild der Stadt in 900 Jahren.
Geschichte und Ansichten. 2 vols., Städtisches Museum Braunschweig,
Gerd Spies (ed.): Brunswiek 1031 –
Braunschweig 1981. Die Stadt
Heinrichs des Löwen von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. 2 vols.,
Städtisches Museum Braunschweig,
Werner Spieß: Geschichte der Stadt
Braunschweig im Nachmittelalter.
Vom Ausgang des Mittelalters bis zum Ende der Stadtfreiheit
1491–1671. 2 vols., Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei und Verlag,
Braunschweig 1966, OCLC 7495150.
Henning Steinführer, Gerd Biegel (eds.): 1913 – Braunschweig
zwischen Monarchie und Moderne. Appelhans Verlag,
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